Posted on

when do you plant a gestaded cannabis seed

When do you plant a gestaded cannabis seed

on Lyrikline: 78 poems translated

from: german, arabic, english, russian, italian, dutch, hebrew, georgian, turkish, catalan, estonian, swedish, afrikaans, slovak, hungarian to: gujarati, french, spanish, english, german, macedonian, romanian, persian, norwegian, bulgarian, catalan, greek, korean, chinese, slovenian, dutch, mongolian

Original

Translation

Wie Wasser kocht,

german | Christian Filips

erwarte ich den Liebsten.

Der Liebste kocht in mir
wie Wasser kocht.

Bedingungslos der Liebste
sprudelt – Ich

Und sehe – selber Blase –
Blasen lieben.

Erst bin ich vier, dann Viertel
nach, dann sieben. Erst siede,

dann koch ich.
Dann Rauch.

રાહ જાઉં હૂં મારા પ્રીય ની.

અને જોવું – હૂં પરપોટો-

પરપોટાઓ એકબીજાને પ્રેમ કરે

પહેલાં ચાર , પછી સવ્વા

પછી સાત. પહેલ્લો ઉભરો,

Heiße Fusion: Syntaxlehre I

german | Christian Filips

“Die Geldschöpfung ist auf eine unsterbliche Personengruppe übertragen worden.”*

(Readymade aus dem Börsenmagazin „Nebenwerte“, 23.10.2009)

* Kraft welcher Struktur erregt dieser Satz den Widerspruchsgeist, an welchen Anstand appelliert das? Wie zeigt sich darin – sprachlich – die Verfasstheit gegenwärtiger sozialer Umgangsformen? Vielleicht liegt hier eine spezifische Form des Nicht-Gebrauchs vor, eine Art syntaktischer Inaktivitätsatrophie. So als wären die ewigen Gelenke dieses Satzes verkümmert. Und wie sollte es auch anders sein bei unsterblichen Personen, die nur in Satzgruppen ihr Dasein fristen? Es fehlt der Unsterblichkeit ebenso an wendiger Bewegung wie diesem Satz, trotz seiner behaupteten Übertragungsleistung. Gerade das – die ausbleibende, aber verheißene Übertragung – versetzte ihn womöglich in eine Art Stupor. Schreckstarr und ausdruckslos, bei extremer innerer Gespanntheit.

“Die Geldschöpfung ist auf eine unsterbliche Personengruppe übertragen worden.”**

**. diese subjektlose Syntax, der maskierte Kult einer Omnimetrie. Die unsterbliche Personengruppe dieses Satzes tritt auf als die Gemeinschaft nurmehr numerisch verfasster Gläubiger in der Kirche der Zahlen und Daten.

Fusion chaude. Théorie de la syntaxe I

“La création monétaire a été transférée à un groupe de personnes immortelles.”*

(Readymade du magazine boursier „Nebenwerte, 23.10.2009)

*Grâce à quelle structure cette phrase éveille-t-elle l’esprit rebelle, à quelle convenance fait-elle appel? Comment révèle-t-elle – au niveau de la langue – l’état des mœurs sociales contemporaines? Peut-être y a-t-il ici une forme spécifique de non-utilisation, une sorte d’atrophie syntaxique de l’inactivité. Comme si les articulations éternelles de cette phrase s’étaient dégénérées. Et comment pourrait-il en être autrement avec les personnes immortelles, qui mènent leur misérable existence dans un groupe de phrases? L’immortalité manque de mouvement agile tout autant que cette phrase, malgré son prétendu pouvoir de transmission. C’est précisément cela – l’absence de transmission, mais la promesse de celle-ci – qui l’a peut-être plongé dans une sorte de stupeur. Effrayé, rigide et sans expression, avec une tension intérieure extrême.

„La création monétaire a été transférée à un groupe de personnes immortelles.“**

**… cette syntaxe sans sujet, le culte masqué d’une omnimétrie. Le groupe immortel de personnes de cette phrase apparaît comme la communauté des seuls croyants numériquement constitués dans l’église des nombres et des données.

Heiße Fusion: Syntaxlehre II

german | Christian Filips

“Die Investoren müssen aus Restrukturierungskosten entstehende
Quasi-Verbindlichkeiten in ihre Modelle einpreisen.*

*Die Allherrschaft des Quasi, das alles mit allem verbinden kann: Die Investoren sprechen von Investoren quasi so, als ob sie Kapital hätten. Die Strukturen existieren nur als restrukturierte Quasi-Kosten; ein realer Grundwert scheint nicht vorzuliegen. Die Werte, in die investiert wird, existieren nur als Quasi-Modelle. Und aus diesem Prinzip der Annahme von zuschreibenden, unbedingten Sätzen entsteht eine Quasi-Macht, die – in ihrer Wirkmacht einem absoluten Mythos gleich – die Wirklichkeit, die kein Quasi ist, zerstört. Die Macht des Quasi: des virtuellen Geldes, das nur auf den Bildschirmen Bestand hat. Von hier aus Leben negiert.

“Die Investoren müssen aus Restrukturierungskosten entstehende
Quasi-Verbindlichkeiten in ihre Modelle einpreisen.**

**(Readymade, Börsenmagazin “Der Aktionär”, 1.10.2009)

Fusion chaude : Théorie de la syntaxe II (readymade du magazine boursier “Der Aktionär“)

“Les investisseurs doivent intégrer dans leurs modèles les quasi-obligations découlant des coûts de restructuration.“*

*L’omnipotence du quasi, qui peut relier tout à tout : Les investisseurs parlent des investisseurs quasiment comme s’ils avaient du capital. Les structures n’existent que sous la forme de quasi-coûts restructurés ; il ne semble pas y avoir de véritable valeur sous-jacente. Les valeurs dans lesquelles les investissements sont réalisés n’existent que sous forme de quasi-modèles. Et de ce principe d’assumer des propositions ascriptives, inconditionnelles, naît un quasi-pouvoir qui – dans sa puissance effective comme un mythe absolu – détruit la réalité, qui n’est pas un quasi. Le pouvoir du quasi : de l’argent virtuel qui ne dure que sur les écrans. A partir de là, la vie s’annule:

“Les investisseurs doivent intégrer dans leurs modèles les quasi-obligations découlant des coûts de restructuration.”

لم أصدّق أنني سأتعلّم يومًا أن أموت* إمنيسكو

arabic | Asmaa Azaizeh

لم أصدّق أنني سأتعلّم يومًا أن أموت
لم أكن حيث كان الموت مجانيًّا
كنت حيث دفع جدّي لأمي ثمن عرق عاملي القطن الذي صنع بزّته العثمانيّة
ثمن أميالٍ حافية إلى نساء البوسنة
ثمن دموعهن على صدور رجالهنّ قبل الحرب
ثمن رايات الربّ
ثمن نزق الإمبراطور ومرضه الطويل

سال دم البلقان فوق قميصي المدرسيّ
وجد المدرّسون نذور الثأر في حقيبتي فزوّروا فصول التاريخ

لم أكن حيث كان الموت صدفة على الطريق
كنت حيث دفع جدّي لأبي ثمن توقيع في أسفل صفحة، ثمن تسليم قريته في أسفل الجبل، رفع المحتل يده عنها، رفع الثائر يده عن خصره. بجرّة قلمٍ يخدّر حبر جدّي السفح. بطيّة ورقة يطوي الجبل على التاريخ، بمصافحة يُخرج يد المرج من فوّهة الدبابة.
أشجار اللوز ماتت في غرف عمليّات القلب، خيول الأعراس أغشت عيونها بالحنّاء وانتحرت.
لم يطهّر أحدٌ عرقي. لكنّ النخاع الشوكيّ في ظهر الجبل انكسر. فانكسر حظّي في أن نصعده معًا، وأن ننظر إلى خطى المسيح على البحيرة ونقلّدها.

لست أنا المعجزة
لم أمش على الماء ولم أشف نفسي من علّات حبّك
إنما هو ماء قلبي الذي تعلّمت أن أحوّله إلى إسفلت كلّما تذكّرتك
تعلّمت أن أنجو من الحمم البركانيّة التي سالت من جبال خوفك
ولم أتعلّم الموت

لم أكن حيث كان الموت درسـًا واحدًا وإلى الأبد
حيث الصاروخ الذي خانته ذاكرته فنسي الطريق
الرصاصة التي لم تقصد أن تتوقّف عن أن تكون قلمًا
المذبحة التي مرّت في الطريق العام ورمت السّلام
بينما كنت أسير في الشارع الخلفيّ
أقطف الصفّير وأشاهد الحروب في أفلام الكرتون

لم أصدّق أنني سأتعلّم يومًا أن أموت
إلا حين كانت حرب بيروت تُغرق تهليلة أمي في البئر
تفوح رائحة الغارات من فرن الطبخ
يدخل صوت الفدائيّ إلى كاسيت أم كلثوم
الجماجم التي عبّدت طريق المدينة، تخرج من الملصق المعلّق بجانب السرير وتهدهدني، تقرع فوق رأسي الطريّ مثل لطميّة طويلة. فأتوقف عن البكاء، أو يتوقف أصحابها عن البكاء فيها.

ينمو قلبي في البئر كشجرة رمّان، كلّما انكسر غصن أتسلّق آخر في الطريق إليك. ينكسر كلّي، فأصير عشًّا. الطيور تنظر في الماء فترى وجه بوسنيّة يضحك أنظر فيه فأرى وجهك.

أنا طفلة الأنابيب التي هُجنت في مختبر طبّي
شممت رائحة خيول ميتة في مني أبي
وانسحبت
ولدت في الشهر السابع
بعد أن لطمنني بوسنيّاتٌ في رحم أمي
وانسحبت

لم أصدّق أنني سأتعلّم يومًا أن أموت
إلا حين ارتكبت مجزرة الخليل على كعكة عيدي التاسع. أشعلتُ الشموع على سجاجيد بيت إبراهيم. ذابت هناك وحيدةً ولم يغنّ عليها أحد. أغاني العيد تسقط في البئر، الهدايا تسقط نذور ثأر في حقيبتي
لو أنّ للنذور أيادٍ لحفرت قبري
لو أنّ لأشجار اللوز نخاعًا شوكيًا لداسته
لو أنّ للجبال قصائد لمدحته
لو أن لدموع البوسنيّات مناقير ومخالب لنقرت حجارته
ولخرجت
أتعلّم الدرس الأوّل
أن الجمجمة المهشّمة في الملصق جمجمتي
وأنّ الدم فوق قميصي
إنما دمي

Nunca creí que tendría que aprender a morir

Las traducciones son de Frances Simán

Nunca creí que tendría que aprender a morir

no estuve cerca cuando la muerte era un regalo

pero si estuve cuando mi abuelo pagó el precio del sudor de los trabajadores de algodón que elaboraron su traje otomano.

el precio de las millas desnudas para las mujeres de Bosnia

el precio de las lágrimas en el pecho de sus hombres antes de la guerra

el precio del estandarte de Dios

el precio de la frivolidad del emperador y la enfermedad a largo plazo

sangre balcánica goteaba en mi uniforme

los profesores encontraron votos de venganza en mi mochila y fabricaron capítulos de historia

no estuve cuando la muerte sucedió por casualidad en el camino

pero si estuve ahí cuando mi abuelo pagó el precio de la firma al final de la página, el precio de renunciar a su pueblo al fondo de la montaña, de quitar de él las manos de su invasor, del rebelde que le quitó las manos de encima. Con el movimiento de un bolígrafo, la tinta de mi abuelo anestesió la pendiente. Con el doblez de un papel, la montaña giró la historia; con un apretón de manos tomó la mano del valle de la boca del tanque.

Los almendros murieron del corazón, los caballos de boda se cubrieron los ojos de alheña y se suicidaron.

Nadie limpió mi etnicidad. Pero la médula espinal de la montaña se rompió. Y así se arruinó mi oportunidad de subirla juntos algún día, para ver los pasos de Cristo en el lago y repetirlos.

No soy el milagro

no caminé en agua y no me curé con dolencias de amor

pero fue el agua de mi corazón la que aprendí a convertir en asfalto cada vez que te recordaba

aprendí a huir de la lava que goteaba de las montañas de tu miedo

y no aprendí la muerte

no estuve ahí cuando la muerte fue para siempre una lección

donde el recuerdo del cohete lo traicionó y olvidó el camino

la bala que nunca quiso dejar de ser bolígrafo

la masacre que sucedió en la carretera principal y disparó la paz

cuando yo estaba caminando por la ruta alterna

recogiendo margaritas y viendo la guerra en caricaturas

nunca creí que aprendería a morir

hasta que la guerra de Beirut ahogó el canto de mi madre en el pozo

el aroma de las invasiones emana desde el horno

la voz del comando irrumpe en el casette de Umm Kulthum

los cráneos que cubrían el camino de la ciudad, dejaron el cartel sostenido al lado de la cama y arrullan, golpeando mi cabeza como una larga latmiya. Así dejo de llorar o ellos dejan de llorar.

Mi corazón crece en el pozo como un árbol de granada, cada vez que una rama se quiebra, trepo otra de camino a ti. Destrozada me convierto en nido. Los pájaros observan el agua y ven la risa en el rostro de un bosnio, yo lo veo y veo tu rostro.

Soy la hija de un híbrido de laboratorio médico

olí el aroma de caballos muertos en el esperma de mi padre

nací en el séptimo mes

después de ser golpeada por bosnios en el vientre de mi madre

nunca creí tener que aprender a morir

hasta que en el pastel de mi noveno cumpleaños, sucedió la masacre del Hebrón. Encendí las velas en las alfombras de la casa de Abraham. Se derritieron y nadie cantó con ellas. Los regalos de cumpleaños cayeron al pozo; los regalos caen, son votos de venganza en mi mochila

los votos pudieron haber cavado mi tumba si hubieran tenido mis manos

los almendros se hubieran parado en ella si hubieran tenido médula espinal

las montañas la hubieran alabado si hubieran tenido poemas

las lágrimas de los bosnios hubieran hecho fisuras en sus piedras si hubieran tenido picos o ganchos

y yo hubiera salido

para aprender la primera lección:

que el cráneo aplastado en el cartel es mi cráneo

y que la sangre en mi camisa

لم أصدّق أنني سأتعلّم يومًا أن أموت* إمنيسكو

arabic | Asmaa Azaizeh

لم أصدّق أنني سأتعلّم يومًا أن أموت
لم أكن حيث كان الموت مجانيًّا
كنت حيث دفع جدّي لأمي ثمن عرق عاملي القطن الذي صنع بزّته العثمانيّة
ثمن أميالٍ حافية إلى نساء البوسنة
ثمن دموعهن على صدور رجالهنّ قبل الحرب
ثمن رايات الربّ
ثمن نزق الإمبراطور ومرضه الطويل

سال دم البلقان فوق قميصي المدرسيّ
وجد المدرّسون نذور الثأر في حقيبتي فزوّروا فصول التاريخ

لم أكن حيث كان الموت صدفة على الطريق
كنت حيث دفع جدّي لأبي ثمن توقيع في أسفل صفحة، ثمن تسليم قريته في أسفل الجبل، رفع المحتل يده عنها، رفع الثائر يده عن خصره. بجرّة قلمٍ يخدّر حبر جدّي السفح. بطيّة ورقة يطوي الجبل على التاريخ، بمصافحة يُخرج يد المرج من فوّهة الدبابة.
أشجار اللوز ماتت في غرف عمليّات القلب، خيول الأعراس أغشت عيونها بالحنّاء وانتحرت.
لم يطهّر أحدٌ عرقي. لكنّ النخاع الشوكيّ في ظهر الجبل انكسر. فانكسر حظّي في أن نصعده معًا، وأن ننظر إلى خطى المسيح على البحيرة ونقلّدها.

لست أنا المعجزة
لم أمش على الماء ولم أشف نفسي من علّات حبّك
إنما هو ماء قلبي الذي تعلّمت أن أحوّله إلى إسفلت كلّما تذكّرتك
تعلّمت أن أنجو من الحمم البركانيّة التي سالت من جبال خوفك
ولم أتعلّم الموت

لم أكن حيث كان الموت درسـًا واحدًا وإلى الأبد
حيث الصاروخ الذي خانته ذاكرته فنسي الطريق
الرصاصة التي لم تقصد أن تتوقّف عن أن تكون قلمًا
المذبحة التي مرّت في الطريق العام ورمت السّلام
بينما كنت أسير في الشارع الخلفيّ
أقطف الصفّير وأشاهد الحروب في أفلام الكرتون

لم أصدّق أنني سأتعلّم يومًا أن أموت
إلا حين كانت حرب بيروت تُغرق تهليلة أمي في البئر
تفوح رائحة الغارات من فرن الطبخ
يدخل صوت الفدائيّ إلى كاسيت أم كلثوم
الجماجم التي عبّدت طريق المدينة، تخرج من الملصق المعلّق بجانب السرير وتهدهدني، تقرع فوق رأسي الطريّ مثل لطميّة طويلة. فأتوقف عن البكاء، أو يتوقف أصحابها عن البكاء فيها.

ينمو قلبي في البئر كشجرة رمّان، كلّما انكسر غصن أتسلّق آخر في الطريق إليك. ينكسر كلّي، فأصير عشًّا. الطيور تنظر في الماء فترى وجه بوسنيّة يضحك أنظر فيه فأرى وجهك.

أنا طفلة الأنابيب التي هُجنت في مختبر طبّي
شممت رائحة خيول ميتة في مني أبي
وانسحبت
ولدت في الشهر السابع
بعد أن لطمنني بوسنيّاتٌ في رحم أمي
وانسحبت

لم أصدّق أنني سأتعلّم يومًا أن أموت
إلا حين ارتكبت مجزرة الخليل على كعكة عيدي التاسع. أشعلتُ الشموع على سجاجيد بيت إبراهيم. ذابت هناك وحيدةً ولم يغنّ عليها أحد. أغاني العيد تسقط في البئر، الهدايا تسقط نذور ثأر في حقيبتي
لو أنّ للنذور أيادٍ لحفرت قبري
لو أنّ لأشجار اللوز نخاعًا شوكيًا لداسته
لو أنّ للجبال قصائد لمدحته
لو أن لدموع البوسنيّات مناقير ومخالب لنقرت حجارته
ولخرجت
أتعلّم الدرس الأوّل
أن الجمجمة المهشّمة في الملصق جمجمتي
وأنّ الدم فوق قميصي
إنما دمي

I didn’t believe I would ever learn to die* Eminescu

I didn’t believe I would ever learn to die

I wasn’t around when death was for free

But I was there when my maternal grandfather paid the price of cotton labourers’ sweat that made his Ottoman suit

The price of bare miles to the women of Bosnia

The price of their tears on the chests of their men before the war

The price of God’s banners

The price of the emperor’s frivolousness and long-term sickness

Balkan blood dripped on my school shirt

The teachers found vows of vengeance in my backpack, and so fabricated chapters of history

I wasn’t around when death happened by chance, on the road

But I was there when my paternal grandfather paid the price of a signature at the bottom of a page, the price of surrendering his village at the bottom of the mountain, of taking the occupier’s hands off of it, the rebel’s taking his hands off of his waist. With the move of a pen, my grandfather’s ink numbed the slope. With the folding of a paper, the mountain folded history, with a handshake, he took the valley’s hand from the tank’s muzzle.

The almond trees died in the cardiac operation rooms, the wedding horses shrouded their eyes with henna and killed themselves.

No one cleansed my ethnicity. But the mountain’s spinal cord broke. And so broke my chance to ever ascend it together, to look at Christ’s footsteps on the lake and copy them.

I’m not the miracle

I didn’t walk on water and I didn’t heal myself of your love’s ailments

But it was my heart’s water which I learned to turn into asphalt whenever I remembered you

I learned to flee the lava that dripped from the mountains of your fear

And I didn’t learn death

I wasn’t there when death was a once and for all lesson

Where the memory of the rocket betrayed it and so forgot the way

The bullet that never meant to cease being a pen

The massacre that passed by the main road and fired peace

When I was walking in the back road

Picking yellow daisies and watching wars drawn in cartoons

I didn’t believe I would ever learn to die

Until Beirut’s war drowned my mother’s lullaby in the well

The scent of invasions emanates from the cooking oven

The commando’s voice enters Um Kulthoum’s cassette

The skulls that paved the city road, they leave the poster hanging beside the bed and lull me, tapping my soft head like a long latmiya. So I stop crying, or they stop crying in it.

My heart grows in the well like a pomegranate tree, each time a branch is broken I climb another on my way to you. All of me breaks, so I become a nest. The birds look in the water and see the laughing face of a Bosnian, I look in it and see your face.

I am the child of tubes crossbred in a medical lab

I smelled the scent of dead horses in my father’s sperm

And I retreated

I was born in the seventh month

After I was beaten by Bosnians in my mother’s womb

And I retreated

I didn’t believe I would ever learn to die

Until the Hebron massacre was committed on the cake of my ninth birthday. I lit the candles on the carpets of Abraham’s house. They melted there alone and no one sang upon them. The birthday gifts fall into the well, the gifts fall, vows of vengeance, in my backpack

The vows would’ve dug my grave had they any hands

The almond trees would’ve stepped on it had they a spinal cord

The mountains would’ve praised it had they any poems

The Bosnian’s tears would’ve creviced its stones had they any beaks or claws

And I would’ve come out

To learn the first lesson

That the smashed skull in the poster is my skull

And that the blood on my shirt

لا تصدّقوني إن حدّثتكم عن الحرب

arabic | Asmaa Azaizeh

تشغلني الحرب. لكنّي أخجل من الكتابة عنها. أجلد استعاراتي ثمّ أسترحمها. يقودني الألم نحو وصف رصاصةٍ، فأتراجع نحو وصف صفعةٍ عاطفيّة. أبقر بطن الكلام فيستفيق ضحايا الهاراكيري، جميعهم، ويبقرون بطني.
لا تصدّقوني إن حدّثتكم عن الحرب، لأني أتحدث عن الدم وأنا أشرب القهوة، وعن القبور وأنا أقطف الصفّير في مرج بن عامر، وعن القتلة وأنا أمعن في قهقهة الأصدقاء، وعن مسرحٍ محروقٍ في حلب وأنا أقف الآن أمامكم في هذا المسرح المكيّف.
لا تصدّقوني إن حدّثتكم عن الحرب، لأني كلما قصفتُ شوارع المدينة في القصيدة، اضطجع الإسفلت ومالت عليه المصابيح ومرّ الأنبياء بسلام.
كّلما خلتُ جلد أبي مسلوخًا فيها، ألمسه سليمًا في العناق. وكلّما سمعت نواح أمي، هدهدتني بأغنيةٍ قديمةٍ وغفيت كملاك.

لكنّ الأحلام صكوكٌ مفتوحةٌ
توقّعها امرأةٌ حورانيّةٌ لا أعرف ملمحًا واحدًا فيها، سوى أنّي حين تخطئ سكيني ورقة الخسّ، أشمّ رائحة قبيلة الدم التي تركها جدّي في جسدينا.
الأحلام صكٌ مفتوح، يوقّعه أبناء قاسيون الذين همسوا لفظها في أذني في نصف غفوةٍ، ولم أتأكد من أين نبت اسم الجبل إلا حين بحثت عنه في جوجل.

الصّك الأوّل:
في حشدٍ شديد الغموض، يمسني وضوحٌ فاجرٌ.
وسط هندسةٍ متقنةٍ لضوضاء الجغرافيا، تعبرني، بهدوءٍ، رصاصةٌ عند أسفل الظهر،
يزداد غموض الحشد، يُحكم إغلاق نوافذ الأذن من الداخل. الثقب طازجٌ كنبع ماء، الدمّ حارٌ كصوت أمي في الأغنية، ناعمٌ كجلد أبي.

الصّك الثاني:
حوصرت في أكثر بقع العالم قداسةً.. انهال عليّ رصاصٌ كما انهالت كلمات الرّب على الأنبياء..
قبضت على حجرٍ فسال من يدي. سبقت الجنود فسبقني الزمن. وحيثما غفى المسيح قبل أن يكبر ويحملنا على ظهره، انكمشت كقطّةٍ خائفة.

الصّك الثالث:
خوف في الشام.

لا تصدّقوني حين أحدّثكم عن الحرب
لأني لم أسمع طلقةً في حياتي سوى تلك التي رماها أبي من جفته في عنق يمام مرج بن عامر. ولم أشمّ دمًا من جرحٍ إلا ذاك الذي شممته مع أمي حين حضتُ لأوّل مرة.
ليس لديّ رصيدٌ في بنك الحرب، لكنّ حورانيّةً طمأنتني بأن صكوكي صالحة.

No me creas si te hablo de guerra

Las traducciones son de Frances Simán

La guerra me preocupa. Pero me da pena escribir de ella. Azoto las metáforas que me pertenecen. El dolor me hace describir una bala, después retrocedo y describo un golpe emocional. Destripo las palabras y las víctimas de Harakiri despiertan todas, y me destripan.

No me creas si te hablo de guerra, porque cuando hablé de sangre, estaba tomando café, cuando hablé de tumbas, estaba recogiendo margaritas en Marj Ibn Amer, cuando describí los asesinatos, estaba escuchando las risas de mis amigos y cuando escribí acerca de un teatro incendiado en Aleppo, estaba parada frente a tí en un teatro climatizado.

No me creas si te hablo de guerra. Porque cada vez que ardieron las calles de la ciudad en un poema, el concreto se reclinaba, las lámparas se balanceaban hacia él y los profetas pasaban en paz.

Cada vez que imaginaba la piel desollada de mi padre, aún podía tocarlo después, sano y salvo, con un abrazo. Y cada vez que escuchaba el lamento de mi madre, ella me susurraba una vieja canción, y yo dormía como bebé.

Pero los sueños son cheques al portador

firmados por una mujer Hourani de facciones indescifrables. Excepto cuando mi cuchillo no alcanza la hoja de lechuga, puedo oler el aroma de sangre de la tribu que mi abuelo ha dejado en mi cuerpo y en el suyo.

Los sueños son cheques al portador, firmados por los hijos de Qasioun, susurrados durante un sueño; así supe de dónde había salido el nombre de la montaña sin buscarlo en Google.

El primer cheque:

En una multitud oscura, un resplandor cae sobre mí.

En medio de una exquisita ingeniería y del tumulto de la geografía, una bala silente me atraviesa en la espalda baja,

el misterio de la multitud crece y mis oídos se cierran desde dentro. El agujero es tan fresco como la primavera, la sangre es tan cálida como la voz de mi madre cantando y tan suave como la piel de mi padre.

El segundo cheque:

Fui asediada en el lugar más sagrado del mundo. Llovían balas sobre mí así como la palabra de Dios sobre los profetas.

Tomé una piedra que se disolvió en mis manos. Me adelanté a los soldados y el tiempo me alcanzó a mí.

Y como un gatito asustado, tuve miedo cuando un joven Cristo dormía antes de llevarnos en su espalda.

El tercer cheque:

Miedo en el Levante.

No me creas si te hablo de guerra,

porque nunca he escuchado un disparo de bala, únicamente el que mi padre disparó de su pistola de doble cañón a las palomas en Marj Ibn Amer. Y nunca he olido la sangre en una herida, excepto la que olí con mi madre en mi primera menstruación.

No tengo una cuenta en el banco de las guerras, pero una mujer Hourani me aseguró que mis cheques son válidos.

In The Valley Of A Thousand Hills

english | John Mateer

Valley of a thousand hills, green as the afterimage of blood!
did you not hear the poet’s izithakazelo or the professor’s ululating
responsive as the earth under our feet, as the rocky hills under an echo?

Valley of a thousand hills, green as the afterimage of blood!
did you not speak when I answered the call defiant as a black cockatoo
and my mouth opened to what hijacks sound: the absent, the uprooted?

Valley of a thousand hills, green as the afterimage of blood!
I will invoke you as the home- and heartland that isn’t mine, the chiasm
of my African being that, like the Ancestors in Kunene’s poem, walks tall on the horizon.

Aus dem Englischen von Ludwig Roman Fleischer

Tal der tausend Hügel, grün wie das Nachbild von Blut!

Hast du nicht des Dichters izithakazelo oder des Professors Heulen gehört,

bereit zur Antwort wie die Erde unter unseren Füßen, wie die Felsenhügel unter einem Echo?

Tal der tausend Hügel, grün wie das Nachbild von Blut!

Sprachst du nicht, als ich dem Ruf antwortete, trotzig wie ein schwarzer Kakadu,

und mein Mund sich dem öffnete, was den Schall entführt: dem Abwesenden, dem Entwurzelten?

Tal der tausend Hügel, grün wie das Nachbild von Blut!

Ich werde dich beschwören als das Heimat- und Herzensland, das nicht mein ist, das Chiasma

meines afrikanischen Seins, das, wie die Vorfahren in Kunenes Gedicht, hochgewachsen wandelt am Horizont.

••• [и вот ты вроде живешь без права перегорать]

russian | Miriam Dragina

и вот ты вроде живешь без права перегорать
и планов вроде, и за плечами побед – гора
друзья пригнали к причалу белый большой корабль
отходит в восемь, побегать только бы до утра

и вот ты вроде бы любишь, веришь, трудолюбив
живешь без краж, прелюбодеяния, не убив
не ищешь лишнего, разделяешь свои слова
и помнишь вроде и обязательства, и права

в бюро создателей, производства и добрых дел
твой стол направо, где каждый третий бы быть хотел
небесный свет, чистота, цветы и уже пора
и у тебя вовсе нету права перегорать

и вот ты вроде бы понимаешь, осознаешь
и дел по горло. и темень близится, темень сплошь
и от тебя все зависит в самый последний раз
нет никакого права сегодня перегорать

и белый лист, карандаш, прочитана стопка книг
друзья, корабль, и ты непременно вернешься к ним
осенний лист среди лета, новый подъемный кран
держи зарядку, пускай не гаснет большой экран

••• [und da lebst du dann wie es scheint ohne Recht auszubrennen]

und da lebst du dann wie es scheint ohne Recht auszubrennen

wie es scheint ohne Pläne, und hinter jedem Sieg mit einem neuen Berg

die Freunde haben ein großes, weißes Boot an den Pier gelegt

um acht legt es ab, bloß den Morgen erreichen

und da bist du dann wie es scheint liebend, glaubend, arbeitsam

lebend, du stiehlst nicht, brichst nicht die Ehe, hast keinen getötet,

suchst nicht das Deine, verteilst deine Worte,

und achtest wie es scheint die Pflichten und Rechte

im Büro für Schöpfer, Produktion und gute Taten

dein Tisch steht dort zur Rechten, wo jeder Dritte gern wäre

himmlisches Licht, Reinheit und Blumen und schon ist es Zeit

und das Recht auszubrennen kommt dir nicht zu

und da bist du dann wie es scheint begreifst du, siehst ein,

bis zum Hals in Arbeit. Und die Finsternis naht, ringsum Finsternis,

und zum allerletzten Mal hängt alles von dir ab

und hast du keinerlei Recht, heute auszubrennen

das weiße Blatt, der Stift, der Stapel gelesener Bücher

die Freunde, das Schiff, unbedingt kehrst du dahin zurück

ein Herbstblatt mitten im Sommer, ein neuer Baukran

Ladezustand halten, sonst ist der große Schirm tot

••• [пусть у тех, кто на фото один, появится пара]

russian | Miriam Dragina

пусть у тех, кто на фото один, появится пара
пусть у тех, кто не хочет вставать, образуется смысл
пусть у тех, кто выходит из-под обстрела и жара
будет дом, сын, покупки, забота повесить карниз

пусть та, что обрезала связи, себя простит
пусть тот, которому в спину, поднимет руки
пусть те, кто ждут, –– дожидаются, те, кто спит
проснутся после рассвета, а не от муки

пусть дом, что построил отец, таким сохранится
пусть толстая кожа чувствует нежность и страсть
пусть птица не будет в руках, но пускай будет птица
слово какое, на дереве и проводах

пускай моряки вернутся из рейса и плена
пусть чистая обувь, из шкафа лаванда и ночь
пусть все напишут “ты с нами” одновременно
даже, когда не выручить и не помочь

пусть лужицы чая на скатерть и поздние танцы
пусть тонкое платье, пусть радуга, пусть зима
пусть каждая встреча в итоге заставить прощаться
но ценной будет не память, а встреча сама

пусть будут идеи, пусть будет работа и время
кто руки поднял, пусть спасется и будет спасен
пусть правые встанут с правыми или теми
кто может увидеть правду с разных сторон

пусть умные учатся, глупые учатся тоже
пусть каждому по заслугам и просто так
пусть этой планете немножечко, но поможет
то, что мы держим других и себя в руках

••• [lass die, die auf Fotos allein sind, zu Paaren werden]

lass die, die auf Fotos allein sind, zu Paaren werden

lass die, die morgens nicht aufstehen mögen, Sinn erfahren,

lass die, die Beschuss und Brand entkamen,

ein Haus, einen Sohn, Einkäufe haben, sich um Gardinen sorgen,

lass die sich vergeben, die alle Brücken abbrach,

lass den die Hände heben, dem man im Nacken sitzt,

lass die Wartenden abwarten, die Schlafenden aufwachen

bei Tagesanbruch, doch nicht vor Qual,

lass das Haus, das Vater erbaute, erhalten bleiben,

lass dicke Haut zärtliche Leidenschaft spüren

lass den Vogel nicht in der Hand, sondern Vogel sein,

Vogel im Wortsinn, auf Baumwipfeln, Leitungen

lass die Matrosen von der Fahrt, aus Gefangenschaft heimkehren

lass saubere Schuhe sein und Lavendel im Schrank und Nacht

lass alle schreiben „du bist mit uns”, synchron

und sogar, wenn es nichts einbringt oder hilft

lass es verschütteten Tee und späte Tänze geben

lass es dünne Kleider und Regenbögen und Winter geben

lass jede Begegnung notwendig in Abschied münden,

doch wertvoll in sich sein, nicht im Gedenken

lass Ideen sein und Arbeit und Zeit

wer die Hände hob, den lass sich retten und errettet werden

lass die Gerechten mit den Gerechten aufstehen oder mit denen,

die was recht ist, vielstimmig hören

lass die Klugen lernen und die Dummen lass auch lernen

lass jeden nach seinem Verdienst und einfach so

lass es unserer Erde helfen, und sei’s nur ein bisschen,

dass wir uns und einander selbst in der Hand haben

arabic | Ghayath Almadhoun

نحن المتناثرون شظايا، الممطرون لحماً، نتقدم بالاعتذار الشديد من هذا العالم المتحضر فرداً فرداً، رجالاً ونساءً وأطفالاً، لأننا وبدون قصد منا ظهرنا في منازلهم الآمنة بلا استئذان، نعتذر لانطباع أشلائنا في ذاكرتهم البيضاء كالثلج، ولأننا خدشنا صورة الإنسان الطبيعي الكامل في أعينهم، لأننا وبكل وقاحة، قفزنا فجأة على نشرات الأخبار وصفحات الانترنت والجرائد، عاريين إلا من دمائنا وبقايا أجسادنا المتفحمة، نعتذر من كل العيون التي لم تجرؤ أن تنظر في جراحنا مباشرةً لكي لا تصاب بالقشعريرة، ونعتذر من كل من لم يستطع إكمال وجبة العشاء بعد أن فاجأته صورنا طازجةً على التلفزيون، نعتذر عن الآلام التي سببناها لكل من رآنا هكذا بلا تجميل أو تقطيب أو إعادة جمع لبقايانا وقطعنا قبل أن نظهر في الشاشات، ونعتذر أيضاً من الجنود الإسرائيليين الذين تكلفوا عناء الضغط على الأزرار في طائراتهم ودباباتهم لتحويلنا إلى قطع، نعتذر منهم على الصور البشعة التي تحولنا إليها بعد أن صوبوا قنابلهم مباشرةً إلى رؤوسنا الطرية، وعلى الساعات التي سيقضونها الآن في عيادات الأطباء النفسيين ليعودوا بشراً كما كانوا قبل تحويلنا إلى أشلاء مقززة تلاحقهم كلما حاولوا النوم، نحن الأشياء التي رأيتموها على الشاشات والصحف، والتي إن اجتهدتم في جمع بقاياها كلعبة البزِّل، فإنكم ستفوزون بصورة واضحة لنا، واضحة لدرجة أنكم لن تستطيعوا أن تفعلوا شيئاً.

Ние, кои сме расфрлани наоколу во делчиња, чие тело лета низ воздухот како капки дожд, најдлабоко им се извинуваме на сите во овој цивилизиран свет, мажи, жени и деца, зашто ненамерно им се појавивме во нивните мирни домови без да побараме дозвола. Се извинуваме што им ги жигосавме отсечените делови од нашето тело во снежнобелото сеќавање, зашто ја испоганивме сликата за нормалното, целосно човечко битие во нивните очи, зашто бевме безобразни ненадејно да им скокнеме на вестите и на страниците на интернет и во печатот, голи со исклучок на нашата крв и гламносани остатоци. Им се извинуваме на сите оние кои немаа храброст директно да ни ги погледнат повредите од страв да не се згрозат, и на оние на кои им преседнала вечерата откако неочекувано виделе свежи слики од нас на телевизија. Се извинуваме за сето страдање кое сме им го предизвикале на сите кои нѐ виделе такви, недотерани, без најмал обид да нѐ состават или да ни ги скрпат остатоците пред да им се појавиме пред екраните. Исто така им се извинуваме на израелските војници кои се намачија да ги притиснат копчињата во авионите и тенковите за да нѐ разнесат на парчиња и жалиме што изгледавме толку одвратно откако ги вперија гранатите и бомбите право во нашите меки глави и за саатите што сега ќе ги поминуваат во психијатриски клиники, обидувајќи се повторно да се очовечат, ко што биле луѓе пред нашата преобразба во гадни делови од тело што ги прогонува кога и да пробаат да заспијат. Ние сме нештата што ги гледате на екраните и во печатот, а ако се потрудите да ги составите делчињата, како сложувалка, би добиле јасна слика за нас, до толку јасна што ништо не би можеле да направите.

[Wirrsprunggesicht Zugriss Durchruck. ]

german | Elisabeth Wandeler-Deck

Wirrsprunggesicht Zugriss Durchruck
augengepickt frohgesperrt fließrig
süßstofflicher Wasserfall glitzriges Abschaumgefälle digitale Notwehr
durch aus von nach
aufwärts durchher hinweg

(hatte schon Zugriff schon bald und entglitzert die Durchdrückpackung :
mein Ponstan! mein Panadol! Schrie der Kecke und flog auf)

[desfigurare striaţie tremur]

desfigurare striaţie tremur

cu ochii ciuguliţi închis cu bucurie fluent

cascadă din materie dulce cădere

strapachioasă de scursori legitimă apărare digitală

prin din de la până la

in sus încoace încolo

(avea deja acces în curând şi descânteia ambalajul sub presiune permanentă: ponstanul meu!

panadonul meu! ţipă obraznucul şi zbură)

fortsetzen gibt es

german | Elisabeth Wandeler-Deck

fortsetzen faulen Zauber gibt es es
gibt es gibt und zerperlt was da alles
sich perlt zerpellt pelzt

faulende Traufe schimmern dringen
es gibt es gibt sprechen bitte ja doch
na nu mit Netzen verhängte Abstürze
Felswarzen blaue Felchen was da
schimmert dringt prallt was da alles
perlt surrt sirrt pocht

Artikulation kleinteiliges Flektieren
gibt es

continuare vrajă rea există

există şi desprumează tot ce se

spumează decojeşte destramă

streşini putrezinde scânteiază pătrund

există există vorbire da vă rog

acum cu mreje căderi impuse

negi de stâncă peşti albi albaştri ce

licăresc pătrund răsună tot ce

spumează zbârnâie bate

articolare conjugare în mici bucăţele

Cerca in te la voce che non senti

italian | Claudio Pozzani

Cerca in te la voce che non senti
mangia l’universo se non la comprendi

Basse case dai tetti spioventi
lacrimanti pioggia da gronde ormai marce
Profumo di terra, di foglie, di stagni
e sinistri paesaggi di candido marmo

Cerca in te la voce che non senti
mangia l’universo se non la comprendi

Vermi che giacciono sotto il fondo fangoso
topi che nuotano in ruscelli d’acciaio
Fumo di nebbia, auto veloci
che brucano leste tagliatelle d’asfalto

Cerca in te la voce che non senti
mangia l’universo se non la comprendi

Ombra di creta camminano stanche
scuotendo bassa la conica testa
Obliqui fantasmi stampati sul muro
ricordano fughe e cavalli di frisia

Il buio comincia a specchiarti la mente
mentre tutto diventa effervescente e verde.

Cherche en toi la voix que tu n’entends pas

Cherche en toi la voix que tu n’entends pas

mange l’univers si tu ne la comprends pas

Maisons basses au toit en pente

pleurant la pluie venant des sous-toits désormais pourris

Parfum de terre, de feuilles, d’étangs

et paysages sinistres de marbre candide

Cherche en toi la voix que tu n’entends pas

mange l’univers si tu ne la comprends pas

Vers qui gisent sous le fond boueux

rats qui nagent dans des ruisseaux d’acier

Embruns de brouillard, voitures véloces

qui broutent de rapides tagliatelle d’asphalte

Cherche en toi la voix que tu n’entends pas

mange l’univers si tu ne la comprends pas

Des ombres de glaise se trainent les pieds

en secouant leur tête conique basse

D’obliques fantômes imprimés sur le mur

rappellent fuites et chevaux de frise

La noirceur commence à refléter ton esprit

tandis que tout devient effervescent et vert…

dutch | Peter Holvoet-Hanssen

Je partirai-z-à Pâques,
Miroton, miroton, mirontaine.

Een eend met slappe vleugel in het park
wat had zij graag gevlogen, bedelt als
een meeuw met mankepootje op een ark
zo weegt het leven rond mijn moeders hals

Verschoten vos ben ik die twinkels van
mijn vrouw en kind stockeer, ze glippen weg
naar school en naar het werk – run, Charlie, MAN
KRIJGT MES IN BUIK, wie wiegt zijn brute pech

Zo loopt het leven leeg, je lacht je dood
om regendruppels dronken in de goot
denk niet je hebt het allemaal gehad

Van mosterdgas tot bubbels in je bad
want Hein brengt kanker, knaagt aan moeders bed
grimt in the midst of life we are in death

Evenals een moede hinde
naar het klare water smacht

Je partirai-z-à Pâques

Mironton, mironton, mirontaine.

Un canard à l’aille lâche dans le parc

comme il aurait aimé voler, mendie comme

une mouette boiteuse sur une péniche

de ce même poids pèse la vie autour du cou de ma mère

Renard déteint je suis, qui stocke les scintillations de

ma femme et de ma fille, elles s’éclipsent

à l’école et au bureau – run, Charlie, HOMME ATTEINT

AU VENTRE, qui donc berce sa guigne cruelle

Voilà comment la vie se vide, on crève de rire

à cause de gouttes de pluie ivres dans la gouttière

ne vas pas croire que t’as tout vu

Du gaz moutarde aux bulles du jacuzzi

car la camarde apporte le cancer, ronge le lit de maman

ricane in the midst of life we are in death

désire vers l’eau

Bij een gekreukte das

dutch | Peter Holvoet-Hanssen

Blijf mij nabij, wanneer het avond is,
wanneer het licht vergaat in duisternis.

Warm hierbinnen, dodelijke nacht –

Hijgend, 1 oog hard en 1 oog zacht
zuurstof perslucht traangas: 3 dumdums
als trocheeën van het vacuüm

Bed dat uit de diepvries komt, p.m.
deukhoed af, flashback en tweede stem –

Het zijn de kleine dingen zegt men en
het zijn de kleine dingen: zijn manier
van wuiven, kluiven als een holendier
aan restjes, dwanggedachten in zijn ren

Het rondbonjouren bij contouren van
een Duitse misdaadserie, pissen naast
de pot, zijn cel vervloeken, hij die haast
verlamd van angst niet uit de zetel kan

Ten langen leste smeekt de kanker in
zijn darmen om erbarmen: ‘Suikerspin.
Piaf. Je koppigheid geveld. Vergeef. ’

Met harten troef verdwijnt hij in de safe
burleske humor – genereus verdriet
zijn schat hijgt na, is lek als een vergiet

Een halve eeuw smeult jaren na, het was
alsof zij innig vijand waren, vos en das
getweeën eenzaam in hetzelfde bos

By a badgered tie

Abide with me; fast falls the eventide;

The darkness deepens; Lord with me abide.

Warm inside here, deathly night

Panting, 1 eye hard and 1 eye soft

tear-gas, air compressed and oxygen: 3 dumdums

serve as trochees of the vacuum

Bed that’s been taken from the freezer, p.m.

trilby doffed, a flashback, second voice

It is the little things, folk say –

it is the little things: his way

of waving, gnawing like a den-penned animal

at left-overs, obsessions in his run

The loitering at contours of

a German ‘krimi’ series, a little messing

on the side, cursing his cell, he who

fraught with fear can hardly leave his chair

At long last cancer in his guts

calls out for mercy: ‘Candy floss.

Piaf. Your stubbornness full-felled. Forgive. ’

With hearts as trumps he disappears into the safe

burlesque humour-generous grief

his love pants after, leaky as a colander

For half a century years of smouldering

as if, vixen and badger, they were mortal foes

and doubly lonely in the self-same wood.

[Auf drei Etagen schweigt mein Kleid]

german | Ilma Rakusa

Auf drei Etagen schweigt mein Kleid
du lenkst den Hohn und frißt die Zeit
ich lese Exodus der Windberg läßt uns kalt
die Wanderlaken starren wie Basalt
im katatonen Haus entläßt der Mund
die Zunge und das Tischholz reibt sich wund
Voodoo herrscht oder Wahnsinn wo zuvor
wir alles füreinander waren: Ohr
Land Kehle

[در سه طبقه سكوت ِ لباس من]

لباسم در سه طبقه سكوت ميكند

تو تمسخر را راه ميبري و زمان را ميبلعي

من سِفر خروج ميخوانم. كوهباد سردمان ميكند

شمدهاي آواره، سخت و خيره اند چون سنگ آذرين

در خانهي ناخوش خاموش رها ميكند دهان

زبان را و چوب ميز ميسايد و زخم برميدارد

وُدُو[احضار ارواح] حاكم است يا هذيان جايي كه پيش از اين

ما و همه چيز براي همديگر بوديم: گوش

[Mit zwei Zungen]

german | Ilma Rakusa

Mit zwei Zungen
Kinderzunge für Kosen
und Küche Kartoffel
für Kleckse Kekse
und Zimmerkatastrophen
die andere schreibt
um nicht zu schreien
die Zäune stehen dazwischen
die Meere und schweigen

زبان كودكان براي نوازش

و آشپزخانه سيب زميني

براي لك ها توتك ها

و فاجعه ي اتاق ها

كه ديگري مي نويسد

پرچين ها در ميانه

[für Joseph Brodsky]

german | Ilma Rakusa

War das Sofa rot?
Der Koffer ja Überseekoffer
stand da wie ein Boot
bereit für Amerika.
Fahne Koffer die Bücher
im Lot. Das Weggehen
so plötzlich aber Not
und wie sich zeigte
für immer. Jetzt bist du tot.

Es schneite in Leningrad.
Nacht und die Tankstelle
öd wie Brachland. Straßen
Fassaden verwaist ohne
Pracht. Du hast dich auf
leisen Lippen davongemacht
ins Gedicht. So fuhren wir
still und gewichtlos durch
deine Stadt. Sprachen nicht.

Die Schuhe der Schritt
die Gasse dein Gesicht
mittendrin. Du stehst
am Kanal im Licht wie bestürzt
und ich weiß nicht
was sagen. Kragen hoch
das Wort eine Wolke vorm Mund
rund. Und lebwohl.
Bis in wie viel Tagen?

[براي يوزف برادسكي]

صندلي راحتي، قرمز بود آيا؟

چمدان هم ، چمدان سفر دريا

آنچه سرجايش مثل قايقي بود

آماده ي سفر به آمريكا

پرچم چمدان كتاب ها

همه رو به راه. دل كندن و رفتن

چنين ناگهان اما در تنگنا

و از قرار معلوم براي هميشه.

ديگر تو مرده اي حالا .

در لنينگراد برف مي آمد.

شب و پمپ بنزين متروك

چون زمين آيش. خيابان ها

نماها پرت و متروك،

بي شكوه . تو با لبان خاموش

در بي زباني، به شعر گريختي.

ما گذشتيم آرام و بي وزن

و هيچ سخني نگفتيم.

كوچه چهرهي تو در ميانه. تو مي ايستي

كنار گودال در روشنايي، تكيده

و من نمي دانم چه بگويم.

يقه بالازده كلام

چون ابري مدور جلوي دهن.

[In den Pausen zwischen den Bäumen: Schnee]

german | Ilma Rakusa

In den Pausen zwischen den Bäumen: Schnee
in den Räumen zwischen den Worten: Schnee
in den Mulden zwischen den Häusern: Schnee
in den Gärten zwischen den Zäunen: Schnee
und kalt
in den Teichen zwischen den Kneipen: Schnee
in den Löchern zwischen den Eichen: Schnee
in den Träumen zwischen den Feldern: Schnee
in den Tellern und Falten: Schnee

[در وقفه هاي ميان درختان :برف]

در وقفه ي ميان درختان : برف

در فضاي ميان كلمات: برف

در حفره ي ميان خانه ها: برف

در باغ ميان پرچين ها: برف

درحوضچه ي ميان ميخانه ها: برف

در روزن ميان بلوط ها: برف

در درختان ميان كشتزاران: برف

در بشقاب ها و چين و پليسه ها: برف.

[Spielt das Leben nur außerhalb]

german | Ilma Rakusa

Spielt das Leben nur außerhalb
der Jalousien? Wer sagt denn
die stille Box mit den Steinfliesen
sei tot? Wer? Hier laufen Lichthasen
und toben Epiphanien der Apfel fällt
lautlos vom Baum und die Grillen
zirpen im Ohr es ist keine Frage
des Willens wo ich bin nämlich
vor der Wand im Papier

زندگي جاري است خارج از

بازي زندگي فقط خارج از

لتههاي پنجره جريان دارد؟ پس كه ميگويد

اتاق تاريك و ساكت با كفپوشهاي سنگي اش

مُرده ؟ كه؟ اينجا ميدوند خرگوشهاي روشن

و ميتوفند تجليات سيب ميافتد

بيصدا از درخت و جيرجيرك ها

ميخوانند در گوش اين پرسش اراده نيست

آنجا كه من به هر روي پيشاپيش ِديوار نقش ِكاغذم

hebrew | Amir Or

לָרֶצַח הַמֻּשְׁלָם אֵין סִבּוֹת, אָמַר,
לָרֶצַח הַמֻּשְׁלָם דָּרוּשׁ אוֹבְּיֶקְט מֻשְׁלָם,
כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אָז בְּאַוְּשְׁוִיץ.
לֹא הַמִּשְׂרָפוֹת, כַּמּוּבָן, אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ
אַחַר כָּךְ, מִחוּץ לִשְׁעוֹת הָעֲבוֹדָה, אָמַר
וְהִשְׁתַּתֵּק
מַבִּיט בַּקֶּצֶף
וְלוֹגֵם.

הָרֶצַח הַמֻּשְׁלָם הוּא אַהֲבָה, אָמַר.
הָרֶצַח הַמֻּשְׁלָם לֹא מְבַקֵּשׁ דָּבָר מֻשְׁלָם,
רַק לָתֵת
כְּפִי יְכָלְתְּךָ.
אֲפִלּוּ בְּזִכְרוֹן הַלְּפִיתָה, הַחַיִּים עֲדַיִן
נֶצַח. אֲפִלּוּ הַיְלָלוֹת שֶׁעִרְסְלוּ אֶת הַיָּד,
אֲפִלּוּ הַשֶּׁתֶן שֶׁנָּפַל כְּמוֹ חֶסֶד עַל הַבָּשָׂר הַקַּר,
אֲפִלּוּ הֶעָקֵב שֶׁהֵעִיר עוֹד אֵינְסוֹף,
אֲפִלּוּ הַשֶּׁקֶט,
אָמַר.
מַבִּיט בַּקֶּצֶף.

נָכוֹן, עֲבוֹדָה הֲגוּנָה
מְשַׁחְרֶרֶת הַרְבֵּה, אֲבָל
רֶצַח מֻשְׁלָם אֵינוֹ מְאַבֵּד
אֲפִלּוּ טִפָּה אַחַת.
כְּמוֹ שְׂפָתַיִם שֶׁל יֶלֶד, הִסְבִּיר,
כְּמוֹ חוֹל וָקֶצֶף,
כְּמוֹ שֶׁאַתָּה
שׁוֹמֵעַ,
שׁוֹתֶה וְשׁוֹמֵעַ.

Det perfekte drap er grunnløst, sa han,

det perfekte drap trenger bare et perfekt offer,

slik som i Auschwitz.

Nei, ikke i krematoriene, men slik det var

etterpå, etter arbeidstid.

Så ble han taus

mens han betraktet ølskummet

og tok seg en slurk.

Det perfekte drap er kjærlighet, sa han.

Det perfekte drap behøver ikke være perfekt

Selv minnet om strupetaket

varer evig. Selv skrikene som fikk hånda mi til å ryste,

selv pisset som sildret barmhjertig mot kald hud,

selv støvlehælen minner meg om evigheten,

og kikket på skummet.

Sant nok, et hederlig arbeit macht frei,

men et perfekt drap søler ikke ut

som et barns lepper, forklarte han,

som sand og skum,

som tar små slurker og lytter.

הַבַּרְבָּרִים: סִבּוּב שֵׁנִי

hebrew | Amir Or

לֹא לַשָּׁוְא חִכִּינוּ לַבַּרְבָּרִים,
לֹא לַשָּׁוְא נִקְהַלְנוּ בְּכִכַּר הָעִיר.
לֹא לַשָּׁוְא עָטוּ גְּדוֹלֵינוּ אֶת בִּגְדֵי כְּבוֹדָם
וְשִׁנְּנוּ אֶת נְאוּמָם לִכְבוֹד הַמְּאֹרָע.
לֹא לַשָּׁוְא נִתַּצְנוּ מִקְדָּשֵׁינוּ
וּבָנִינוּ אֲחֵרִים לְאֵלֵיהֶם;
כַּדָּת שָׂרַפְנוּ אֶת סְפָרֵינוּ
אֲשֶׁר אֵין חֵפֶץ בָּם לָאֲנָשִׁים כָּאֵלֶּה.
כִּדְבַר הַנְּבוּאָה בָּאוּ הַבַּרְבָּרִים,
וְנָטְלוּ מִיַּד הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת מַפְתְּחוֹת הָעִיר.
אַךְ בְּבוֹאָם עָטוּ לְבוּשׁ כִּלְבוּשׁ הָאָרֶץ,
וּמִנְהָגָם הָיָה מִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה;
וְעֵת צִוּוּ עָלֵינוּ בִּלְשׁוֹנֵנוּ,
לֹא יָדַעְנוּ עוֹד מָתַי
בָּאוּ הַבַּרְבָּרִים.

BARBARENE (Andre runde)

Det var ikke forgjeves, at vi ventet på barbarene,

det var ikke forgjeves, at vi samlet oss på torget.

det var ikke forgjeves, at våre ledere iførte seg embetsdrakter

og innøvde taler i anledning dagen.

Det var ikke forgjeves at vi smadret templene

og oppførte nye til ære for deres guder;

det var på sin plass at vi brente våre bøker

som ikke rommet noe viktig for slike folk.

Og som profetiene hadde forutsagt, kom barbarene,

og tok nøklene til byporten fra kongens hånd.

Men når de kom kledde de seg i nasjonens drakter,

og deres skikker var statens skikker;

og når de ga oss ordrer på vårt eget språk

visste vi ikke lenger når

barbarene hadde kommet til oss

georgian | Diana Anfimiadi

ის, ვინც საკუთარ გამონაბოლქვ სუნთქვას გაჰყვება
უცხო მხარეში –
გასაქცევად დაეძებს მიზეზს,
რადგან ერთ დღესაც
აივსება ყველა ბეღელი
და მოხარშული ხორბალიც კი აბიბინდება.
ის, ვინც ღრუბლიდან
შუა ზღვაში გადავარდება –
გასაქცევად დაეძებს მიზეზს,
რადგან ვერცერთი,
თუნდაც შავი,
ზღვა ვერ დაგახრჩობს
თუკი შენი სახელი ჰქვია.
ის, ვინც საკუთარ ტყავს გაიხდის,
დარაჯს მიუჩენს –
გასაქცევად დაეძებს მიზეზს
რადგან ერთხელაც
ეძინება ყველა გველეშაპს
ყველა სიფრთხილე და სიფხიზლე
დასაძლევია.
ის, ვინც მინდორში კბილებს დათესს –
მოიმკის შიმშილს
– გასაქცევად საჭირო მიზეზს,
რადგან მიწიდან ამოწვერილ
ყველა გოლიათს
ფესვებს მაინც მახრა შეუჭამს.
ის, ვინც უცხოელს შეიყვარებს
(სწრაფმავალ ხომალდს )
გასაქცევად დაეძებს მიზეზს,
რადგანაც ყველა იმ მდინარის პირას ბრუნდება,
სადაც ცალი სანდალი დარჩა.

შენ ვინც საკუთარ თავს დაეძებ,
ნუ მოხვალ ახლოს,
ღამე მინდორში გაათენე,
დიდი ხანია მდინარეებს არ მოაქვთ ოქრო
მხოლოდ თევზები ანათებენ,
და სიტყვებს შორის მანძილები
მიჩირქდება,
მიმიზეზდება…,
გზები რომ არა,
დაგტოვებდი,
მოგიბეზრებდი . . .

და ისე მშვიდად,
როგორც ნიმფა ტანზე რძეს ივლებს, –
მეც გასაქცევად დავეძებ მიზეზს –
ვხოცავ ჩვენს შვილებს… . . .

The one who follows her own worn out breath

to a strange land

is looking for reason to run away,

because one day

every granary will be filled up

and even boiled wheat will wave anew.

The one tumbles from

a cloud into the open sea.

Is looking for a reason to run away,

because not every sea,

even the Black Sea

if it knows your name.

The one who strips off her own skin,

and assigns a guard to it,

is looking for a reason to run away,

because one day

every dragon will fall asleep,

and every trace of sobriety and alertness

will be overcome.

The one who plants teeth in a field—

will harvest starvation—

a reason to run away,

because the mole-crickets will gnaw

at the roots of each Goliath

who rises from the earth.

The one who falls in love with a stranger

(a high-speed vessel)

is looking for a reason to run away,

because one day

everyone will return

to that river bank

where she left one sandal.

You, who are looking for yourself,

don’t come closer,

stay in the field tonight,

a long time has passed since our rivers

ceased bringing gold.

But only the fish illuminate there,

and the distance between words

and if not for these ways,

as a nymph draws milk for a bath,

I’m looking for a reason to run away—

the killing of children.

HANGİ KADIN SEVİŞİYORSA

turkish | Neslihan Yalman

(Sopor Aeternus seven bir kadına. )

hangi kadın sevişiyorsa acıdandır
aşkı yataklarda aramanın çelişkisine düşer
kol bileklerini, nabzını, kirpiklerini
ne varsa titrediği, üşüdüğü yaralarından
öpsün ister anlam yüklediği biri
adı olsun aynaya bıraktığı buğusu
sileneceğini bilerek saniyesinde
tıraş bıçağı bir an kessin onu düşünürken yüzünü
saç telini kaldırıp, nimet saysın yerden

hangi kadın sevişiyorsa şefkattendir
bir mağaranın kıvrılışına açılan nehir gibi
soldurmama gayretinde
pencere önündeki bekleyiş fesleğenini
yalnızlığına çiçek alarak yoldan
kuruturken gizlice bir ayakkabı kutusunda

hangi kadın sevişiyorsa
bastırmak ister hüznünü
etini öne sürer, satrançta bir piyon gibi
şah numarası çekerek yanındakilere
fark yaratmaz uyuşması
kahkahayla uyuşanlardan
-kız çocuğu şımarıklığına bürünür
örgüler, at kuyrukları, iki kuyruklar
koparken kement olup kaba avuçlarda-
alnında büyüttüğü bahçenin
yolunduğunda çimenleri ve toprağı tırmıklandığında

hangi kadın sevişiyorsa biraz aşktandır
gelip duruverir bir noktada nedensizlik saati
aidiyetini sunar, hayranlık duyduğu o dikey heykele
çiviler fotoğraf çerçevelerini
oysa doğurmak istediği küsküs rahmine
ensesinden silmeye dururken yorgunluğunu o adamın
beşiklerini kırar ağladığı bebek hayaletlerinin

hangi kadın sevişiyorsa, delirmemek uğruna
hemcinslerinin tehditlerine de maruz
dayanacak gücü kalmayan mücadelesine
cinnetin pençe atmasından korkar

hangi kadın sevişiyorsa ölmemek için
bir erkek kadar kandırabilir ancak kendisini

WHICHEVER WOMAN MAKES LOVE

-to a woman who loves Sopor Aeternus…-

whichever woman makes love, it is because of suffering

she falls in a dillemma of searching love in beds

her wrists, pulse, eyebrows

whatever she trembles, feels cold

she would like him to kiss

someone on whom she values

let the steam on the mirror be her name

by knowing that it will be erased at that second

let the razor blade, at once, cut his face while he is thinking of her

let he take her hair off ground and redeem it blessing

whichever woman makes love, it is because of affection

like a river opens to bend of cave

in an effort not to make wither

the basil of waiting in front of window

buying flower to her loneliness on the way

and drying it secretly in shoebox

whichever woman makes love

she would like to repress her sorrow

she moves her flesh like a pawn

as she pretends to check-mate

her getting numb does not make any difference

from the people who gets numb by laughter

-she behaves like a naughty girl-

as braids, pony tails, two ponytails

were getting torn like a rope in palms-

as the grasses were weeded and its earth was raked

of her garden she cared on her forehead

whichever woman makes love, it is because of love

at some point the hour of arbitrariness stops

she presents her belonging to the vertical statue that she admires

she nails photo frames

to the offended womb that she would like to give birth

while she tries to erase the tiredness off his back of neck

she breaks the cradles of the baby ghosts on which she cried

whichever woman makes love, it is for the sake of not getting mad

and she is exposed to her fellow’s threats

she fears that madness claws

to the struggle that she does not have any strenght to endure

whichever woman makes love, it is in order not to die

she can deceive herself as much as a man

ÇÜRÜYEN ADAKLAR VE BİR KURBAN GEREKİR BİRLİKTELİĞİMİZE

turkish | Neslihan Yalman

seni de anlıyorum, kendimi de
sana da benziyorum, kendime de
soyunuyoruz dilsiz
iki iyi insan bir aşk edemediği için

gelgeç geceler sonunda
-binbir gece ve gündüz ihtimalken önümüzde-
duvarlar hücre, duvarlar kanıksanmış
sırtlarını döner yürekleri bitap etlerimiz birbirine

yegâne anılar kalır varlığımızdan artık
geçmişe pansuman iki sigara
şimdi kararmış kül tablasında
sızlayarak can vermeye başlar yitirilmiş sabır

seni de anlamıyorum, kendimi de
rol yapmaksa yakışmıyor bize
biri akıp gitmeli.

PERISHABLE VOWS AND A SACRIFICE IS ESSENTIAL FOR OUR RELATIONSHIP

I understand you, also myself

I look like you, also like myself

we undress mute

for two good people could not make a love

in the end of temporal nights

-while thousands of nights and days are probable ahead of us-

walls are cells, walls are inured

our flesh whose hearts are tired, turn their back to each other

unique memories are the rest of our existence

two cigarettes as medical dressing to the past

is in darkened ashtray now

the lost patience begins to die in whining

I do not understand you, neither myself

pretending does not look good on us

one of use should flow and leave…

turkish | Neslihan Yalman

fikirlerimi tutup saçlarından
sürükleyecekler kendi fikirlerine doğru
çarmıha gerecekler memelerimi de, çocuk
emzirmeyip
senin o yıllanmış çıplak ellerine verdim diye

aradığın numaradan bana ulaşamayacaksın
aynı vakit, taşlanılan şeytan misali
götürüleceğim yeryüzünde kurulan
cehennem mahkemesine

kırkı çıkmadan unutacaksın sesimi, etimi, her şeyimi
ne mektup yazmaya hacetin kalacak,
ne çağa ayak uydurmaya
başka bir kadının koynunda uykuya dalacaksın

beni kimse anlamayacak adam, seni de
sevişmenin günah, kendiliğin ölüm sayıldığı dünyada
iki ucu sivri seçimler ve birbirimize
sığınmak vaktini kaçırmış olacağız

grabbing my ideas by hair

they will drag towards their ideas

crucify also my breasts, without breast-feeding

since I gave them to your empty hands

you will not reach out to me when you call

the same moment, like a satan stoned

I will be taken to the court of hell

founded on earth

you will forget my voice, my body and my all

sooner than forty days, you are going to have strength

neither writing letter nor keeping up with the times

you are going to fall asleep in the bosom of another woman

nobody will understand me and you

in the world where making love is thought to be sin

and selfhood is death, pointed choices and in ourselves

we will already be missed the time to take shelter

ГАНТИАДИ, два отрывка баллады

russian | Oleg Jurjew

(1984)
1.…
юшкой ткемальною пахла косоворотная мгла
мокла табачная пакля лунная кукла плыла
бухла небесная капля зеленую чачу пила
двигала тени навырост над затемненной горой
(будто бы папа сатырос черного моря герой)
пухла табачная сырость кáпель невидимый рой
(это утоплый ставраки плакал неслышно с песка)
(это сырые собаки рылись внутри табака)
(это ходила во мраке с армянами дочь рыбака)…
2.…
(это соседская галька ее голубая спина)
щелкала теплая галька плыла над горою луна
будто бы в облаке талька белый младенец смутна
гаснули волосы в хатках тухла морская слюда
море в железных заплатках высохло без следа
жизнь повернулась на пятках и заскользила сюда
лязг проводов над дорогой в смутных колоннах вокзал
из темноты косорогой выглянул мент и сказал
я дорогу к милой искал но найти ее нелегко…

Gantiadi, 1984, zwei Balladenfragmente mit fünf Anmerkungen

tkemali gekocht so roch der schieftorig-nachtende ruß

die mondpuppe schwamm und schimmelnder kautabakwust

der tropfen am himmel trank sich tschatschagrün zur geschwulst

schob die schatten über den dunkelnden berg

(als sei er papa Satyros held auf dem Schwarzen meer)

von tabakdunst anschwellend trieb das nicht sichtbare tropfenheer

(der ertrunkene Stawraki weinte unhörbar vom strand da)

(die feuchten hofhunde stöberten in dem tabak da)

die tochter des fischers flanierte im finstern mit den armeniern da)

. (der blaue rücken da die galina von nebenan)

der warme kies gab laut der mond überm berg hielt nicht an

in einer talkumwolke das wickelkind weiß verschwamm

in den häusern erlosch das haar und der glimmer verglomm im meer

spurlos trocknete aus das eiserne-flicken-meer

das leben drehte um auf den hacken und rückte ab aus meer

das drähtesurrn über der straße in nebelnden säulen der bahnhof

aus der nacht der gehörnten sah der gendarm und sagte

suchte ja den weg ich zur liebsten überall o widrig geschick

dutch | Stefan Hertmans

Wat stand houdt is oneetbaar.
De oudste huizen worden ingeruild voor nieuwer puin,
en gladde steen reikt al de hand aan ouder puin.

Maar ik heb Under Milkwood in de kamer
en Richard Burton, die als een dronkeman
die in zijn droom met zijn oermoeder slaapt,
waarzeggerij verkoopt op plaat.

Hij droomt haar tweeëntwintig jaar
en bloot onder een wijde, zwarte jurk,
haar benen bruin door landwerk op een onbereikbaar veld.
Haar witte borsten weegt hij op zijn ene hand,
terwijl hij met de andere haar natte lijfje spant.

Men spuit de straten tegen hitte, om tien uur ‘s ochtends al.

Ik heb kersen gekocht, ik spoel ze met koel water
en zet de glazen schaal op de granieten tafel
in de verzengde tuin.

‘s Nachts wordt het warmer nog,
de pannen liggen in gloeiende rijen op het dak
en stralen door tot op de kamers waar we liggen
en luisteren hoe de ander slaapt.

We slapen geen van beiden.
Ik hoor je zuchten in halfslaap, luider en regelmatig.
Ik denk dat ik mijn naam versta. De overloop
is even, een ogenblik daartussenin,
zo koel als water aan mijn voeten.

Je deur is open. Het raam is open.
In de warmte lig je open op de sprei.
Als ik dan, twee uur later, weer tegen de stroom opga,
ben je al ingeslapen. Het eerste licht ziet de
intieme glinstering die we daar samen achterlaten.

Ik heb kersen gekocht.

Een jonge vrouw gaf me er twee ter keuring in de hand;
ik woog ze, met een klein gebaar, en keek haar heel lang aan.
Daarop vergrootten haar pupillen.
Met zwarte kersen zag ze mij.

Ik kocht het volle pond van haar,
strooide de schoongelikte pitten in het bed
waarop je lachend in het zweet iets over rijpe kersen zei.

De wortels in de dakgoot, jaren later,
voeden zich met het puin van jou en mij,
een boompje `dat diep wordt gesnoeid en duizelt,
lief
‘, zoals de oude dichter zei.

Het bloeit pas in december, als de bloesems uit de hemel komen,
koud en rillerig als een ballerina in haar eerste lentetij.

We hebben tijd.
Vannacht, als de hitte uit de nok weer op ons valt,
laat ik je Under Milkwood horen.
We liggen er, met lichamen als open oren,
liefde en zweet scanderend bij.

Което е трайно, не става за ядене.

Най-старите къщи се заменят с нови съборетини

и гладкият камък протяга ръка на по-вехти руини.

Но аз си имам Under Milkwood в стаята

и Ричард Бъртън, пияндурникът, който сънува

как спи неспокойно с прамайка си древна,

и продава пророчества с плоча вълшебна.

Той я сънува като двадесет и две годишна

и гола под широка, черна рокля,

с нозе загорели от селския труд по далечни поля.

С една ръка премерва нейната гръд белоснежна,

с другата стяга нейния влажен корсет.

Тук пръскат с вода за разхлаждане жарките улици, още в десет часа сутринта.

Аз си купих череши, плакна ги с хладна вода

и поставям стъклен поднос на гранитната маса

в напечената ни като пещ градина.

Нощем става още по-горещо,

по покрива редовете нажежени керемиди

излъчват пек чак до стаята, в която лежим

ние и слушаме как спи другият.

Но и двамата май че не спим.

Чувам как въздишаш в полусън, високо и непрекъснато.

Мисля, че различавам името си. Коридорът

е тесен, той е миг, промеждутък,

сякаш хладна вода по краката ми.

Вратата ти е отворена. Прозорецът е отворен.

Ти също открита лежиш в топлината.

И когато аз, след два часа, отново поемам срещу течението,

ти вече спиш. Първото просветляване зърва приглушената

интимност, която заедно с теб сме оставили там.

Млада жена сложи в ръката ми две, да опитам;

лекичко ги премерих, с малък жест, с бавен поглед

към нея. Зениците й се разшириха.

Тя ме погледна със своите черни череши.

Купих всичката стока от нея, посях

после костилките в нашата скромна постеля

на която ти потна със смях спомена нещо за зрели череши.

Корените по водостока, след години,

се хранят с нашите развалини, от теб и мен,

дръвче `което го режат дълбоко и се замайва,

мила‘, е казал онзи поет стар осенен.

То цъфти чак през декември, цветчета-снежинки валят от небето,

зъзнещи като балерина в първи пролетен прилив зелен.

Ние имаме време.

Нощес, когато жегата пак връхлети от върха на дома ни,

ще ти пусна да слушаш Under Milkwood.

Лежим там, с тела като жадно слухтящи уши,

и скандираме заедно с него пот и любов.

catalan | Víctor Sunyol

la fi. la fi. la fi de cada fi.
aquesta fi de tot, fi del mai, fi al no-res.
infinita fi
en el mai més,
per ja mai més.

aquesta fi que ens crema,
que ens buida,
ens esquinça,
ens abat
aquest no-res tan nostre,
dolor
del món.

dies i dies,
dies,
dies del buit,
l’absència,
dies de dol,
dies d’enyor,
en plor,
dies dolor
del món.

i jo,
nosaltres,
la nostra fi
de tot,
de cada un.
la nostra i única fi
del món.

i jo,
nosaltres,
dolor,
un plor profund,
desig turment contra el no-res
—l’inútil—
encès endins
—silent—
d’aquest dolor
de tot.

dies i dies,
dies,
la por
del buit,
del tu no-res,
del ja no tu sinó en nosaltres.
la por
del temps
de mai.

el temps.
el temps de quan,
el teu,
el nostre.
el temps de ser
en la nostra crida
sols.
el temps de ser
en la nostra crida
sols.

dies i dies,
dies,
d’aquesta
la nostra
única fi.
i ni
no-res
en el gran buit
del món.

i jo,
nosaltres,
a tu,
en tu,
en el teu mai més,
el nostre,
en ell,
la nostra única fi
prenem.

dies i dies,
dies
de tu,
del teu ja mai,
el teu lloc,
camí,
del meu pas
que sóc
només.

el temps.
el temps.
tots els teus temps
en el temps nostre
que et som,
memòria
de tu,
el nostre
conhort
per als dies
de dol.
dies i dies,
dies
d’enlloc,
de mai més
i ja
sense tu.

i jo,
nosaltres,
amb tu,
en tu,
aquest tu
tan dins
fet tot repòs
o llum
per al ja mai més
més meu,
més nostre,
per quan la nostra,
la meva,
i única
fi
de tot
del món
darrer.

dies i dies
dies tristor.
dies i dies
dies del buit,
dies vençuts,
dies d’enyor
en dol,
dies dolor
del món.
i jo,
nosaltres,
en conhort.
i jo,
nosaltres,
en la nostra
única fi
de tot,
salvats
per la teva,
per aquest
mai més
de tu
que ens crema,
que ens dol
el cor,
el món.
Aquest mai més de tu
que ens cou
amb foc
de llum

el temps.
el temps.
tots els temps
del plor.
jo,
nosaltres,
en plor.
i en el plor
la por
del temps
del mai,
del ja mai
de cada un,
de la nostra
i única
fi
de tot.
i en el plor
el conhort
de tu
per tots els dies
d’ara i de mai,
dies i dies,
dies del buit,
del temps
de mai
per mai més

dies i dies
dies de plor
dies de foc
dies de llum.
dies,
dies i dies
els dies teus
dies d’ahir
que mai més no.
dies,
dies i dies
els teus dies aquí,
els teus dies a prop.
dies,
dies i dies
mai més,
dies
on tenir
on saber
on prendre,
aprendre.
dies,
dies i dies
per quan la nostra,
la meva
l’única fi
del ser
i el lloc,
del món
darrer.

i jo,
nosaltres,
tu,
en el mai més,
per ja mai més.
al temps del tot, del mai,
temps al no-res.
dies i dies
dies del mai,
de la fi.
la fi, la fi, la fi de cada fi,
infinita fi.
per ja mai més,
mai més
per mai.

per ara,
també.
per ara,
ara de mai.

TAGE (IN DENEN GEWEINT WIRD)

das Ende. das Ende. das Ende von jedem Ende

dieses Ende von allem, Ende des Niemals, Ende zu dem Nichts.

Dieses Ende, das uns ausbrennt,

das uns entleert,

was so sehr unseres ist

unseres und einziges Ende

ein tiefes Weinen,

Qualwunsch gegen das Nichts

von diesem Schmerz

vor deinem Nichts,

vor dem Nicht-mehr-du sondern in uns.

die Zeit von wann,

die Zeit zu sein

in unserem Ausruf

die Zeit zu sein

in unserem Ausruf

in der grossen Leere

in deinem Nie-wieder,

unseres einzige Ende

von deinem Nie-wieder,

von meinem Schritt

alle deine Zeiten

in unserer Zeit

die wir dich sind,

für das schon nie mehr

das uns leid tut,

Dieses Niemehr von dir,

von jeden von uns,

und in dem Weinen

von jetzt und von nie,

Tage des Weinens

Die Tage von dir

Tage von gestern

die nie mehr nicht.

Die Tage von dir hier,

Die Tage von dir nah

für niemals mehr.

zur Zeit des Allem, des Niemals,

Zeit zu dem Nichts.

Tage des Niemals,

Das Ende, das Ende, das Ende jedes Endes,

für niemals mehr,

catalan | Víctor Sunyol

sense com cap sense
—cap res—

quan ja ni sempre
ni mai
quan ja no res
per

—sense—
on
o quan
o ser
sense
—sempre—

des de (morir)
només
amb
i tot

sempre sense
per mai

la por del desig

Làpida hebraica del cementiri jueu de Girona
Cantera & Millàs 185 n. 14.651
110 x 54 x 32 cm. s. XIV – XV
. la seva memòria sigui per la vida perdurable, tingui pau.
Inscripció molt esborrada, difícilment llegible.

Sin como ningún sin

cuando ya ni siempre

el miedo del deseo

Làpida hebrea del cementerio judío de Montjuïc, Girona

n. 14.651 110 x 54 x 32 cm. Cantera & Millàs 185

. su memoria sea para la vida perdurable, tenga paz.

Inscripción muy borrada, difícilmente legible.

[On ets, aqui al davant. ]

catalan | Víctor Sunyol

On ets, aquí al davant, donat a l’aire,
donat al buit, dissolt en la mirada?
Tanta llum entenebra l’hora
i fa l’espai etern;
d’estar només.

Suspens
pregunta abissada
—el temps s’esbalça per l’ull en atura—
on ets, d’estar?

On ets, al teu davant, donat a l’aire,
donat al buit, dissolt en la mirada?

[¿dónde estás, aquí enfrente. ]

¿dónde estás, aquí enfrente, librado al aire,

librado al vacío, disuelto en la mirada?

Tanta luz entenebrece la hora

Y hace eterno el espacio;

—el tiempo se despeña por el ojo en parada—

¿donde estás, de estar?

¿dónde estás, enfrentede tí, librado al aire,

librado al vacío, disuelto en la mirada?

catalan | Víctor Sunyol

Dorm.
Torna al teu lloc tan sols record,
al bell somni d’aire.

Desperta.
Torna a l’oblit que en tu fulgura,
a l’enyor d’un somni.

Som record d’un dia fràgil,
rerefons d’una memòria.
Som d’un somni que somia.

Recorda,
i que el record et sigui el temps de l’oblit.
Oblida,
i que l’oblit et dicti el pas del record.

Vuelve a tu lugar solo recuerdo,

al bello sueño de aire.

Vuelve al olvido que en ti fulgura,

a la añoranza de un sueño.

Somos recuerdo de un día frágil,

trasfondo de una memoria.

Somos de un sueño que sueña.

y que el recuerdo te sea el tiempo del olvido.

y que el olvido te dicte el paso del recuerdo.

dutch | Lies Van Gasse

Het bad is vol. Kuddes zwemmen heen en weer,
gelijk met de rivier. Een man heft zijn vuist op,
een spoor van bloed waaiert langs lijnen uit.

Badmutsen komen op en onder
als glanzende, stalen bollen.
Veelkleurig bedekken ze lichamen.

Bloed verspreidt zich langs de kanten.
Een voor een verlaat men het bad.

Iemand trekt zich op
met een rug als een muur.

Water kantelt in vlakken
die elkaar in evenwicht houden,

Kerend verdwijnt de draadijzeren toren,
een kathedraal die op licht lijkt gebouwd,
de tengere torsie van bruggen,

voor een ondiep bad,
een lichaam dat zich in de tippen strekt,
het klateren van benen.

Niet zoveel later drogen de kuddes
buiten op, met blikken
die over de lichamen gaan.

Nu gekleed, maar pulserend,
en hard, en zacht en warm,
en rozig als een omsluitende want.

Glitterend in mijn herinnering
staat een zwarte ster, een lichaam
dat elke richting uit slaat,

en kortgeknipt, en wild,
en donker op weg naar een droom
in deze stad, haast trillend,
de stad die haar sterren vervaagt.

Ik droom van een stad als zand,
ze warmt stilaan op
tot grond aan de voeten kleeft.

In de nacht houd ik een kind vast,
dat donzig naar me kijkt.
Mensen graaien en tasten.

Het spreekt tegen mij, een volle taal
die zich tegen de oren drukt als warme lucht,
mij in samenhang verbaast,

en wanneer wolken, treinen razen,
de dichtheid van de warmte drukt,

“je bent een scharnier
aan het begin van de zin.

Je hebt een heleboel te zeggen,
maar je moet het goed toedekken.”

Ik strek mijn hand
vol dikke gedachten,

hoog glijdende stemmen,
ijl in de koepel.

Ik lach, want de wind
is een grommend litteken.
Paarden meten de nacht.

Mensen roepen op straat
naar de bal die stuitert, het doel.

Koren bedekken daken
met onverwacht lawaai.

Ik droom van een zin die zich herhaalt, een
stem die in het luchtdek schalt, de muezzin die
tenger de massa overhaalt.

De as waarrond gespiegeld wordt,
zit meer dan eens te midden.

Voortdurend kijken wij
naar mannen,
de rand, achter tralies,
onder draad.

We lezen boeken in de zon,
kruipen een berg op, een gloed
van vroeg gevallen zon,

een met marmer bezette wake.

Iemand vindt een mes onder het theedoek.
Ademloos zitten we op een bank,
vergeten wie nog kijkt.

We hebben de handen los als touwen,
slapen warm, gloeien hevig op.

Een meisje loopt de berg op, lang en zwart
tot de waarheid van haar haren kletst.

Het drupt. Lang gras kan gevaarlijk zijn.

Twee mannen joggen in duikpak.
Buiten de tafel staat een glazen wand
met daar achter het leven.

Er roept een gebrek aan noodzaak.

Ik droom van een stad
waar het vriest in april
en dooit met kerst.

Aardplaten verschuiven.
Alles is vervangbaar,

ook de plek waar men valt, het vuurwerk,
de netjes wortelende bomen.

Mensen zetten hun voet in beton
en schieten af.

Een cirkelblad van messen
draait in mijn keel
en zoekt er naar de slokdarm.

Ik droom van een stad zonder u.
We hebben geplooide belangen.
Zonder u is er geen stad

en ik, een vergeten antwoord,
rond de toppen van uw dromen
met mijn dons.

Ik droom van een stad
die van mensen is gemaakt,
van parallelle lijnen die toch kruisen,

van het delen van de daktuin,
het plakken van lijven in zon,
banen in een zwembad,

van een vakwerk van kamers,
van bewegende scènes,
van de vrouw die een jas naait veraf.

van de lijnen die men naait in een huid,
van de jazz-zanger, zwart in het pak,
van rood en groene draken,

van het gedrum van toeristen,
een ijzeren raamwerk voor kraampjes,
van dozen vol goedkope platen,

van korte koffie,
opspattend zand in de regen,
gedeelde paraplu’s,

van de gevaren van onomkoopbaarheid,
van een gegidste tramrit in de banlieu,
aan het einde van een droom,

van een kale reis,
koket voyeurisme,
van Afrique 1 dans le taxi,

van nachten in kelders,
lavendeldrank,
van tunnels, kokers en trappen,

van de metro die sluit,
een stem die reizigers raapt,
in de gauwte verloren carnets,

van fluisterdichters,
een avond in een sluitende keuken,
verschaald bier, een onopgemaakt bed,

van plakkende, dansende lijven,
van een winkelkar, een stomend ritme,
een verdwaalde striptekenaar,

van regen die haast stroomt,
een dunne rivier van paraplu’s,
dekens waaronder wij dromen

van een ochtend boven een rookveld,
bakjes met fruit aan de metro,
van winkels, patronen op stoffen.

Drie tellen tikt de klok van de stad,
de tram, en vouwt zich in.

(…) Le bain déborde

Le bain déborde. Les nageurs vont et viennent en troupeaux,

suivant le fleuve. Un homme lève le poing,

une trace de sang rayonne le long des lignes d’eau.

Des bonnets de bain plongent et émergent

comme des globes en acier brillant.

Multicolores, ils coiffent les corps.

Du sang se répand le long des bords.

Les uns après les autres, on sort du bain.

Quelqu’un se hisse

et son dos est comme un mur.

L’eau bascule en aplats

qui se maintiennent en équilibre.

La tour en fil de fer disparaît en tournant,

cathédrale qu’on dirait construite sur la lumière,

la délicate torsion des ponts,

devant une pataugeoire,

un corps s’étirant jusqu’aux pointes,

des jambes qui ruissellent.

Peu après les troupeaux sèchent

à l’extérieur, ils ont des regards

qui parcourent les corps.

Vêtus à présent, mais pulsatiles,

et durs, et tendres et chauds,

et douillets comme un gant qui enserre.

Scintillant dans ma mémoire

une étoile noire brille, un corps

qui fuse dans chaque direction,

et coupé court, et indompté,

et sombre en chemin vers un rêve

dans cette ville, tressaillant presque,

la ville qui estompe ses étoiles.

Je rêve d’une ville comme le sable,

se réchauffant peu à peu

jusqu’à ce que le sol nous colle aux pieds.

Dans la nuit, je tiens un enfant,

qui me lance un regard duveteux.

Les gens tâtent et tripotent.

Elle me parle, une langue pleine

qui colle aux oreilles comme l’air chaud,

me surprend de cohérence,

et quand nuages et trains défilent,

que pèse la densité de la chaleur,

« tu es une charnière

au début de la phrase.

Tu as beaucoup à dire,

mais il faut bien le recouvrir. »

Je tends la main

pleine de pensées épaisses,

de voix glissantes en hauteur,

minces filets sous la coupole.

Je ris, car le vent

est une cicatrice qui gronde.

Des chevaux mesurent la nuit.

Dans la rue, des gens interpellent

le ballon qui rebondit, le but.

Des chorales couvrent les toits

d’un vacarme inattendu.

Je rêve d’une phrase qui se répète, d’une

voix résonnant dans la nappe d’air, le muezzin

frêle qui convainc la masse.

L’axe de symétrie

bien souvent se trouve au cœur.

Sans cesse nous regardons

le bord, derrière des barreaux,

Nous lisons des livres au soleil,

rampons sur une butte, une lueur

de soleil tôt tombé,

une veillée constellée de marbre.

Quelqu’un trouve un couteau sous le torchon.

Le souffle coupé, assis sur un banc,

nous oublions qui regarde encore.

Nos mains lâchées/dénouées comme des cordes,

nous dormons au chaud, rougeoyons fort.

Une fille grimpe la montagne, grande et noire

jusqu’à ce que la vérité éclabousse de ses cheveux.

Ça goutte. L’herbe haute peut être dangereuse.

Deux hommes font du footing en combi de plongée.

Hors de la table se dresse une paroi de verre

derrière laquelle se trouve la vie.

Un manque de nécessité nous appelle.

Je rêve d’une ville

où il y a des gelées en avril

et du redoux à noël.

Les plaques tectoniques glissent.

Tout est remplaçable,

y compris l’endroit où l’on tombe, le feu d’artifice,

les arbres enracinés proprement.

Des gens posent leur pied dans le béton

Une lame circulaire de couteaux

tournoie dans ma gorge

et y cherche l’œsophage.

Je rêve d’une ville sans vous.

Nous avons des intérêts plissés.

Sans vous, il n’y a pas de villeet

moi, réponse oubliée,

j’arrondis les sommets de vos rêves

Je rêve d’une ville

de lignes parallèles qui pourtant se croisent,

d’une terrasse de toit partagée,

de corps poisseux sous le soleil,

de couloirs dans une piscine,

d’un cloisonnage de chambres,

de scènes en mouvement,

de la femme au loin cousant un manteau,

des lignes que l’on coud dans une peau,

du chanteur de jazz, noir dans son costume,

de dragons rouges et verts,

de touristes qui se massent,

un grillage de fer devant des étals,

de cartons remplis de disques bon marché,

de sable qui gicle sous la pluie,

de parapluies partagés,

des danger de l’incorruptibilité,

d’un voyage guidé en tram dans la banlieue,

au bout d’un rêve,

d’un voyage dépouillé,

d’Afrique 1 dans le taxi,

de nuits passées dans des caves,

d’une boisson à la lavande,

de tunnels, puits et escaliers,

du métro en fin de service,

une voix ramassant les voyageurs,

les carnets perdus dans leur hâte,

de poètes murmurants,

d’une soirée dans une cuisine qui ferme,

bière éventée, un lit défait,

de corps collants, dansants,

d’un caddy, d’un rythme bouillant,

d’un dessinateur de BD égaré,

de pluies presque torrentielles,

une rivière étroite de parapluies,

des couvertures sous lesquelles nous rêvons

d’un matin au-dessus d’un champ de fumée,

de barquettes de fruits à la sortie du métro,

de magasins, de dessins sur des tissus.

Trois secondes toque l’horloge de la ville,

le tram, et se replie.

german | Sabine Scho

“something like the tack-tack-tack
of a few dozen typewriters”

wenn die finger fehlen
nervös auf die tischplatte
zu trommeln und der tisch
fehlt dazu

wenn das medium nicht
die message, aber
das medium spendiert
das den schall schneller
transportiert

sonic youth is the loudest
animal on earth

wenn das walkalb an land
allein deshalb verloren ist
weil es niemand mehr hört
selbst das click verstärkende
meer, fortgezogen, seinen
größten spross nicht vermisst

wenn zahnwale mit dem kiefer
knirschen, im schlaf, im sand
im traum, ozeanlos geweckt
vom eigenen gewicht

wenn sich das erhabene
am gestade bläht
gedärme den blubber
wie stollen stützen

wenn das gerippe noch
steht, ein serviettenring
dem keiner ein
leichentuch näht

something like the tack-tack-tack

of a few dozen typewriters

quan no tens dits

amb què picar nerviós

sobre la taula i tampoc

quan el mitjà no ofereix

el missatge, sinó

el mitjà mateix

que accelera la velocitat

sonic youth és l’animal

més sorollós de la terra

quan la cria de balena a la sorra

està sola i també perduda

perquè no la sent ningú

i fins i tot el mar, que amplifica

els seus clics, s’ha retirat,

i no troba a faltar el seu plançó

quan les balenes dentades fan cruixir

la mandíbula, adormides, somiant

a la sorra, i es desperten orfes d’oceà

a causa del propi pes

es desplega a la vora de la mar

els budells sostenen el greix

com en una galeria minera

quan el costellam encara

resisteix, anella per a tovallons

per a la qual ningú no

broda un mocador

german | Sabine Scho

ein leiser zahnarmer, a-
meisen in seinem
bauch, ich sah den
regenwald brennen
und einen ameisenbären
auch, niemand mit
löschdecke trat auf
der kreislauf in flammen
organtätigkeit setzt aus
wie fühlt sich das an
lichterloh zu verenden
neulich töteten ameisenbären
zwei brasilianische bauern
ob sie ihre vitalsphäre bedrohten
und ihren lebensraum
– ist in jedem fall zu bedauern
mit messerscharfen krallen
kann man sich nicht wehren
gegen brandrodung
bricht so ein tier termiten-
hügel auf und züngelt hitzig
in alle gänge, heißt es
lauf, termite, lauf
ein körperbau in dem
lange klebzungen wohnen
bietet gewisse großzüngigkeit
für gustatorische sensationen
stell’ ich mir vor, wenn man
kerbtiere flambierte
veränderte das bei ameisenbären
die darmtätigkeit
er summte dann kaum hörbar
burning down the house
scheidet dazu schwelende
heuweltjies aus

os formiguer gegant

silenciós i quasi sense dents,

amb la panxa plena de formigues,

vaig veure cremar la jungla

i també un os formiguer, ningú

equipat amb manta antiincendis no

va sufocar el cercle de foc

activitat dels òrgans aturada

què se sent quan acabes

consumit per les flames

fa poc els ossos formiguers

van matar dos camperols brasilers

i si amenaçaven la seva biosfera

i el seu espai vital

‑ en tot cas és deplorable

hom no pot defensar-se

amb urpes afilades com ganivets

contra el servei d’incendis

quan una d’aquestes bèsties fa saltar un niu

de tèrmits i fica la llengua

per tots els passadissos, diuen

correu, tèrmits, correu

un cos en què viuen

llargues llengües llefiscoses

brinda una certa prodilingualitat

a les sensacions gustatòries

suposo, si flamegéssim

els insectes això modificaria

el funcionament intestinal dels

va murmurar quasi inaudible

burning down the house

mentre anava excretant

german | Sabine Scho

er gilt als schwierige speise
sortiert sein besteck
links, die gewaltige zwinge
nimmt in die zange, das
war mal ein helgoländer
projekt der nazis
greifen und tasten und
wild tranchieren lernen
menschen von ihm

jetzt kriegen sie keinen schreck
er berücksichtigt linkshänder
hat ein gutes gedächtnis, unter-
scheidet irre relevantes von nur
mäßig interessantem, das gilt
gemeinhin als intelligent

wird gekocht bei lebendigem leibe
was fühlt ein hummer dabei
für gewöhnlich interessiert das
hungrige einen dreck

auch ein panzerkrebs erhebt
anspruch auf sein glück
schmerzfreiheiten? was für
ausnahmezustände! rezeptoren
hat man allein zu dem zweck

dass durch die härtesten panzer
reize dringen, schauen sie den
führerbunker, den kriegte man
kaum gesprengt, so gut verschalt
und doch drang noch etwas hinein
dass in ihm verschanzte wesen
roh und von eigener hand
aufhörten zu sein

se la té per una menja difícil

distribueix els coberts

a l’esquerra, la violenta pinça

agafa les tenalles, que

un dia van ser un projecte nazi

quan pincen i palpen

i trinxen de mala manera

no s’espantin que també

té en compte els esquerrans

té bona memòria i distin-

geix allò vagament rellevant d’allò

mitjanament interessant, el que

se sol considerar intel·ligència

el couen de viu en viu

el que la llagosta pugui sentir

no sol interessar un rave

també el cranc de riu

exigeix la seva felicitat

llibertat contra el dolor? quines

circumstàncies tan excepcionals! tenim

receptors dedicats només a això

que les sensacions puguin travessar

la closca més dura, fixin-se en el

búnquer del führer, de tan ben revestit

no es podia ni fer esclatar,

i amb tot s’hi va colar alguna cosa

que va fer que els éssers que s’hi parapetaven

brutalment i per la seva pròpia mà

german | Sabine Scho

what was the question?
I was looking at the big sky
kate bush

die frage, wo der blick aufhört
oder ob und wie er sich verliert
ist eine frage nach reichweite
die suggeriert, man könne ein
auge werfen, wo doch umgekehrt
zurückgeworfen wird, licht in
wellen / teilchen

das auge lässt sich nicht präparieren
verhält sich wie pudding, man muss es
ersetzen, hauen sie diesem gorilla
ein veilchen, das bleibt sicher unbemerkt
in seinem schwarzvioletten gesicht, ob der
dann sternchen sieht? das seh’ ich so nicht

pax 6, das masterkontrollgen verzapft
schöne augen an jeder beliebigen stelle
wenn sie so wollen!vieläugige fliegen
fliegen, wenn sie die evolution ganz
runterscrollen, augenlosen hybriden
hinterher, das könnte ich noch erklären

aber kennen sie den
sagt ein evolutionsbiologe
zum kreationisten: wir haben
alle darwin gelesen
sagt der kreationist: ich nicht

what was the question?

I was looking at the big sky

la pregunta sobre fins on arriba la mirada

o sobre si aquesta s’arriba mai a perdre i com

és una qüestió sobre l’abast

que suggereix que seria possible

llançar un ull, quan de fet és just

al contrari, i és la llum la que retorna

l’ull no es pot dissecar,

es belluga com un púding, s’ha de

substituir, foti-li un ull de vellut

a aquest goril·la, que segurament

a la cara negra-violeta no es notarà

si veu les estrelles? ho dubto

pax 6, el gran gen controlador, col·loca

uns ulls ben bonics allà on vulgui

i quan vulgui! mosques d’ulls múltiples

volen, si feu scroll down a l’evolució, rere

híbrids sense ulls, i això encara ho podria explicar

però el saben aquell

que un biòleg de l’evolució li diu

a un creacionista: tots hem

i li respon el creacionista: jo no

german | Sabine Scho

übers ohr gehauen für ein
platt gemachtes hühnchen
ein kuhhandel
hört sich bescheiden an
am übergang von erdgeprägten
geschöpfen zu luftdurchstoßenden
tölpeln, vom krallengang zur sturz-
bereiten klaue, bei gellendem
geschrei, spähend, ready for take off
von schuppe zu federkleid, das vielleicht
indes nur schmückte, wärmte, zum fliegen
nichts nützte, und doch, einmal nijinsky sein
und faunisch verrenkt diesen einen augenblick
gleichgewichtsverloren platte machen

gat per llebre per un

un negoci amb vaques

sona prou modest

en el trànsit que va

de criatures terrestres

a bèsties que perforen l’aire,

del pas de la grapa a l’urpa

presta a estimbar-se, amb brams

estridents, mirada atenta, ready for take off,

de les escates al vestit de ploma, que potser

no era més que gala, abric no apte

per al vol, i amb tot, ser nijinski per un dia

i, amb lascives contorsions, en aquell precís instant,

perdut l’equilibri, plaf, dormir al ras

***[Eluaeg olen tahtnud õue]

estonian | Juhan Viiding

ELUAEG OLEN TAHTNUD ÕUE.
Mida see mulle tähendab?
See on hinge ainuke nõue,
mis mind elule lähendab.

Oo, kui raske on meie kliimas,
mis on umbusuudust hall.
Olen tädile kooke viimas,
metsatee on mu jalge all.

Metsas kohtan ma nümfe ja gnoome,
noori siivutuid preilisid.
Aga on ka rangeid aroome –
karme Lindasid, Leilisid.

Vana tädi see sööb minu annid,
seekord kohtamata jääb Hunt.
Õrnad lilled mu mängukannid
ja mu armastus – piiritu krunt.

ELUAEG OLEN TAHTNUD ÕUE.
Kas sa tead, mis see tähendab?
See, mu arm, on looduse nõue.
Ta meid asjasse pühendab.

***[All my life, I´ve wanted out]

ALL MY LIFE, I´VE WANTED OUT.

Do you know what it means to me?

It is something that life´s all about,

it is something that helps me be.

Oh, how hard it is in our climate,

which is the grey of the fog of distrust.

I´am taking some cakes to my auntie

through a forest of all kinds of lust.

There I meet some nymphs and some gnomes,

young girls of indecent ways

as well as some stricter aromas –

stern ladies of former days.

Old auntie – she eats what I´ve brought,

and this time no Wolf comes around.

Fragile flowers reside in my thoughts,

and my love is a borderless ground.

ALL MY LIFE, I´VE WANTED OUT.

Do you know what it means to me?

This, my love, is what nature´s about,

and it finally makes us see.

estonian | Paul-Eerik Rummo

Ma olen nii mööduv
kurtis tüdruk merele
oi mis ma teen
sa oled igavene

ma paistan läbi kui sina
kurtis tüdruk aknale
oi mis ma teen
kõik näevad mu südant

ma avanen kui sina
kurtis tüdruk uksele
oi mis ma teen
päike astub sisse

ma olen nii väike
kurtis tüdruk päiksele
oi mis ma teen
sa oled nii suur

ma olen nii rumal
kurtis tüdruk targale
oi mis ma teen
kõik on nii targad.

I am so fleeting

sighed the girl to the sea

oh, what can I do

you are eternal

I am transparent like you

sighed the girl to the window

oh, what can I do

my heart’s in full view

I open like you

sighed the girl to the door

oh, what can I do

the sun steps in

sighed the girl to the sun

oh, what can I do

you are so large

I am so foolish

sighed the girl to the wise man

oh, what can I do

everyone is so wise

arabic | Rabia Djelti

حت شرفتي
ليلٌ ..
يميل بأغصانه على الطرقات ،
يَمدّ أذرعا فوق المصابيح ،
يُدغدغ النجوم ،
يُراوغ الظلمة عن نفسها ،
ويَعصر خموره في أغنية .

تحت شرفتي
مقعدان من حجر ..
دونهما
أغلقا باب النعاس ،
أشرعا سماءهما للسهر ..
يضحكان ،
حتى انفراج السُّرّة منهما
يَتغامزان ،
يتأفّفان ،
يُحوْقلان ،
يُبسْملان ،
يُوشوشان أسرارَ الجُلساء
وأمورا غريبة في البشر :
عن دلال البنات ،
ومكر الذكور ،
عن اقتصاد السوق ،
عن دموع العشاق ،
عن الديانات ،
عن هول الحروب ،
عن غلاء المهور ،
عن الغربة ،
عن أسرار العادة ،
عن الدسائس ،
عن الماكياج ،
عن المظاهرات ،
عن الجنون ،
عن القنابل الذكية ،
عن وباء التجاعيد ،
عن طاولات الحوار المستدير ،
عن الانتحار ،
عن الديمقراطية ،
عن الفيزا ،
عن التاريخ ،
عن حبوب منع الحمل ،
عن الجغرافيا ،
عن الضجر ،
عن إلى آخره ،
عن إلى آخره ،
وعن إلى آخره

تحت شرفتي
المقعدان اللئيمان ،
المقعدان الحكيمان ،
يفتحان باب النوم
يتثاءبان ،
واللهَ الكريمَ يحمدان ،
على أنهما من حجر .

شتاء 2007 الجزائر

Beneath my balcony

leans with its boughs on the roads

extends its arms over the lamps

tickles the stars

And presses its wines in a song.

Beneath my balcony

Two stony seats

closed to themselves the doors of slumber

opened their sky for wakefulness

laughing till their umbilical cords exploded.

They wink at each other

They say there is no power but in God.

They speak in the name of God.

They whisper the secrets of their companions

and of the queerness of people.

about the fondness of girls

and the cunning of males

about the market economy

ad lovers’ tears

and the horror of wars

about expensive dowries

about the wonders of habit

and smart bombs

about the epidemic of wrinkles

and the round tables’ dialogue

about contraceptive bills

Beneath my balcony

the two mean seats,

the two wise seats

open the door of sleep

thanking the generous God

that they are made of stone.

german | Jan Wagner

ein großer fisch, gebettet auf eine zeitung,
ein tisch aus holz in einer hütte in
der normandie. ganz still, ganz warm – die luft
strickt wollene socken. du kannst ihn berühren oder
auch nicht, seine silbrigen schuppen gleich langen reihen
von noten einer kühlen symphonie. sein kopf
ist ab, sonst könnte er, gesetzt den fall
daß fische lesen können, lesen
was über seiner rückenflosse steht
und ihm souffliert: “was tun sie, diese leute?”
das licht entzieht sich leise, das papier
nimmt tropfenweise meere in sich auf.
au fond de l’image drischt der atlantik dröhnend
die jüngsten vermißtenanzeigen in den strand.

Ενα μεγάλο ψάρι, κρεβατωμένο σε μια εφημερίδα

ένα τραπέζι ξύλινο σε μια καλύβα στη

Νορμανδία. Απόλυτη σιωπή, ζέστη – ο αέρας

πλέκει μάλλινες κάλτσες. Μπορείς να το αγγίξεις

ή και να το αφήσεις. Τα ασημένια λέπια

του σαν μακριές σειρές από νότες

μιας συμφωνίας δροσερής. Το κεφάλι του

είναι κομμένο, αλλιώς θα μπορούσε, αν

βέβαια διάβαζαν τα ψάρια, να διαβάσει

τι γράφει εκεί για το φτερό στη ράχη του

και του σουφλάρει: «Τι κάνουν όλοι τους, όλος αυτός ο κόσμος;».

Σιγά σιγά πέφτει το φως και το χαρτί

ρουφάει μέσα του θάλασσες, σταγόνα τη σταγόνα

Au fond de l’ image ο Ατλαντικός μουγκρίζοντας ξεβράζει

τις τελευταίες αγγελίες εξαφανισθέντων στην ακτή.

german | Jan Wagner

der zug hielt mitten auf der strecke. draußen hörte
man auf an der kurbel zu drehen: das land lag still
wie ein bild vorm dritten schlag des auktionators.

ein dorf mit dem rücken zum tag. in gruppen die bäume
mit dunklen kapuzen. rechteckige felder,
die karten eines riesigen solitairespiels.

in der ferne nahmen zwei windräder
eine probebohrung im himmel vor:
gott hielt den atem an.

Το τρένο σταμάτησε στα μισά. Απ’ έξω πάψανε

τη μανιβέλα να γυρίζουν: η χώρα ησύχαζε

σαν μια εικόνα πριν το τρίτο χτύπημα του δημοπράτη.

Ενα χωριό με πλάτη γυρισμένη στη μέρα. Τα δέντρα σε συστάδες

με σκούρες κουκούλες. Ορθογώνια χωράφια

σαν τραπουλόχαρτα γιγαντιαίας πασιέντζας.

Πέρα μακριά δύο φτερά μύλου

βάζουνε μπρος μια δοκιμαστική γεώτρηση

στον ουρανό. Ο Θεός κρατά την ανάσα του.

estonian | Tõnu Õnnepalu

Vabadust pole kevadõhk
kuumab ja lainetab meie ümber
sellel viimase lume sulamise pühal
kui lepaurvad
on kollasest tolmust rasked
ja maa on veest raske
ja silmadel on valguse paljusest raske
kui rõõm
tuleb ja kihutab
käed lahti mäest alla
lõoke kukub läbi õhu
kui taevas
haarab meid oma täiuslikku tühjusesse
mille värvidel pole nime
sinine sinine sinine
tuhat korda kõik
erinevate tähendustega aga
kulu ja muld
lõhnavad nagu esimest korda elus
ja männid
löövad kohisema
kui äkki
tuleb merelt jääkülm niiske tuulehoog
ja mändide ladvad õõtsuvad taevas
otsekui keset suurt kurbust
sest vabadust pole

There is no freedom

There is no freedom spring air
glowing and surging around us
on this festival of the last melting snow
when the alder catkins
are heavy with yellow dust
and the earth is heavy with water
and the eyes feel heavy wwith the beauty of light
when joy
comes and races
hands free down the hill
the lark falls through the air
when the sky
enfolds us into its perfect void
whose colours have no name
blue blue blue
a thousand times everything
with different meanings but
the dead grass and the earth
smell as for the first time in my life
and the pines
begin to rustle
when suddenly
an icy cold damp gust of wind from the sea
and the pinetops swaying in the sky
as if in the midst of a great sadness
for there is no freedom

***[Minu hing on teele valmis]

estonian | Tõnu Õnnepalu

Minu hing on teele valmis,
hõlmad vaheliti ja vöö vöö peal, nii nagu käsk.
Sest küütvanker ei oota ega peatu kaua
selles jaamas
enne pikka ja vaevalist tõusu,
mis võib-olla lõpuks viib kardetud mäkke,
võõrale tühjale harjale, kus ootab Nimetu,
aga võib-olla teise orgu, sellest siin erinevasse.

Minu hing on teele valmis,
aga ta ei tunne teed,
sest see läheb läbi tema enda lageda ala
ja päevateekond on peitu pandud ööde varjude taha.

Minu hing on teele valmis,
aga tal on hirm veel minna.
Kas ta siis ei tohiks korraks puhata
sinu hinge telkhoone all?
Kas see siis ei kuulugi Võimalikku,
et talle lubatakse seal silmapilk unustust?
Või on hoopis sinu hing küsinud luba
istuda kolde äärde, mille tulest ma ise ei saa sooja?
Ja kas pole nii, et kui üks leiab korraks puhkust
ja võib vöö päästa vöölt,
siis teine peab valvama ega saa põrmugi osa
sellest varjust ja kosutusest,
mida ta enda teadmata pakub?

Minu hing on teele valmis,
aga seal, kus ta on, ta on üksi
ja alles on öö, Kuu peibutab, aga ei näita,
mis telgi riie see on, kus justkui liiguvad varjud
ja kelle varjud need on.
Kas teiste, võõraste teeliste?
Ja kas koidik on ikka veel kaugel.

Kas see punakas kuma
on Nimetu laagri lõke
või on teeleasumispäev juba tõstmas valguse plagu
ja telkhoone pannakse kokku
veel enne, kui ma sind palgest palgesse näen?
Ja see, kus ma unetult laman,
on vaid kujutlus sinu kehast,
sest sinugi hing on teel ega tohi peatuma jääda.

Ei, mu hing on ju teele valmis
ja juba põlebki ära
muutlik Kuu Päeva kerkivas kumas.

Ja sind pole mujal kui kaugel,
ei, sind pole mujal kui kaugel,
ja ma olen sinust kaugel.
Ja kaugel minust mu hing on teel.

***[My soul is ready for the journey]

My soul is ready for the journey,
coat drawn close and girdled as was the command.
For the carriage will not wait or stay long
in this station
before the long and difficult ascent
that may finally lead to the fearsome mountain,
onto the strange empty ridge where the Nameless is waiting,
or perhaps to another valley, different from this one.

My soul is ready for the journey
but it does not know the way
for it leads through soul’s own bare territory
and the day journeys are hidden behind the shadows of night.

My soul is ready for the journey
but yet it is afraid to go.
Could it not rest for a while
under the pavilion of your soul?
Does it not belong to the Possible
that it were allowed a moment of oblivion there?
Or is it really your soul that has asked for permission
to sit at the hearth whose fire does not warm me?
And is it not that when one finds rest for a while
and can loosen the girdle,
the other must keep guard and cannot have a share
of the shade and refreshment that it unknowingly offers?

My soul is ready for the journey
but where it is, it is alone,
and still it is night, the Moon lures, but does not show
under what tent’s cloth the shadows seem to move
and whose shadows they are.
Are they the others, the foreign travellers?
And if morning is still far away.

Is this reddish glow
from the campfire of the Nameless
or is the decampment day already hoisting the flag of light
and the pavilion taken down
before I can even see you face to face?
And where I am lying sleeplessly
it is only an image of your body,
for your soul is travelling too and must not stop.

No, my soul is ready for the journey
and already the changing Moon
burns up in the rising glow of the Day.

And you are nowhere but far,
no, you are nowhere but far
and I am far from you.
And far from me travels my soul.

Solar i svartvitt

swedish | Malte Persson

Den anorektiska vintersolen
rör sig hastigt över en arktisk
himmels catwalk. Överexponerad
bleks en snödrottning mot vitt.

Melankolins svarta, svala sol
svälter sig igenom dammiga
och oframkallade negativ,
sotande en oframkallad dag.

Den blonda månen är bara en
ateljékuliss: fotografens falska sol.
Han själv en Apollo-imitatör,
förmörkad bakom solglasögon.

Suns in Black-and-White

The anorexic winter Sun
moves rapidly across the catwalk
of an arctic sky. An overexposed
Snow Queen fades into white.

The black Sun of Melancholy
starves its way through dusty sets
of undeveloped negatives,
charring undeveloped days.

The blonde Moon is a set piece:
fake sun of the photographer,
an Apollo impersonator himself,
eclipsed by his black sunglasses.

afrikaans | Antjie Krog

ons die pad begin loop
het, het die irisse
uitgeblom die verla-
te oogballe van die
ligbloues die gevou-
de stil vlermuise van
die perses sedert ons

die pad begin loop het
het die gras in die saad
gekom het die botter-
blomme hulle blare soos
naelknipsels laat val
die japonikas wat
soos kamerjasse tus-
sen die seders hang is

bruin van die takke ge-
pluk sedert ons die pad
begin loop het, het die
bloureën se blink ponie-
sterte uitgeblom het
die waterval banksias
haar ineenstorting vol-
tooi sedert ons die pad

begin loop het, het die
swaels begin terugvou
die jasmyne diep uit
hul slagare begin
geur die sneeu op die spit-
se gesmelt sedert ons
die pad begin loop het
het ‘n man geluidloos

agteroor gekantel
deur die lug wat ons in-
asem ag, dis al die
lug van die aarde oor-
weldig met die dun ge-
luid van verdriet sedert
ons die pad begin loop
het word ons saans donker

van tong en vertaal ons
ontbinding ons enkels
ruik reeds die reuk. maar god!
hoe sterk ons dye hoe
vurig hoe vlug van fi-
ligraan die hart wat ha-
merend die niet in neuk

since we started walking
this road the irises
finished blooming the still
abandoned eyeballs of
the light blue ones the plush
folded bats of the purple row since

we started this road the
grass now gasps away seed
the buttercups have dropped
their leaves like nail clippings
the camelia’s bathrobe
among the cedars withered from the

branches since we started
the road the tough pony-
tails of the wisteria
fell in disrepute the
banksia waterfall
finished her fatal plunge since we have

started walking this road
the swallows came back we
can smell the jasmine from
its jugular the snow
melted from the mountains
since we started a man tumbled back-

See also  jacked-up seeds

wards into all this air
what we breathe is the air
of whole this world the sky
overwhelmed in writings
of grief at dusk we do
become dark of tongue as we translate

disintegration our
ankles reek mortal but
god how strong our thighs have
become since we walked this
road how fierce how savage
our filigree as the heart bangs in terror

afrikaans | Antjie Krog

terwyl sy teemaak vloei iets vreemd
bekends af langs haar binne-dy. soos ink.
na jare bloei sy weer.

sy staan oorrompel
asof ‘n hele boord in haar keel op
roei. geluk lek oral in. haar lyf

stoot luike oop na appels
en koeltes wat waas van voëls
sonbesies en snikhete vertes

asof ‘n kind se lag weer oorloop in die bad
sy voel haar wange weerloos
word. innig en deurbloos van daaglikse

nabyheid. asof haar buik jonk
en sterk uitswel om die mooiste wat sy was
haar nek verlief neem met soveel lig

sy dra die tee uit op die stoep
die lug blus sag vir dié tyd van die oggend
die stad lê soos ‘n volgeloopte dam

hy kom sit langs haar. rustig roer hy
sy tee. so sit hulle. so ver reeds nagelaat
in verlies. vir hulle vrugbaarheid so

seldsaam sorgvuldig ná aan mekaar

while she makes tea something strangely
familiar flows down her inner thigh. like ink.
after many years she bleeds again.

she stands overcome – as if a whole orchard
blossoms up in her throat, as if an old fashioned
happiness leaks into her body. she feels she’s

opening shutters towards apples, towards
shades that haze with birds and cicadas
and sweltering distances – as if a

child’s laughter overflows in a bath
turning her cheeks vulnerable – intimately
blushed through with daily closeness

as if her abdomen swells young and
strong again around the most beautiful that
she was; her neck abides by so much light

she carries the tea out onto the veranda
the sky slakes soft for this time of
morning; the city glistens like a brimming dam

he comes to sit next to her. peacefully he
stirs his tea. in this way they sit
so far left behind in loss – for their age

so carefully rare in closeness

afrikaans | Antjie Krog

onder bevele van my voorgeslagte was jy besit
had ek taal kon ek skryf want jy was grond my grond

maar my wou jy nooit
hoe ek ookal strek om my neer te lê
in ruisende blou bloekoms
in bees wat horings sak in Diepvlei
rimpelend drink die trillende keelvel
in tafsytossels in leksels gom
in doringbome afgegly na die leegtes

mý wou jy nooit
my verduur kon jy nooit
keer op keer skud jy my af
rol jy my uit
grond, ek word langsaam naamloos in die mond

nou word geveeg om jou
beding verdeel verkamp verkoop versteel verpand
ek wil ondergronds gaan met jou grond
grond wat my nie wou hê nie
grond wat nooit aan my behoort het nie

grond wat ek vergeefser as vroeër liefhet

under orders from my ancestors you were occupied
had I language I could write for you were land my land

but me you never wanted
no matter how I stretched to lie down
in rustling blue gums
in cattle lowering horns into Diepvlei (Deepbrook)
rippling the quivering jowls drink
in silky tassels in dripping gum
in thorn trees that have slid down into emptiness

me you never wanted
me you could never endure
time and again you shook me off
you rolled me out
land, slowly I became nameless in my mouth

now you are fought over
negotiated divided paddocked sold stolen mortgaged
I want to go underground with you land
land that would not have me
land that never belonged to me

land that I love more fruitlessly than before

nòg familie nòg vriende

afrikaans | Antjie Krog

alles praat heen deur die dooies
na my toe
jou bros bondel bene
my liefste liewerlee
lê lankuit bewaar
ek is oraloor wakker vannag
maar van my het so min gekom
jy’s al wat ek in die wêreld had
liefste dooieling
alleen en koud is dit tussen
my ribbes Afrika het my alles laat prysgee
dis so donker
dis so kil
sagte koggelaar
van my het so min gekom
ek is af
tot my laaste vel

niether family nor friends

tonight everything speaks through the dead
towards me
your brittle bundle of bones
my longestloved beloved
lies lonely and longingly cradled somewhere lost
and lean
I am overwhelmingly awake tonight
of me so little has become
you are all I had in this world
beloved deathling
alone and cold it is behind my ribs
Africa had me giving up all
it is so dark
it is so bleak
soft beloved taunter
of me so little has become
I am down
to my last skin

rondeau in vier dele

afrikaans | Antjie Krog

„Table Mountain symbolized all that is strange and enigmatic to an ‚outsider’
looking in at the Cape of Good Hope.“
Hoerikwaggo – Images of Table Mountain Nicolaas Vergunst

1.
van binne van buite
van binne buite van buite binne
van binneste buite na buitenste binne
van binne en buite benoemers na binne en buitenste berg

van binne van buite
van binne buite hang buite binne saam
hang binne benoemers met buitenste berg van binne na buite
van buite na binne
van binne buite

van binne Camissa van binne soet water
van binne Camissa van buite vars water
van binneste binne vars water vars soet
van binne van buite

van buite Golfo van buite Golfo dentro
van buite Golfo dentro das Serras van buite
van buite Golfo
van buite van binne

van binne buite van buite buite
van bobaas benoemers van die berg van die water
van buitenste binne na binneste buite

van binne van buite
van noem en van vat
van vat en verwoes
van verwoes en verrot
van binne van buite
van binneste vat van buitenste noem

van toevlug van uitvlug
van uitvlug van skeidslyn
van skeidslyn as lyn tussen orde en chaos
van buitenste buite
van binne

ek sien ’n portaal ek sien’n bewaker
ek sien ‘n plek ek sien net soet water
van binne van buite
van noem en van vat
van toevlug van uitvlug
van berg van die see van berg van die tafel
van binne van buite
van binneste binne van buitenste binne

van hoop van apart
van apostel van governor
van hoofman van vat van hoofman van gee
van ruilplek van stormplek
van godplek van geeplek
van vat en van vat

2.
van binne van buite
van binne buite van buite binne
van binneste buite na buitenste binne
van binne en buite benoemers na binne en buitenste berg

van binne van buite
van binne buite hang buite binne saam
hang binne benoemers met buitenste berg van binne na buite
van buite na binne
van binne buite

van binne Camissa van binne soet water
van binne Camissa van buite vars water
van binneste binne vars water vars soet
van binne van buite

van buite Golfo van buite Golfo dentro
van buite Golfo dentro das Serras van buite
van buite Golfo
van buite van binne

van binne buite van buite buite
van bobaas benoemers van die berg van die water
van buitenste binne na binneste buite

van Tafelberg Klipman van buite Mons Mensa
van binne van buite
van binne buite van buite binne
van tafel van klip van binne van buite
Mons Mensa van klip en van buite
Mons Mensa van klip en van Mensa
Hoerikwaggo van binne van buite
van binneste buite Hoerikwaggo van buite
Hoerikwaggo van binne Hoerikwaggo van buite
Hoerikwaggo van binneste buite

sonder godsdiens van buite
is hulle diere van binne
as diere het hulle geen siele van binne
van buite

sonder siele van binne
is hul gedoemdes van buite
is daar geen regte van binne
van diegene van buite
op land of op lewe

3.
van binne van buite
van binne buite van buite binne
van binneste buite na buitenste binne
van binne en buite benoemers na binne en buitenste berg

van binne van buite
van binne buite hang buite binne saam
hang binne benoemers met buitenste berg van binne na buite
van buite na binne
van binne buite

van binne Camissa van binne soet water
van binne Camissa van buite vars water
van binneste binne vars water vars soet
van binne van buite

van buite Golfo van buite Golfo dentro
van buite Golfo dentro das Serras van buite
van buite Golfo
van buite van binne

van binne buite van buite buite
van bobaas benoemers van die berg van die water
van buitenste binne na binneste buite

Umlindi
Umlindi We
Umlindi Wemingizi
Umlindi Wemingizimu
van binne van buite
van binneste buite Umlindi
Umlindi Wemingizimu
Umlindi kwaggo
Hoeri Umlindi
Hoerikwaggo Umlindi
Umlindi Wemingizimu Hoerikwaggo Mons Mensa

berge van buite is die wêreld van binne
is buite nou binne en binne nou buite

party bestyg berge om verder te sien
party bestyg berge om die self af te lê
party bestyg berge om ’n God te aanbid
party bly bloot teen die hange

party bestyg berge om hulleself te toets
party bestyg berge om grense te skep
party bestyg berge om hulde te bring
party bly in grotte bloot teen die hange

party bestyg berge om daaroor te heers
party bestyg berge om verdeling te bring
tussen binne en buite
en binneste binne en buitenste buite
binneloos buite buiteloos buite
buitenste buiteloos buite
buitenste buite van buite
wanneer gaan binne en buite van binnebuite tot niet

4.
van binne van buite
van binne buite van buite binne
van binneste buite na buitenste binne
van binne en buite benoemers na binne en buitenste berg

van binne van buite
van binne buite hang buite binne saam
hang binne benoemers met buitenste berg van binne na buite
van buite na binne
van binne buite

van binne Camissa van binne soet water
van binne Camissa van buite vars water
van binneste binne vars water vars soet
van binne van buite

van buite Golfo van buite Golfo dentro
van buite Golfo dentro das Serras van buite
van buite Golfo
van buite van binne

van binne buite van buite buite
van bobaas benoemers van die berg van die water
van buitenste binne na binneste buite
van buite van binne
binbuite buitbinne
buitbinnende buite binbuitende binne
van binte van buide
van buidbintende buide
van buide binte van binte buide
van buidenste binte van bintenste buide
van binbuid
bnuid bnid
bnidbnuid
bnud

Mountain rondeau in four parts

1.
from inside from outside
from in outside from out inside
from innermost outside to outermost inside
from inner and outer namegivers to inner and outermost mountain

from inside Camissa from inside sweet water
from inside Camissa from outside fresh water
from innermost inside fresh water fresh sweet
from inside from outside

from outside Golfo from outside Golfo Dentro
from outside Golfo Dentro das Serras from outside
from outside Golfo
from outside from inside

from inner outside from outer outside
from masterful namegivers of the mountain from the water
from outermost inside to innermost outside

I see a foyer I see a guardian
I see a place I see only sweet water
from inside from outside
from naming from taking
from refuge from subterfuge
from mountain from sea from mountain as table
from inside from outside
from innermost inside from outermost inside

from hope from apart
from apostle from governor
from chief of taking from chief of giving
from trade place from storm place
from god place from give place
from taking and taking
from taking

2.
from inside from outside
from in outside from out inside
from innermost outside to outermost inside
from inner and outer namegivers to inner and outermost mountain

from inside Camissa from inside sweet water
from inside Camissa from outside fresh water
from innermost inside fresh water fresh sweet
from inside from outside

from outside Golfo from outside Golfo Dentro
from outside Golfo Dentro das Serras from outside
from outside Golfo
from outside from inside

from inside out from outside out
from masterful namegivers to the mountain from the water
from outermost inside to innermost outside

from Table Mountain Klipman from outside Mons Mensa
from inside from outside
from inside out from outside in
from table of stone from inside from outside
Mons Mensa of stone and from outside
Mons Mensa of stone and from Mensa
Hoerikwaggo from inside from outside
from innermost outside Hoerikwaggo from outside
Hoerikwaggo from inside Hoerikwaggo from outside
Hoerikwaggo from innermost outside

without religion from outside
they are animals from inside
animals without souls from inside
from outside
without souls from inside
they’re doomed from outside
have no rights from inside
acknowledged from outside

on land on life
on living stock on after life

3.
from inside from outside
from in outside from out inside
from innermost outside to outermost inside
from inner and outer namegivers to inner and outermost mountain

from inside Camissa from inside sweet water
from inside Camissa from outside fresh water
from innermost inside fresh water fresh sweet
from inside from outside

from outside Golfo from outside Golfo Dentro
from outside Golfo Dentro das Serras from outside
from outside Golfo
from outside from inside

from inside out from outside out
from masterful namegivers to the mountain from the water
from outermost inside to innermost outside

Umlindi
Umlindi We
Umlindi Wemingizi
Umlindi Wemingizimu
from inside from outside
from innermost outside Umlindi
Umlindi Wemingizimu
Umlindi kwaggo
Hoeri Umlindi
Hoerikwaggo Umlindi
Umlindi Wemingizimu Hoerikwaggo Mons Mensa

mountains from outside are the world from inside
and outside is inside and inside now outside

some ascend mountains to see far
some ascend mountains to lay down the self
some ascend mountains to flee
some simply live on the slopes

some ascend mountains to test themselves
some ascend mountains to create borders
some ascend mountains to honour
some live in caves
simply on slopes

some ascend mountains to rule from there
some ascend mountains to chisel the gods
from in-less outside from out-less outside
outermost out-less outside
outermost out-less from outside

some live lightly on slopes
some only adore
some watch
how inside and outside are going to pieces

4.
from inside from outside
from in outside from out inside
from innermost outside to outermost inside
from inner and outer namegivers to inner and outermost mountain

from inside Camissa from inside sweet water
from inside Camissa from outside fresh water
from innermost inside fresh water fresh sweet
from inside from outside

from outside Golfo from outside Golfo Dentro
from outside Golfo Dentro das Serras from outside
from outside Golfo
from outside from inside

inside out blows outside out
from outermost inside blows innermost outside
from outside blows inside
in-outside blow-inside
out-innermost out blows outermost in
from blow-innerside outmost
from outblowerside inmost
from blust from blin
from blustblin minsside
blusside
blssd
blessed

afrikaans | Antjie Krog

Nie die intimiteit van jou voorkop mooi soos reen
nog die geweld van jou liggaam agter lakens terughoudend
nog wat na my toe aankom van jou lewe
Sal soveel slanke genade hê
as om jou te sien slaap nie

miskien sien ek jou soms vir die eerste maal

jy met jou borskas van koejawel en druif
jy met die ooglede klam, die slape silwer en vinkel
jy vlek ons uithoeke smaltblou en geruisloos soos verdriet

maar ons sal uithou bymekaar

selfs al hamer die son teen die dakpanne
selfs al kook die staat net clichés
ons stop ons sakke met suurstof
en die vuurwerk van vinke
selfs al ry my oe die horison bloots
selfs al runnik die maan met haar flanke
selfs al vorm die berg ‘n kompakte lyn teen die nag

ons sal uithou bymekaar
ek sien jou soms vir die eerste maal

african love song

neither the moist intimacy of your eyelids fair as fennel
nor the violence of your body withholding behind sheets
nor what comes to me as your life
will have so much slender mercy for me
as to see you sleeping

perhaps I see you sometimes
for the first time

you with your chest of guava and grape
your hands cool as spoons
your haughty griefs stain every corner blue

we will endure with each other

even if the sun culls the rooftops
even if the state cooks clichés
we will fill our hearts with colour
and the fireworks of finches
even if my eyes ride a rag to the horizon
even if the moon comes bareback
even if the mountain forms a conspiracy against the night

we will persist with each other
sometimes I see you for the first time

german | Ursula Krechel

I
Als meine Mutter ein Vierteljahrhundert lang
Mutter gewesen war und Frau, aber das konnte sie
vergessen mit der Zeit, als sie so geworden war
wie eine anständige Frau werden mußte
klüger als die Großmutter, ergebener als die Tanten
sparsamer in der Küche und in der Liebe als eine
der das Glück in den Schoß gefallen war
als sie genug Krümel von der Tischdecke geschnippt
als sie die Hoffnung begraben hatte, einmal eine Dame
im Pelz zu sein wie in den Modeheften vor dem Krieg
die sie immer noch hinten in der Speisekammer hütete
als sie anfing, den Töchtern ins Gesicht zu sehen
auf der Suche nach Spuren, die sie im eigenen Gesicht
nicht fand, als sie nicht mehr vor Angst aufwachte
weil sie vom Bügeleisen geträumt hatte
das nicht ausgeschaltet war, als sie schon manchmal
wagte, die Beine am frühen Nachmittag
übereinanderzuschlagen, fraß sich ein Krebs
in ihre Gebärmutter, wuchs und wucherte
und drängte meine Mutter langsam aus dem Leben.

2
Zehn Tage nach ihrem Tod war sie im Traum plötzlich
wieder da. Als hätte jemand gerufen, zog es mich
zum Fenster der früheren Wohnung. Auf der Straße
winkten vier Typen aus einem zerbeulten VW
einer drückte dabei auf die Hupe. So ungefähr
sahen die Berliner Freunde vor fünf Jahren aus.
Da winkt vom Rücksitz auch eine Frau:
meine Mutter. Zuerst sehe ich sie
halb versteckt hinter ihren neuen Bekannten.
Dann sehe ich nur noch sie
ganz groß wie im Kino, dann ihren mageren weißen Arm
auf dem auch in Nahaufnahme kein einziges Härchen
zu sehen ist. Wenn sie eilig am Gasherd hantierte
hatten ihr die Flammen häufig die Haare versengt.
Am Handgelenk trägt sie den silbernen Armreif
den ihr mein Vater noch vor der Verlobung geschenkt hat.
Mir hat sie ihn vererbt. Ich die gebohnerten Treppen hinab.
An der Haustür höre ich schon ein Kichern: Mama!
rufe ich, der Nachsatz will mir nicht über die Lippen.
Meine Mutter sitzt eingeklemmt zwischen zwei
lachenden Jungen. So fröhlich war sie lange nicht mehr.
Willst du nicht mitfahren? fragt sie. Aber im Auto
ist doch kein Platz, sage ich und blicke
verlegen durch ihre seidige Bluse
so eine trug sie zu Lebzeiten nie
auf ihre junge, noch ganz spitze Mädchenbrust
und denke, ich muß den Vater rufen. Da heult schon
der Motor auf, die klapprige Tür wird von innen
zugeworfen. An der Haustür könnte ich mich ohrfeigen.
Nicht einmal die Autonummer habe ich mir gemerkt.

german | Ursula Krechel

I
Als meine Mutter ein Vierteljahrhundert lang
Mutter gewesen war und Frau, aber das konnte sie
vergessen mit der Zeit, als sie so geworden war
wie eine anständige Frau werden mußte
klüger als die Großmutter, ergebener als die Tanten
sparsamer in der Küche und in der Liebe als eine
der das Glück in den Schoß gefallen war
als sie genug Krümel von der Tischdecke geschnippt
als sie die Hoffnung begraben hatte, einmal eine Dame
im Pelz zu sein wie in den Modeheften vor dem Krieg
die sie immer noch hinten in der Speisekammer hütete
als sie anfing, den Töchtern ins Gesicht zu sehen
auf der Suche nach Spuren, die sie im eigenen Gesicht
nicht fand, als sie nicht mehr vor Angst aufwachte
weil sie vom Bügeleisen geträumt hatte
das nicht ausgeschaltet war, als sie schon manchmal
wagte, die Beine am frühen Nachmittag
übereinanderzuschlagen, fraß sich ein Krebs
in ihre Gebärmutter, wuchs und wucherte
und drängte meine Mutter langsam aus dem Leben.

2
Zehn Tage nach ihrem Tod war sie im Traum plötzlich
wieder da. Als hätte jemand gerufen, zog es mich
zum Fenster der früheren Wohnung. Auf der Straße
winkten vier Typen aus einem zerbeulten VW
einer drückte dabei auf die Hupe. So ungefähr
sahen die Berliner Freunde vor fünf Jahren aus.
Da winkt vom Rücksitz auch eine Frau:
meine Mutter. Zuerst sehe ich sie
halb versteckt hinter ihren neuen Bekannten.
Dann sehe ich nur noch sie
ganz groß wie im Kino, dann ihren mageren weißen Arm
auf dem auch in Nahaufnahme kein einziges Härchen
zu sehen ist. Wenn sie eilig am Gasherd hantierte
hatten ihr die Flammen häufig die Haare versengt.
Am Handgelenk trägt sie den silbernen Armreif
den ihr mein Vater noch vor der Verlobung geschenkt hat.
Mir hat sie ihn vererbt. Ich die gebohnerten Treppen hinab.
An der Haustür höre ich schon ein Kichern: Mama!
rufe ich, der Nachsatz will mir nicht über die Lippen.
Meine Mutter sitzt eingeklemmt zwischen zwei
lachenden Jungen. So fröhlich war sie lange nicht mehr.
Willst du nicht mitfahren? fragt sie. Aber im Auto
ist doch kein Platz, sage ich und blicke
verlegen durch ihre seidige Bluse
so eine trug sie zu Lebzeiten nie
auf ihre junge, noch ganz spitze Mädchenbrust
und denke, ich muß den Vater rufen. Da heult schon
der Motor auf, die klapprige Tür wird von innen
zugeworfen. An der Haustür könnte ich mich ohrfeigen.
Nicht einmal die Autonummer habe ich mir gemerkt.

Onüç Karakuşa Birden Bakmanın Tek Yolu

turkish | Gökçenur Ç.

1.

Geceyle çarpıştı onüç karakuş
yıldızlar darmadağın
gece kanat çırpıyor

2.

Tek sıra tünediler sarı bir kule vincin bomuna
Boşaldı güverteler. Yüklendi onüç karakuşu
gece bandıralı gemi.

O günden sonra
kaptanın karaya hiç ayak basmadığı
ve küçük bir fırtınanın
gemiyi tedbirli bir uzaklıktan izlediği söylenir

3.

“Tahran’a mı?” dedim
“Ordan geliyoruz zaten” dedi biri
“Rumeli?”
“Kahveciye on beş lira borç taktık orda”
“Pazariçi?”
“Oralıyız biz, orda ağaçlar onüç karakuşun
adlarını yüksek sesle söyleyerek uzar”


4.

Kuyunun dibinde dolunay

Onüç karakuş kanat çırpmadan dönüyor
kuyunun üstünde

Kış uzun sürecek ve uykusu hafif olacak ağaçların

5.

“Yeni bir ad ver bana” dedi

adına alışırsa uçamaz karakuşlar

“bana yeni bir ad ver
geçen yıl nisanın yerini söyleyeyim sana”

6.

Biçilmiş bir tarlaya indiler
sevişmiştim bu tarlada
başakların sapları uzunken
gecelerden

7.

Bir serçe
bir saka, bir karga,
bir martı, bir iskete

Hepimiz rüzgârla yıldızlar arasında
bir seçim yapmak zorunda kaldık
bir karakuşa dönüşmeden önce


8.

Rüzgârım der karakuşlar,
yaşamım işte, işlerim,
işte dünyanın denizleri, işte denizin maviliği,
biz buyuz, seniniz,
bu bizim yağmurumuz,

Kimsenin olmayan şeyler yoktur karakuşlara göre

9.

Onlarla aramızda
ölmek fiilinin
karakuşların dilinde
gelecek zamandan başka bir kipte
kullanılmamasından kaynaklanan
yanlış anlaşmalar var

Amaçsız dolaşıyorum kırlarda
çimenler adımlarımı bir şiir gibi okuyor

10.

Gücünü gölgesinden alır dağ dedi karakuş
Gölgesinin altında gölgeleriniz var

Artık konuşmayalım
yanlış bir kelime söylersek
yeniden başlayabilir zaman

11.

Yine bir savaştan dönmüşüm yenik
anahtarlığım masada

Onüç karakuş dizilmiş pencerenin pervazına


12.

Ay buzdan bir gong
karakuşlar geçti önünden
kısacık bir gölge tiyatrosu

Gömdük birini sardunya saksısına

13.

Oturmuştum pencerenin önüne
denizlikten havalandım.

열 세 마리 독수리를 한꺼번에 보는 유일한 방법

1.

열 세 마리의 독수리가 밤과 부딪혔다
별들이 어수선하다
밤은 날개 짓 한다.

2.

한 줄로 홰에 올라 앉았다 노란 탑 기중기의 팔에
갑판은 텅 비고, 열 세 마리 독수리가 앉았다
밤 깃발을 달고 있는 배

그날 이후
선장은 전혀 육지에 발을 들여 놓지 않았고
작은 폭풍이
배를 신중하게 먼 곳에서 지켜보았다고 한다.

3.

“테헤란에요?” 내가 물었다
“우리는 사실 그곳에서 왔습니다.” 누군가 이렇게 말했다.
“루멜리?”
“이곳에서 찻집에 십오 리라 외상을 졌습니다.”
“파자르이치?”
“우리는 그곳 사람들입니다, 그곳에는 나무들이 열 세 마리 독수리의
이름을 높은 소리로 부르며 자랍니다.”

4.

우물 바닥에 보름달

열 세 마리 독수리는 날개 짓을 하지 않고 돈다
우물 위에서

겨울은 길 것이고 나무는 선잠을 잘 것이다.

5.

“나한테 새로운 이름을 지어줘.”라고 말했다

이름에 익숙해지면 날지 않는다 독수리들은

“나한테 새로운 이름은 지어 줘
작년 4월의 장소를 말할게 네게”

6.

수확이 끝난 논에 내려 앉았다
나는 사랑을 나눴다 이 논에서
이삭 줄기들이 길 때
어느 날 밤

참새 한 마리
되새 한 마리, 까마귀 한 마리
갈매기 한 마리, 박새 한 마리

우리 모두는 바람과 별들 중
선택을 해야만 했다
독수리로 변하기 전에

8.

내 바람이야, 라고 말한다 독수리들은,
내 삶이야, 나의 일이야,
세상의 바다들, 바다의 푸르름
우리는 이래, 우리는 너의 것이야.
이건 우리의 비야,

그 누구도 없는 것들은 없다 독수리 생각에

9.

그들과 우리 사이에
죽다라는 동사는
독수리의 언어에서
미래 이외의 다른 시제에서
사용되지 않는 것 때문에 생긴
오해가 있다

나는 정처 없이 거닐고 있다 들판에서
잔디들이 나의 발걸음을 시처럼 읽는다

10.

힘을 산의 그림자에서 얻지, 라고 말했다 독수리는
그의 그림자 밑에 당신들의 그림자가 있다

이제 말하지 말자
틀린 단어를 말하게 되면
다시 시작될 수 있다 시간이

11.

나는 다시 전쟁에서 돌아왔다 패배한 채
나의 열쇠고리는 테이블에

열 세 마리 독수리가 늘어서 있다 창틀에

12.

달은 얼음으로 된 징
독수리들이 그 앞을 지나갔다
짧은 그림자 연극

우리는 한 마리를 제라늄 화분에 파묻었다

13.

나는 창 앞에 앉아 있었다
날아올랐다 창턱에서.

Varans avlämnande, varans avhämtande

swedish | Ida Börjel

8b § Varan är avlämnad när den är i köparens
besittning. Sker det över kassa, se om möjligt till
att bägge parter samtidigt och med öppna sinnen
håller i varan innan dess att säljaren släpper taget,
minimera det tidsförlopp då vara svävar i luften, på
väg bort från sin säljare, på väg fram till sin
köpare, för att således undvika den problematik
som uppstår när varan går sönder, glider mellan
fingrarna, flyr eller på annat sätt går om intet efter
det att säljaren släppt, innan dess att köparen
fångat.

Dostava blaga, prevzem blaga

8b § Blago je prevzeto, ko je
v lasti kupca. Če se to zgodi pri blagajni,
naj, če je mogoče, oba partnerja hkrati
in z odprtimi očmi držita blago, preden ga
prodajalec spusti iz rok, minimizirajte
čas, ko je blago v zraku, na poti
od svojega prodajalca, na poti k svojemu
kupcu, in se tako izognite
problematiki, ki nastane, če se blago
uniči, zdrsne med prsti, zbeži ali se
na drug način pokvari, po tem, ko ga je
prodajalec spustil, preden ga je kupec zagrabil.

When do you plant a gestaded cannabis seed

Our systems have detected unusual traffic activity from your network. Please complete this reCAPTCHA to demonstrate that it’s you making the requests and not a robot. If you are having trouble seeing or completing this challenge, this page may help. If you continue to experience issues, you can contact JSTOR support.

Block Reference: #21b3a26e-9956-11ec-898a-6b6c68777352
VID: #
IP: 185.231.154.88
Date and time: Tue, 01 Mar 2022 11:52:55 GMT

Recorder Home Page

Flemish painter who was one of the first artists to introduce the style of the Italian Renaissance into the Low Countries, painted portraits and religious and mythological subjects; born County of Hainaut [now in Netherlands] (ca 1478), died Breda, Brabant (ca 1532).

    (c.1513), altarpiece, centre panel (recto): Virgin and Child, oil on panel, 44.5 × 35.0 cm, (centre panel), 45 × 17.5 cm (wings) Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Palermo: Galleria Regionale della Sicilia Palazzo Abatellis. Ref. Glück (1928: 307); Wescher (1970: 101); Friedländer (1972, 8: 2, pl. 4–5); Thomson (1968: 74 & pl. op. p. 32, b&w); Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University, 371.G698.34[a]); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Website: Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium (2010, b&w); Website: Friedländer 3.0 Database (2016, col.); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1680 (2022, col.) The Virgin and Child are enthroned in a window surrounded by Gothic tracery of exquisite design. In the background are the buildings and gardens of a palace. In the foreground, three putti sing and others play lute and a cylindrical duct flute (flageolet or recorder), probably a recorder since all fingers of the player’s lowermost (left) hand seem to be covering their holes. There is a single turned bead on the foot-piece. Above the recorder player a boy offers a flower to the Child. A moulding at the bottom of the Virgin’s throne includes fragments of a signature: (J)ENNIN … GOS(SART)
  • Altarpiece: Virgin and Child, with Saint Andrew and Donor (1500–1584 ), oil on panel, 38 × 30 cm (centre panel), 38 × 9 cm (wings), after Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Private collection; Catalina von Pannwitz. Ref. Friedländer: (1972, 8: No. 002c); Website: Friedländer 3.0 Database (2016, b&w); Website: Restitutiecommissie (2016, Recommendation 1.80). This has been attributed to Adriaen Isenbrant (510–1551) and possibly Peter Pourbus (1543–1584). The centre panel is more or less identical to that of the Malvagna Triptych (see above). St Andrew can be recognized by his book and X-shaped cross. , oil on panel, 90.8 × 62.8 cm, after Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Location unknown: formerly in the collection of Freiherr von Hövel, Gnadenthal; sold by Sotheby’s Parke Bernet, 16 June 1977, Lot 151; auctioned by Bonham’s New York, “Old Master Paintings”, Sale 13698, 27 January 2006, Lot 215. Ref. Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Website: Bonhams (2006, col.) A copy of the centre-panel of Mabuse’s Malvagna Triptych which has the same group at the left (a right-handed lute player and three singers). It also has the recorder player at the right who seems to have got the fingers and thumb of his uppermost (left) hand in quite a muddle! , oil on panel, 33 × 23 cm, after Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Basel: Kunstmuseum. Formerly in the collection of Freiherr von Hövel, Gnadenthal; sold by Sotheby’s Parke Bernet, New York, 19-20, January 1940, Lot 217. Ref. Friedländer (1972, 8: no 002a); Website: Friedländer 3.0 Database (2016, col) Similar to the centre-panel of the Malvigna Tryptich, but without the three singers or the boy handing a flower to the Child. , oil on panel, 34 × 24 cm, after Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). London: Colnaghi Ref. Friedländer (1972, 8: no. 002b); Website: Friedländer 3.0 Database (2016, col) A copy of the centre-panel of Mabuse’s Malvagna Triptych which has the same group at the left (a right-handed lute player and three singers). It also has the recorder player at the right who seems to have got the fingers and thumb of his uppermost (left) hand in quite a muddle! , oil on panel, 34 × 24 cm, after Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Location unknown, formerly Collection of Baron E. de Rothschild. Ref. Friedländer (1972, 8: no 002d); Website: Friedländer 3.0 Database (2016, col) A copy of the centre-panel of Mabuse’s Malvagna Triptych which has the same group at the left (a right-handed lute player and three singers). It also has the recorder player at the right who seems to have got the fingers and thumb of his uppermost (left) hand in quite a muddle!
  • Virgin and Child, copy by Adriaen Isenbrandt (op. 1510–m. 1551) after Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Location unknown. Ref. Friedländer (1976, 11: #134, pl. 112); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). A copy of the centre-panel of Mabuse’s Malvagna Triptych See above. Not seen.
  • Virgin and Child, after Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Location unknown; sold, New York (1988). Ref. Burlington Magazine 130 (1988, p. xvii, col); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002- col.); Himjans (2005: 219). A copy of the centre-panel of Mabuse’s Malvagna Triptych which has the same group at the left (a lute player and three singers), but the lute player is left handed! It also has the recorder player at the right. See above.
  • Virgin and Child, after Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Location unknown: formerly in the collection of Lord Northbrook. Ref. Friedländer (1972, 8: pl. 7/2b); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). A copy of the centre-panel of Mabuse’s Malvagna Triptych See above. Not seen.
  • Tryptich, central panel: The Adoration of the Kings (?1506), oil on wood, 177.2 × 161.3 cm, circle of Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Detail. London: National Gallery, Inv. L878. Ref. National Gallery, London: Postcard 811861, col In the central panel, the kings pay homage to Mary and the infant Jesus surrounded by their retinue whilst angels hover above. In the foreground, a dog worries a bone, watched by a second hound. An alto recorder is held by one of the ?shepherds visible between the brickwork immediately behind the kneeling king. The instrument has a longish beak and a very clearly depicted window/labium. No finger holes are visible because of the shadow on the instrument and its being clutched in the man’s right hand, but the bell end and bore opening are very clear, the latter seemingly expanding at its lower end. Notes after Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999). On the left panel, the Virgin and Child are shown in glory; on the right, the Virgin and apostles are shown at Pentecost with the Holy Spirit descending in the form of a dove.
  • Triptych, central panel: The Holy Family with St Catherine and St Barbara(ca 1505), oil on panel, 50 × 31 cm, Jan Mabuse (ca 1478–ca 1532). Detail. Lisbon: Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Inv. 1479. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999); Liesbeth van der Sluijs (pers. comm., 2001); Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium (2010, col & b&w). In the central panel, two winged angels to the right of the Holy Family play a small lute and a long, cylindrical flared-bell recorder. The characteristic beak and window/labium of the latter are clearly depicted, and the players’ hands are perfectly positioned for a recorder. To the left of this panel two winged angels play rebec and an obscure instrument. Some authorities have argued for a slightly later date of ca 1510–1515. The left and right panels, by the Master of Frankfurt (op. 1460–1520), depict St Catherine of Alexandria and St Barbara.

Cyrillo Volkmar [Cirillo Wolkmar] Machado

Portuguese painter, as well as an art and architectural historian of the late eighteenth century; his paintings included allegorical and mythological subjects; born and died Lisbon (1748–1823).

  • Mercury About to Kill the Sleeping Argus with his Sword, pen & ink drawing from an original print, Cyrillo Volkmar Machado (1748–1823). Exhibited Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (2000). Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm. 2000). After an original print in the collection of the Museu de Arte Antigua, Lisbon. Probably intended as a tile (azuelo) design. A possible recorder lies on the ground. It has a clearly beaked mouth-piece and window/labium but only five finger holes, in line and equally spaced, are shown (no part of the instrument is occluded). The bell end has no flare. It could be a flageolet or shepherd’s pipe, slightly carelessly depicted. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000).

Jacopo di Zanobi Macchiavelli [Macchiavello]

Italian painter and illuminator who specialised in religious pieces; he was a pupil of Benozzo Gozzoli (1420–1497); born Florence (1418), died Pisa (1479).

    (1473), oil on wood, ca 170 × 170 cm, Jacopo di Zanobi Macchiavelli (1418–1479). Dijon: Musée des Beaux-Arts, Cat. 81 H.164 L164. Ref. Mirimonde et al. (1965: pl. IV); Winternitz (1979: 142–144, pl. 68, b&w; 1982: 61 & pl. 49); Wiese (1988: fig. 10, b&w); Archiv Moeck; Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001, 2003 & 2005; 2007: 41 & fig. 2, col); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Website: Lessing Photo Archive (2013, col) Watched by four saints, the Virgin is crowned by Jesus to an accompaniment provided by three groups of angel musicians, two haut and one bas. The top left-hand group comprises bagpipe, pipe and tabor, triangle and two folded trumpets. The right group, two folded trumpets, tambourine (with jingle rings) and cymbals. The bottom central group of four play fiddle, lute, soprano recorder, and one sings although his lips are closed. The recorder is cylindrical, with the mouth-piece, including the whole rather narrow window-labium area, in a pale or white material. The lips are relaxed, likewise the cheeks. the wrists are low, suggesting the existence of a thumb hole, and all four fingers of the upper (right) hand are down, with the second lifted – a fingering peculiar to the recorder. The artist has shown the lower two holes a little too far up from the instrument’s flared bell end, where the wide bore is clearly seen. The instrument is turned slightly towards the viewer as if to show the whole of the window/labium area, and clarify the fingering. Annotated OPUS CENOBI DEMACHIAVELLIS MCCCCLXXIII. Originally from Santa Croce in Fossabanda, Pisa.

James McArdell

Irish engraver; his output includes some 200 mezzotints after other artists, nearly all of which are portraits; he also produced prints after Rembrandt, Peter Paul Rubens, William Hogarth and others; born Dublin (? 1728), died London (1765). See also Jan Miense Molenaer (ca 1610-1668).

    (1748), mezzotint, 43.0 × 30.5 cm, by James McArdell (1728/9–1765) after a painting by Thomas Jenkins (ca 1722–1798). The Hague: Gemeentesmuseum, Music Department; London: British Muusem No. 1871,1209.2691. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001); Website: Historische Portraits bedeutender Persönlichkeiten (2009). The whereabouts of the painting on which this engraving is based is unknown. It purports to illustrate the five-year-old Benjamin Hallet (wearing a dress with a bodice and hair curled, as was fashionable for both boys and girls at that time) playing the cello. Beneath it says:

A Child not yet five Years Old, who under the tuition of Oswald, Performed on the flute at Drury Lane Theatre an o 1748 for 50 Nights with extraordinary Skill & Applause, and in the following year was able to play his part in any Concert on the Violincello.

Adam McCauley

Contemporary USA illustrator, drummer and surfer who lives in Oakland, California. Adam’s Home Page.

  • Cover: American Recorder 41 (2): Snake Charmer (2000), Adam McCauley (contemporary). A leptomorphic snake-charmer, surrounded by smiling reptiles, plays his neo-baroque recorder.

Buddy McCue

Contemporary USAmerican artist, ukulele player and composer; born Chatanooga (1965).

    (before December 2011), oil painting, Buddy McCue (1965–). On a table lie four books (one open), a goat-skin drum, a violin and a neo-baroque alto recorder with ivory (or plastic) mounts.

Donald McKinlay

British sculptor, painter, draughtsman and printmaker living and working in Cloughfold, Lancashire; political events around the world and the reporting of them in the popular press have provided him with source material for a number of years; most of his work relates to human figure and everyday situations; born Bootle (1929).

    (1979), watercolour and pencil, 76 × 56 cm, Donald McKinlay (1929–). Nantwich: Peter Wilson Fine Art Auctioneers, February Fine Art, 16 February 2011, Lot 521. A naked woman sitting in a chair plays an alto neo-baroque recorder.

MacRegol

Irish scribe, Bishop and Abbot of Birr; is one of the few artists of the Early Christian Period whose name we know because he signed his book at the end:

“Macregol illuminated these gospels. Whoever reads and understands this narration, pray for Macreguil the scribe.”

His illuminated manuscript copy of the Four Gospels is now in the, Bodleian Library in Oxford, one of the greatest treasures there. It was only in 1814 that Fr. Charles O’Conor of the O’Conor Don family saw the connection between the Macregol of this book and the entries in the Irish Annals about the year 821:

“Macriagoil Ua Magleni, Scribe, Abbot, Bishop of Birr, died.”

Subsequently, the manuscript got another name, The Book of Birr, in addition to Macregol’s Gospels, and it is also called The Rushworth Gospels after the man who presented it to the Bodleian library in the seventeenth century. Macregol was illuminating his gospels at about the same time as the anonymous scribes of the Book of Kells. His script is similar to their scripts, one of which is featured on the back of the Irish five pound note but his illumination is not as elaborate. The cover and some pages are missing but the book is otherwise in good condition.

  • Decoration, from the Rushworth Gospels (2nd half of the 8th century), MacRegol (m. 822). Oxford: Bodleian Library, MS. Auct. D.2.19. Ref. Westwood & Zaczek (1996: 114–115, pl. 44, col); Buckley (1991: 182, fig. 47). A bearded man with an elaborate hat plays a small pipe, possibly a duct flute; his thumb is held up in the air.

Macrino d’Alba [Gian Giacomo de Alladio or Fava; il ‘Macrino’]

Italian artist; his work is characterised by its rich interwoven colours, firm design and vibrant chiaroscuro; painted religious subjects; born Alba (ca 1465–1470), died ca 1528.

    (1498), tempera on panel, 233 × 390 cm, Macrino d’Alba (ca 1465/70–ca 1528). Turin: Galleria Sabauda, Inv. 246. Ref. Toesca (1911: 50); Viale (1939: pl. 88); d’Ancona & Gengaro (1953: 320 – fig.); Piana (1962: pl. IX, col); Gabrielli (1971: fig. 204, pl. 89); Humfrey & Kemp (1990: 139); Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University, 372.M259.34[b]; Rasmussen (1999, Lute). “Mannerist angels play rebec and lute. The Virgin’s throne levitates. The angels are in what would be the conventional position below the throne, if it were there. There are also a couple of musical putti, one holding a recorder (?), the other blowing a crumhorn” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) The Saints are John the Baptist, James, Jerome and Peter.
  • Translation of Saint Demeure (1490), wood, 154 × 146 cm, Macrino d’Alba (ca 1465/70–ca 1528). Location unknown: sold Hôtel Rameau, Versailles, 1 February 1970. Ref. Hôtel Rameau, Sale Catalogue No. 59 (1 February 1970), Paris RIdIM (2000). The Virgin and Child enthroned levitate above a church accompanied by angel putti some of whom play musical instruments including a lute and a pipe (possibly a recorder). Two figures stand either side, presumably the Saint before and after beatification since that on the right has a halo and the other lacks one.

Paul Madeline

French painter who lived and worked in Paris at a time when both the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist movements were dominating the French scene; he is known chiefly for his landscapes which depicted the French countryside in sumptuous colour and in loose brushstrokes; born 1863, died Paris (1920).

  • Recorder Player, oil painting, 38.1 × 17.8 cm, Paul Madeline (1863–1920). Brussels: Horta, 8 December 1997, Lot 170 . Ref. Website: Artfact (2004). Not seen.

Madonna Master

Early fourteenth-century English illuminator, one of two artists who contributed miniatures to the ‘De Lisle Psalter’, a courtly book for which no expense was spared and which in its refined elegance is typical of the Decorated Style under King Edward II in Westminster, one of the finest and most perfect embodiments of Gothic art. This artist has been linked with Canterbury because of a set of trial drawings he appears to have executed which survive in a book owned by St Augustine’s Canterbury in the 14th century. It is also certainly the case that the artist of the annunciation panels on the rear of the sedilia at Westminster Abbey (usually dated ca 1307) are, as Lucy Freeman Sandler (1999) first suggested, the work of the Madonna Master working on a much larger scale.

  • Psalter of Robert de Lisle: Scenes from the Childhood of Christ: Annunciation to the Shepherds (ca 1310), attributed to the Madonna Master (early 14th century). London: British Library, Arundel 83 II, f. 124r. Ref. Freeman Sandler (1999); British Library: Images Online (2005). The Psalter of Robert de Lisle is a great monument of the European Gothic style and among the finest manuscripts displayed in the British Library’s permanent exhibition at the Sir John Ritblat Gallery. Six scenes from the childhood of Christ depict Nativity, Annunciation to the Shepherds, Circumcision, Adoration of the Magi, Presentation of Christ in the Temple with Joseph carrying the offering of turtle doves, and Flight into Egypt. In the latter, an idol topples from a pagan altar as Christ passes. The Annunciation to the Shepherds depicts Gabriel holding a banner bearing the words “Gloria in Excelis Deo”, above three shepherds with their sheep. Two of the shepherds gesture upwards. One plays a slender cylindrical pipe with the hint of a window/labium and thus probably a duct flute.

Mariano Salvador de Maella

Spanish painter and engraver who became painter of the chamber to the king and director general of the Academia Real de Bellas Artes de San Fernando; born Valencia (1739), died Madrid (1819).

  • Ceiling fresco, attributed to Mariano de Maella (1739–1819). Madrid: Palacio Real, Royal Library, now the musical instrument museum (in the room next to the Stradivarius Room). Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “Three women musicians, one a singer with music on a table nearby, another holds what seems to be a small recorder in her right hand. The beak and window/labium are clear, but there is no more detailing” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)

Girolamo di Francesco Magagni [ditto Giomo del Sodoma or Girolamo da Siena]

Italian painter; born and died Siena (1507–1562).

  • Glory of Angels (1550), Girolamo di Francesco Magagni (1507–1562). Detail. Siena: Museo dell’Opera del Duomo. Ref. Bolaffi (1972-1976: pl. 131, b&w); Paolo Biordi (2002, pers. comm.) On each side of a central angel seated on a cloud reading from a banner, two angel musicians sing and play long cylindrical tenor-sized recorders. The one on the right is particularly well depicted and the beak, window/labium, finger holes and slightly flared bell are clearly visible.

Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto [or Majotto]

Italian painter whose early works adhere to the expressive formulae of his teacher, Piazzetta, and are concentrated on genre subjects characterised by a plasticity of form and a strong preference for chiaroscuro effects; his later paintings display a tendency towards impersonal eclecticism; born and died Venice (1712–1794); father of the painter Francesco Maggiotto (1738–1805).

  • Flageolet Player, 57.5 × 45.5 cm, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794), Private Collection. Ref. ? Sale Catalogue; Paris RIdIM (2000). A young, rather petulant looking boy holds in his right hand a small duct flute (probably a flageolet, as the title suggests) with a long beak and a turned and flared bell. Only two finger holes are visible. , oil on canvas, 67.0 × 49.5 cm, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794). Milan: Antic Swiss. The young man is shown turned three-quarters, with a small duct flute (probably a recorder) in his right hand, while with the other he lightly touches the musical score placed in front of him. His intense and determined gaze is turned to the spectator, as if this had unexpectedly interrupted his exercise. (ca 1740), oil on canvas, 72 × 57 cm, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794). Venice: Ca’ Rezzonico, Museo del Settecento Veneziano. Ref. Ruggeri et al. (1983: 157, item. 63). A young boy with a tassel over his left shoulder holds a small turned baroque recorder. Modeled on an original by Piazzetta. , oil on canvas, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794). Location unknown: Auctioned by Finarte, 9 December 1999 (sold). Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, b&w). A young boy holds a soprano, flared-bell recorder over his right shoulder. The beak, window/labium and four finger holes are visible (the others are hidden underneath his hand, the lowermost of which is slightly offset to the player’s left). Modelled on an original by Piazzetta. Offered for sale with a pendant entitled Mandolin Player in which a buxom lass plays a mandolin. , oil on canvas, 70 × 50 cm, Domenico-Fideli Maggiotto (1712–1794). Vienna: Dorotheum, 12 December 2011, Lot 158; formerly Finarte, 24 November 1999 (unsold); Dorotheum, Vienna, 21 March 2002. Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.); Dorotheum, auction catalogue (2002, col.) A young boy holds a soprano, flared-bell recorder over his right shoulder. The beak, window/labium and four finger holes are visible (the others are hidden underneath his hand, the lowermost of which is slightly offset to the player’s left). Modeled on an original by Piazzetta.
  • Boy with a Recorder (ca 1740), oil on canvas, 59.7 × 45.7 cm, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794). New York: Sotheby’s, 3 October 1996, Lot 1003. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001); Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.); Website: Artfact (2003). A young boy holds a soprano, flared-bell recorder over his right shoulder. The beak, window/labium and five finger holes are visible (the others are hidden underneath his hand, the lowermost of which is slightly offset to the player’s left). Auctioned with another work by the same artist (a pendant) entitled Girl with a Tambourine. , oil on canvas, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794). Location unknown. Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.) A young woman leans on her elbow holding a gourd and a stave in the crook of her left arm. Beside and slightly behind her, a younger boy plays a pipe the details of which are obscure, but his fingers are well disposed for recorder playing an the little finger of his lowermost (left) hand is outstretched to cover its hole. Reminiscent of Piazzetta’s style.
  • Shepherd Lad with a Flute, oil on canvas, 71 × 53 cm, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794) OR Giuseppe Angeli (1710–1798). Stockholm: Universitet, No. 64. Ref. RIdIM Stockholm (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). A shepherd leans on his left elbow holding an alto late-baroque recorder in his right hand cradled in the crook of his left elbow. The lower end of the recorder is out of frame.
  • Loving Couple, 83 × 59 cm, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794). Location unknown: offered for sale by Siegfried Kuhnke – Gallerie Hofmarkmühle, Pähl am Ammersee, 1994. Ref. Weltkunst 64: 22, col. (1994); Constance Scholten (pers. comm., 2005). A young man holding a rather thick one-piece baroque-style recorder with a widely flared bell leans towards his buxom female companion.
  • A Young Man Holding a Flute, with a Young Woman Beyond, oil on canvas, 54.5. × 43.0 cm, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794). Location unknown: Sotheby’s (New York), Sale N08282, “Important Old Master Paintings and European Works of Art”, Lot 196, 26 January 2007 (sold). Ref. Sale Catalogue (2007, col.) A young man grips a renaissance-style recorder fiercely in one hand gazing intently at a young woman at his shoulder whose look is equally intense. , engraving, tondo, 22 × 19 cm, Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794). Venice: Museo Correr. Three youths sing and play a colascione (long-necked lute), and a slender, cylindrical duct flute, possibly a recorder, the beak of which is clearly depicted.
  • [Dancers] (1770-1800), etching, 33.5 × 42.8 cm, by Francesco del Pedro (1749–1806) after Domenico-Fedeli Maggiotto (1712–1794). London: British Museum, Inv. 1871,0812.3859. Ref. Website, British Museum (2012, b&w). Printed by Nicolo Cavalli (1730–1822). Outside a rural inn a young couple dance to a recorder played by a young man. A woman with a tambourine sits on the ground at right with a companion. A man with a jug of wine sits at a trestle table at the left. The recorder is of alto-size, in one piece, the window/labium clearly depicted, the bell flared, and the player’s hands and fingers are perfectly disposed for recorder playing. Lettered with lines taken from Horace, Odes 2.16:

Laetus in praesens animus
quod ultra est: oderit
curare et amara lento temperet risu.
Nihil est ab omni parte beatum.

A soul happy for the present
disdains to be concerned about what is beyond
and tempers bitterness with a slow smile.
Nothing is blessed forever.

Alessandro Magnasco [Il Lissandrino]

Italian artist of the Genoese school; painted rococo style religious subjects, fantastic, often phantasmagoric genre scenes and landscapes, architectural ruins, and depictions of torture of prisoners and of other low-points of humanity; born and died Genoa (1667–1749); son of artist Stefano Magnasco (1635–1681).

    , Alessandro Magnasco (1667–1749). Bergamo: Private Collection. Ref. Abbiati (1939, b&w); Angelo Zaniol (pers. comm., 2003). On a terrace, musicians play a torban (a long-necked lute with a series of unfretted strings above the trebles), a rectangular harpsichord and a viol. The harpsichordist also sings, as does a child beside him. A figure with a floral crown standing behind the torban player mimics him. Another person stands behind the harpsichord, drumming his fingers on the lid on which a bird is perched. On the floor in the middle of the picture a small child bangs a tambourine. A cat runs towards a slender, conical pipe (possibly a recorder) which lies on the floor beside the child. (1730–1735), oil on canvas, 33.9 × 46.5 cm, Alessandro Magnasco (1667–1749). Paris: Louvre, Inv. RF 2619. Ref. Wikimedia Commons (2014, col) Surrounded by their tents, a band of gypsies relax around an enormous banquet table, the bride at one end, the groom at the other. In the centre, a man tunes a long-necked lute; to the left, another plays a harp; to the right, a young boy sitting astride a bench plays a small pipe, possibly a duct flute. There is a pendant to this at at the Gemälde Galerie, Berlin, entitled Gypsy Wedding Procession.

Carlo Magnone (17th century), Italian

    (1642), Carlo Magnone (17th century). Rome: Palazzo Barberini. Ref. Thomson & Rowland-Jones (1995: 42, pl. 15a, inset 2, b&w); Greetings Card: Closerie #5064 (1996, col); CD Cover: Sonate per Flauto e Basso Continuo, Poema Harmonico, Lindoro MPC-0702, Sevilla (1998, detail, col) A variant copy of the original by Caravaggio. A young woman plays a lute, her music books on a table in front of her with a flared-bell recorder (with paired holes for the lowermost finger), violin, and miniature spinet. A similar painting sold at auction by Sotheby’s in New York in 2001 as the work of Magnone is now thought to be by Caravaggio himself. There is no recorder and there is a vase of flowers on the table.

Gian-Francesco de Maineri

Italian painter active in the regions of Ferrare and Parma; known for sophisticated religious pieces; born ca 1460, died 1505.

    , oil and egg tempera on wood, 247 × 163.8 cm, Gian-Francesco de Maineri (ca 1460–1505) & Lorenzo Costa (ca 1459/60–1535). London: National Gallery NG1119. Ref. Rowland-Jones (1999d: 124, fig. 1, b&w). This work was painted for the high altar of the Oratory of the Conception, Ferrara (attached to the church of S. Francesco) and was probably commissioned by Carlo and Camillo Strozzi. At the base of the Virgin’s throne near the bottom of this large altarpiece is a predella with five scenes from the life of Christ which were painted by Maineri who began the picture – it was finished by Lorenzo Costa. Three of the five scenes are partly obscured by the legs of the two standing saints. The scene on the far right depicts the Nativity in which one of the shepherds appears to be playing a pipe. At this size, features of the instrument are not apparent; indeed it is just possible that we are looking at the end of a shepherd’s staff, but the position of the chin makes this unlikely. If it is an instrument, it is likely to be a duct flute.

Fray Juan Bautista Maíno [Mayno] de Castro

Spanish Dominican priest and painter; although he painted religious works, he is most highly regarded for his portraits, perhaps the most impressive of which is the formidably characterized Dominican Monk (Ashmolean, Oxford, c.1635); born Pastrana (1578), died Madrid (1649).

    (1612), oil on canvas, 315 cm × 174 cm, Fray Juan Bautista Maíno de Castro (1578–1649). Madrid: Museo Nacional del Prado. Mary prays at the foot of the crib. A shepherd kneels and kisses the infant’s hand; one, with his hand to his chest, brings in a goat; another, seemingly exhausted from his journey, lies slumped on the floor, with a basket of eggs and a lamb; and a boy leans against a stone, playing a narrowly conical pipe, probably a duct flute – a shawm would be far too loud for this occasion. An ass and a cow look on. In the foreground a dog lies curled up asleep. Above, angels lean out from their clouds pointing to the spectacle beneath.

Pat M. Mallinson, née Allman-Smith

British artist who taught at Farnborough Hill in Hampshire and was on the staff of the new Camden School of Art; she exhibited at the Royal Academy and her work is found in collections and galleries in Britain and overseas; many of her works include musical instruments; born London (1930), died 2008.

    , aquatint/etching on paper, 19 × 30 cm, Pat M. Mallinson (1930–2008). Website: Ebay, gallerybs3 (2009, col) A little girl sits on a chair playing a neo-baroque recorder to accompany her sister who is singing whilst leaning on the back of the chair.

Cornelis de Man

Seventeenth-century Netherlandish painter whose subjects include genre scenes, mercantile scenes, landscapes, church interiors.

    , 98 × 85 cm, Cornelis de Man (17th century). Budapest: Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, No. 320 (464). Ref. Bernt (1970, 2: #723); Paris RIdIM (1999). Watched by their cat, a couple play chess at a table seated on ornate chairs. On the wall behind them hangs a cittern. On the floor in front of the fire are a cat, a bellows and some sticks of wood. One of the latter resembles the beak and window/labium of a duct flute, for which it has been mistaken by RIdIM.

Jacobus Sibrandi Mancadan

Dutch artist and government official who served as burgomaster of Franeker from 1637 to 1639 and of Leeuwarden in 1645; his primary occupation, however, was painting; born Leeuwarden (1602), died Tjerkgaast (1680).

    , oil on panel, 40.0 × 49.5 cm, Jacobus Sibrandi Mancadan (1602–1680). Leeuwarden: Fries Museum. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie 21634 (2010, b&w). A flock of goats are browsing on a hillock beside a wall. On the slope of the hillock sits a shepherd playing a slender duct flute, probably a recorder.
  • Landscape, oil on panel, Jacobus Sibrandi Mancadan (1602–1680). Private collection. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie ex Antony Rowland-Jones (pers comm., 2001). A pastoral scene with cattle and a woman with garlands. In the foreground, next to a pitcher and a shepherd’s crook, is a soprano size duct flute with a very slight bell-flare, six finger holes in line, and an offset hole for the little finger of the lowermost hand.

Francesco Mancini

Italian painter; his art is rooted in the classicist tradition of Bologna and Emilia Romagna; his work is almost exclusively ecclesiastical, and he made a significant contribution to the development of the form and iconography of the altarpiece; born S. Angelo in Vado (1679), died Rome (1758).

    , Francesco Mancini (1679–1758). Rome: Santa Maria Maggiore. Ref. Postcard (2002: col.) The Christ-child is admired by shepherds and other visitors. Overhead angels hover, one playing a lute, another a slender, flared, tenor-sized pipe, possibly a recorder.

Karel [Carel] van Mander III

Flemish-born Dutch painter and poet, who is mainly remembered as a biographer of Netherlandish artists; an artist himself, he played an important role in Northern Mannerism in the Netherlands; his own pictures, which were mainly religious and allegorical, adopted the elongated forms of the mannerist style, but his later works showed a tendency towards naturalism; Frans Hals was probably his pupil; born Meulebeke (1548), died Heemskerk (1606).

  • Serenade, trompe l’oeil ceiling painting, Karel van Mander (1548–1606). Copenhagen: Amalienborg, Christian VII’s Palace Ref. Lassen et al. (1973: opp. p. 184); Rasmussen (2002, Bagpipe). “‘Peasants’ peering down ‘through the ceiling’ sing and play two bagpipes, flute, nine whistles or tiny recorders, and perhaps a jew’s harp. It must have been quite a serenade” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen. (ca 1639), red, white & black chalk on paper, oval, 553 × 397 mm, Karel van Mander III (1548–1606). Copenhagen: Statens Museum for Kunst, Kobberstiksammling. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie 65626 (2010, b&w). On old woman in a bonnet and wearing a beautiful smile holds a wide tenor renaissance-style recorder of which only the head and body are visible.
  • The Times of Day: Midday or The Passage of Phoebus (1621), See print by Jacob Matham (1571–1631).

Emmanuel Mané-Katz

Ukrainian/French painter and sculptor, of the main masters of “L’Ecole de Paris”; born into a religious Jewish family, he was much influenced by Jewish mysticism; his subjects include themes drawn from life in the ghettos of Eastern Europe, the rabbis and Talmudic students, the fiddlers and drummers, comedians and beggars; he also painted a number of landscapes and flower studies; later in life his style became expressionist and baroque, with loose brushwork and rhythmical forms; born 1894, died 1962.

    , Emmanuel Mané-Katz (1894–1962). Location unknown. Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, 20th Century (2002, b&w). A man in a long coat leans backwards playing a vertical flute, possibly a recorder, but more likely a kaval. , bronze figure, 36 cm high, Emmanuel Mané-Katz (1894–1962). Location unknown: Offered for sale by Matsa for Public Auctions (2002). Ref. Website: Matsa for Public Auctions (2002, col.) A man in a hat plays a vertical flute, possibly a recorder, since all fingers of the lowermost (right) hand are covering their holes, but more likely a kaval.

Bartolomeo Manfredi

Italian painter of the Roman school; a Carravaggist who specialised in low-life scenes of taverns, soldiers in guardrooms, card-playing, and the like; no works signed by or documented as his survive; born Mantua (1582), died Rome (p. 1622).

  • Figures Making Music Around a Table, oil on canvas, attributed to Bartolomeo Manfredi (1582–p. 1622). Amsterdam: Sotheby’s, Sale AM0805, Old Master Paintings and a Collection of Important Frames, 8 May 2001 (sold). Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.) Similar but not quite identical to Theodoor Rombouts’ A Musical Party (Auctioned by Sotheby’s, 19 April 2002). Sitting at a table, a theorbist and a recorder player accompany a singer who stands between them. A serving man brings them wine. On the table are open music books, a lute, a cittern and an unusual flute which appears to be made of ivory with a wooden insert in the head joint. The recorder is a near-cylindrical tenor with a one-keyed foot-joint and fontanelle. , oil on canvas, 122 × 145 cm, Bartolomeo Manfredi (1582–p. 1622). Torino: Circolo Ufficiali di Presidio. Ref. RIdIM database,item 3125 (2014, col) Five half-length figures of shepherds (four men and a woman) are depicted in a landscape; three are shown with musical instruments, namely bagpipe, ?cittern and a tapering soprano recorder with a flared bell.

Lisa Manning

Contemporary American artist who works out of her studio in Beverly, MA; her illustrations have appeared in The Atlantic Monthly, Business Week, Computer Life, Fortune Magazine, MS Magazine, The New York Times, US News & World Report and Working Woman Magazine; born Boston MA. Web page.

  • Recorder Onstage (1994), Lisa Manning (contemporary). Ref. American Recorder 25 (3): cover (1994). A stylised figure plays a flared-bell recorder on a stage.

Giovanni di Niccolo Mansueti (op. 1485-1527), Italian

    , canvas, 146 × 118 cm, Giovanni di Niccolo Mansueti (op. 1485–1527). Location unknown; sold Galerie Crespi, 2 June 1914, Cat.37; sold Galerie G. Petit, Paris. Ref. Paris RIdIM; Website (2012, b&w). The Virgin is crowned by Christ whilst both are embraced from behind by God the Father. Between them is the dove symbolising the Holy Ghost. Above, two angels play fiddle and rebec; below, two putti play lute and a flared-bell pipe which could be recorder.

Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506)

Italian painter, one of the great stylistic innovators whose influence on the whole practice of painting was immense; his works are characterised by the sculptural modelling of his figures, his incisive line, his treatment of landscape in geological layers, his stressed gestures, and his tragic use of colour; active mainly in Padua and Mantua, briefly in Verona, Florence and Rome; born Isola di Carturo, near Vicenza (1431), died Mantua (1506).

Note on “Tarocchi Cards of Mantegna . The origin of the designs of the so-called “Tarocchi Cards of Mantegna”, is controversial. It has long been thought that they are derived from designs by a Ferrara painter, possibly Baccio Baldini (op. 1460–1485), for use in the Ducal court. However, Kenneth Clark (see McClean, 1983) has attributed the designs to Parrasio Michele (1516–1578), Master of the School of Ferrara. More recently, Prinke (1990) has argued that the designs were, in fact, by Mantegna himself. In this catalogue, entries for those cards relevant to recorder iconography are listed together under Baldini.

    , unfinished drawing in pen & pencil (brown, black, red and white), 28.6 × 44.1 cm, Andrea Mantegna (1431–1506). London: British Museum. Ref. Tietze-Conrat (1956); Archiv Moeck. This unfinished drawing forms the upper half of a composition which is fully illustrated in an engraving by Giovanni Antonio da Brescia. Both are inscribed on the right with the words: VIRTUS COMBVSTA (‘Virtue in flames’) which summarises the complex humanist allegory. The ‘invention’ illustrates the idea of the hold of Ignorance over humanity. In the centre of the top half, Error, a man with ass’s ears, leads an unsuspecting woman to the edge of a pit. She is both literally and morally blind. Error is encouraged by a winged figure of a satyr (half-man and half-goat) with bat’s wings, bird’s feet and a conspicuous codpiece who plays a pipe and symbolizes Lust. Between the satyr and blind woman is a man with a sack over his head, tied at the neck, who leads a dog on a leash. This man feigns blindness and may well be Fraud. To the right, Ignorance, a fat crowned woman, sits on a globe holding a rudder. The unstable globe and rudder both represent Fortune. Serving their queen are Ingratitude, with blindfold and scarf, and Avarice (greed) or Envy with dirty hair and large ears. On the far right are burning laurel leaves, a symbol of Virtue. Mantegna’s original drawing for the lower half of the image is lost, but the complete composition of the allegory is recorded in the print. Below is the pit into which the woman is about to fall, piled high with bodies. To the left is a female figure changing into a tree with a label VIRTUS DESERTA (‘Deserted Virtue). Choking the tree are thorns, and just below another inscription: VIRTUTI S.A.I. (Ignorance is always opposed to Virtue). At the right, however, Mercury saves a figure from the pit, implying that Reason and Virtue can provide salvation. Unusually, he wears laurel leaves on his feet, not the usual feathers. The satyr’s pipe has enough finger holes to be a recorder, though it is sightly curved in the manner of a cornetto, and no window/labium is visible.

Stacey Manton

Contemporary English professional artist living and working in the semi-rural town of Romiley, near Stockport; he paints landscapes seascapes and streetscapes, but specialises in highly realistic portraits of the characters found on the streets in and around Manchester; he works from photographs, using hidden cameras, ‘drive-by’ photography and even offering booze or fags in return for a snapshot; his subjects are the overlooked, the old, the frail, the drunk, the destitute, the disenfranchised, or the plain comical; Stacey was born 1971. Artist’s website.

    , oil on canvas, 38.74 × 30.48 cm, Stacey Manton (1971–). Hale, Cheshire: Clark Art, Item 11402, sold (2021, col.) An intimate portrait of an elderly, bearded man in a woollen jacket and mittens, his back to an archway, plays a plastic neo-baroque recorder. Alan, who plays recorder and tin-whistel on the streets of Manchester, features in a number of Manton’s portraits. , oil on canvas, ? dimensions, Stacey Manton (1971–). Ref. Website: Pinterest, Tamalii Moli’s photostream (2001, col.). An elderly, bearded man, his back to a window, sits in a folding chair and plays his plastic neo-baroque recorder, his bag of books beside him. This painting (and the subject himself) can be seen in a YouTube interview with the artist. Ref. YouTube: An Interview with Stacey Manton (2012).

Pietro Marascalchi [da Feltre], called ‘Lo Spada’ (The Sword)

Italian painter active in the Veneto and especially in the province of Belluno; born 1522, died 1589.

  • Madonna and Child with Saints Girolamo and Vittore (ca 1560), oil on canvas, Pietro Marascalchi (1522–1589). Ref. Villa i Tatti: The Harvard Centre for Italian Renaissance Studies, ND 621 BG P58 (2000); Conte (1998: 127–128, fig., b&w); Paolo Biordi (pers. comm., 2000). The Madonna and Child are seated on a throne on either side of which stand the two Saints. At their feet, a winged putto plays a flared-bell pipe, possibly a recorder.

Carlo Maratta [Maratti]

Italian artist, the leading painter in Rome in the late 17th century, he continued the tradition of the Classical Grand Manner, based on Raphael; his works include altarpieces, frescoes and portraits; born 1625, died 1713.

    , oil on canvas, Carlo Maratta (1625–1713). Toledo: La Santa Iglesia Catedral. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “A cello, viola, lute and recorder are played by wingless angels The recorder is held close to the angel’s mouth, in a perfect playing position, all fingers on with right hand lower; part of finger holes three and five may show beside the fingers. Alto size with slight bell flare and one incised ring close to bell. The mouthpiece and window/labium are in shade” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) , painting, Carlo Maratta (1625–1713). Location unknown. Ref. Website: klassiskgitar.net (2007, col.) The Virgin reads from a small book surrounded by angels one of whom also reads from a book, another holds a Gothic harp, and a third holds a very tiny pipe (probably a duct flute, possibly a recorder), the details of which are obscure.

Miguel March

Spanish draughtsman and painter who worked in a number of genres, including, allegorical, still-life, battle and religious works; born Valencia ca 1633, died 1670; son of the painter Esteban March (ca 1610–1668).

  • Autumn (ca 1655), oil on canvas, 67.5 × 90 cm, Miguel March (ca 1633–1670). Valencia: Museo de Belles Artes San Pio V, Inv. 3601. Ref. Galbis (1995: 85); Frechina (1998: 209, fig. 143), Heijden et al. (1998, col.); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2003); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). One of a series of paintings representing Autumn, Winter, Time and The Miser. It is possible that there were additional works representing Spring and Summer. A young man in a feathered hat plays a cylindrical duct flute (probably a flageolet (fistula hexastoma) with but four finger holes (visible) and two at the rear for the the thumbs. since there are only two holes for each hand) to an appreciative parrot perched above a table on which are scattered grapes and peaches. Behind the bird, a carved panel depicts a woman carrying what looks like a sack of farm produce, thus emphasising the pastoral associations of this painting. The foot of the instrument is slightly flared, and the third finger of the lower (left) hand touches the rim of the bell as if to indicate where the sound comes from.

Girolamo Marchesi [Girolamo de Cotignola]

Italian artist born Cotignola (ca 1471–1475), died Rome (ca 1540–1550).

    , Girolamo Marchesi (ca 1471/75–ca 1540/50). San Marino: La Pinacoteca di San Francesco, Museo. Ref. Ricci (1903: 39); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Hijmans (2005: 222). On either side of the enthroned Virgin and Child stand the Saints. To the left, St Giovanni indicates Jesus and Mary to a young St Marino. At their feet sit two putti, one playing a lute, the other playing a cylindrical recorder with one hand and holding a sheet of music in the other. In the background is Mt Titano.

Gerhard Marcks

German sculptor, painter and graphic artist associated with the Bauhaus where he became head of pottery in Dornburg, near Weimar; before the war his works were censored and confiscated; after the war he had many exhibitions, created many memorials and church monuments, and even designed a bridge in Halle; he also made expressionist woodcuts; born Berlin (1889), died Burgbrohl/Eifel (1991).

    (1947–1948), woodcut 32.1 × 36.1 cm (image), Gerhard Marcks (1889–1981). Bremen: Gerhard Marcks Haus, H180-8; San Francisco: de Young Museum; Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Museum of Art 1964/1.112. Ref. Website: Gerhard Marcks Haus (2001); Website: University of Michigan Museum of Art (2000). The sixth of ten woodcuts in the Orpheus series. A naked Orpheus gazes at a demure-looking Euridice whilst a black male figure, a coat over his shoulders, plays a long flared-bell pipe which could represent a recorder.
  • Trude Jalowetz (1932), preliminary sketch, 39 × 25 cm, Gerhard Marcks (1889–1991). Bremen: Gerhard Marcks Haus, D123. Ref. Website: Gerhard Marcks Haus (2001). Trude Jalowetz (an artist’s model who died in 1977) stands playing a slender cylindrical pipe of tenor size. There is just a hint of a window/labium, so this may represent a recorder. (1932), sculpture, bronze, 54 cm high, Gerhard Marcks (1889–1991). Private Collection. Ref. Website: Gerhard Marcks Haus. A young woman stands playing a narrowly conical pipe of tenor size. All fingers of both hands seem to be employed, and there is no trace of beak, window/labium or reed. Nonetheless, this may represent a recorder.
  • Greek Flute Player (1933), statue, Gerhard Marcks (1889–1991). Karlsruhe: Badischen Landesmuseum. A man with a cape over his head plays a duct flute (possibly a recorder).

Rocco Marconi

Italian artist active mainly in Venice and Treviso; he was a follower of Giovanni Bellini in whose workshop he spent some 25 years; born ? Venice (a. 1490), died 1529.

    (ca 1524), Rocco Marconi (a. 1490–m. 1529). Venice: Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo. Ref. Boccazzi (1965: 165); Burlington Magazine Burlington 116 (1974: 390); Humfrey (1993: 70, pl. 63); Rasmussen (2004, Flute). “Sitting comfortably on a cumulus cloud, three angel-putti look down on Christ. On the right, one plays a soprano/alto recorder (left hand lower, a shadowy area possibly representing a window/labium is rather high up leaving space for only a short windway). Three lower finger holes are visible, the missing one hidden by or underneath one of the left-hand fingers of the angel-putto player. The profile is cylindrical with a gradual bell expansion to fairly wide at the end with not much impression of wood thickening” (Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm., 2000).

Hans von Marées

German draughtsman and painter of the so-called Idealist school whose subjects included portraits and mythological subjects; for the latter, he developed a complex and individual technique, overpainting tempera with layers of oil to create a depth of colour quite unlike the muted tones used by his fellow classicists; tborn Elberfeld, Prussia (1837), died Rome (1887).

  • Flute Player, charcoal on paper, 29.2 × 13.3 cm, Hans von Marées (1837–1887). Munich: Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, Inv. 1913: 32. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, Mgs – 405). A naked young man leaning against a tree plays a duct flute, possibly a recorder, but it is not clear. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999).

François de Maretz (17th century), France

  • Frontispiece, Discours sur les Arcs Triomphaux dressés en la ville d’Aix, à l’hereuse arrivée de … Louys XIII. roy de France & de Navarre: Troisiesme Arc, by Chasteuil Galup, published by Tholosan, Aix-en-Provence (1624): Troubadour (1624), engraving by Maretz. Copy offered for sale by Otto Haas, London (1959). Ref. Otto Haas, Sale Catalogue 37, A Selection of Rare Music from Boethius to Webern, London, (1959); Paris RIdIM (1999); Website: Google Books (2010). “An interesting and rare work describing and illustrating triumphal arches erected in honour of Louis XIII on the occasion of his visit to Aix in 1624. This book would have no place in a music catalogue, were it not for the Troubadour reproduced on the cover of this catalogue” (Haas, loc. cit.) “L’habit est celuy e son siècle. Sa main soutient un sceptre de Laurier. On void auprés de luy une trompette, une lyre, & quelques autres instruments de musique. Les roses, les oeillets, les violettes naissent, dessours ses pas … ” It represents the survival of a medieval ideal in an age of classicism. In addition to the trumpet and violin are a cornetto and a small flared-bell recorder.

Onorio Marinari

Italian painter and printmaker active mainly in Florence; his paintings include a number of altarpieces for Florentine churches and a self portrait, now in the Uffizzi; his illustrated Fabbrica ed uso dell’ Annulo Astronomico was published in 1674; born 1627, died 1715; son of the minor painter Sigismondo di Pietro Marinari (op. 1650), cousin of the Florentine painter Carlo Dolci (1616–1686).

    , oil on canvas, 90.7 × 68.o cm, Onorio Marinari (1627–1715). London: Sotheby’s Sale LL11037, Old Master and British Paintings Day Sale, 8 December 2011, Lot 127. A young shepherd sits holding a flared-bell pipe, possibly a recorder though no details of finger holes or window/labium can be discerned. Beside him, a companion holding a stouter flared-bell pipe (possibly the chanter of a bagpipe) looks up in astonishment at the angel Gabriel above. in the background are cows and sheep against a hilly landscape. An autographed variant of this painting, on a smaller scale, is in the Casa di Risparmio di Pistoia e Pescia.

Antonio Marinetti, il Chiozotto

Italian artist; one of the many students of Piazetta whose style he imitated; born Chioggia (1719), died Venice (1796).

    (ca 1780), copper plate engraving, 44.0 × 36.5 cm, Nicolaus Cavalli (1730–1822) after Antonio Marinetti, il Chiozotto (1719-1796). Newton: Schubertiade Music & Arts (2008, b&w). Ref. Website: Schuberetiade Music Online (2013-b&aw). Watched by an old crone, a young girl sings from a page of music accompanied by a young man playing a cylindrical recorder. The first line from a verse by Horace appears as a caption beneath:

“Me nunc Cressa Chloe regit
[Dulces docta modos et cithare sciens;
Pro qua non metuam mori,
Si parcent animae fata superstiti.”]

Giovanni Marino (18th century), Italy

    (1728), low relief sculpture, Giovanni Marino (18th century). Monreale: Duomo, Cappella di San Benedetto, altar. Ref. Schiro (1996: 115, col.); Charles Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2007). In the central panel, St Benedict is lifted to heaven by angels. At the top left an angel plays a violin, and top right another plays a recorder. The violin bow, the recorder itself and St Benedict’s bishop’s crosier are all represented in gold against the white marble of this fine bas-relief. The recorder is alto-sized or a little larger, and it is a perfect representation of a baroque instrument. The angel plays right hand lowermost, with all his fingers on the instrument, although the sculptor has placed the hands rather too close together.

Simon Marmion

Franco-Flemish painter of panels, miniaturist and book illuminator who worked in the Burgundian court of the noted patrons Philip the Good and Margaret of York; a radical artist who introduced and developed the use of new colours and colour relationships which made him a pioneer in the depiction of atmospheric effects in landscape (some scholars controversially believe that Marmion painted the first pure landscape); also noted for the clarity of his narrative and sensitive conveying of the emotions of his characters; born Amiens (ca 1425), died Valenciennes (1489); both his father, Jean, and his brother Mille were painters.

  • Triptych, centre panel: Virgin and Child in a Landscape with a Trompe l’oeil Frame (late 15th century), oil on panel 50.2 × 36.8 cm, circle of Simon Marmion (1425–1489). New York: Sotheby’s, Old Masters 2000 and A Celebration of the Still Life, 28 January 2000, Lot 9. The left wing of the triptych is the National Gallery, London; the right wing was sold by Sotheby’s, New York, in 1992. The artist has conjoined town and country, urban and rustic in a decidedly Rogerian manner. Courtiers can be seen playing recorders and dancing, others on horseback or sitting on the grass in the hills and along the banks of a river which flows across the background of the triptych.

Jacob Marrel [Marrell, Marzell, Morrel or Morsel]

German still-life painter, engraver, and art dealer active in Utrecht; he specialised in floral still-lifes and botanical illustration of tulip varieties; stepfather of the entomologist and artist Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717); born Frankenthal (1614), died Frankfurt (1681).

    , oil on canvas, 127.7 × 185.2 cm, Jacob Marrel (1614–1681). New York: Sotheby’s, Old Master Paintings, 17 December 1998, Lot 38. Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.); Artfact (2003); Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie, Image 0000132506 (2010, col) Probably a late work by the artist. On a table beneath a velvet drape are a musical score, violin, pipe (?flute, ?recorder), a ham on a plate, a shell, a glass goblet, melon, grapes, peaches, a fig and plums on a silver tazza, cherries, pomegranates, melons, lemons, shells. A glass roemer stands on a small cabinet behind. A macaw perches on a chair. The body of the pipe is hidden beneath the music book, its head beneath the violin; but the foot is visible and this seems to be cylindrical, so a flute seems more probable. (1637), Jacob Marrel (1614–1681). Karlsruhe: Staatliche Kunsthalle, Inv. 2586. Ref. Gemar-Koelzsch (1995: 169, pl.); Rowland-Jones, pers. comm., 2004); Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie, Image 1001238921 (2010). A large vase full of flowers, and a beautifully painted violin leaning at the right. Bubbles above, books, smoking pipes, etc. below, and at the very bottom sticking out from what looks like a small sheet of music in the right corner the slightly flared bell of a small pipe, showing a quite wide bore and a finger- or tuning-hole near to it (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) But even Homer nods: Anthony has mistaken a piece of candle-wax for a recorder! In the left-hand corner a little mouse nibbles at some crumbs.

Giovanni Martinelli

Italian painter active mostly in Florence; born Montevarchi (ca 1600–1604), died 1659.

  • Music, Giovanni Martinelli (ca 1600/04–1659). Florence: Galleria Corsini (1922). Ref. Archiv Moeck. A personification of Music holds a cylindrical recorder, only the head and upper body of which is visible. The beak appears to be encased in a metal sleeve. , painting (oval), Giovanni Martinelli (ca 1600/04–1659). Location unknown: auctioned 06/07/2005 (sold). Ref. Gabrius Databank (2007, col.) A copy of the original in the Galleria Corsini, Florence. A personification of Music holds a cylindrical recorder, only the head and upper body of which is visible. The beak appears to be encased in a metal sleeve.
  • Music, painting (oval), Giovanni Martinelli (ca 1600–1659). Martinelli (ca 1600/04–1659). Location unknown: auctioned 06/12/2005 (sold). Ref. Gabrius Databank (2007, col.) A small copy of the original in the Galleria Corsini, Florence. A personification of Music holds a cylindrical recorder, only the head and upper body of which is visible. The beak appears to be encased in a metal sleeve.

Ben Martinez (contemporary), USA

  • The past is now; the future was then! (1991), Ben Martinez (contemporary). Ref. American Recorder 32 (2): cover, col (1991). A mock-Elizabethan couple: he plays harpsichord; she plays a wind synthesizer!
  • Untitled (1992), Ben Martinez (contemporary) Ref. American Recorder 33 (3): cover, col (1992). A seated youth plays an alto recorder of modern design to a girl sitting at his feet who holds open a book of music.
  • Wired for Sound, Ben Martinez (contemporary) Ref. American Recorder.

Bernat [Bernardo] Martorell

Spanish painter of the Barcelona school known for his scrupulous attention to detail, his ability to convey an impression of depth and space and to give life to all elements of his compositions; born 1427, died 1452.

    , paint on panel, Bernat Martorell (1427–1452). Barcelona: Colección Viñas. Ref. Gudiol (1986: 654); Ballester (1990: 168–169 & pl. 84); Rowland-Jones (1997a: 13–14); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Mary is crowned by Christ to an accompaniment provided by six musical angels. Three of the angels play cylindrical recorders one of which clearly has holes for seven fingers; the others play rebec, lute and harp.

Félix Mas

Contemporary Spanish-born comic book artist and fine artist; he considers himself a traditionalist, obsessed with form and colour, creating images that celebrate femininity and luminous beauty of the female form; born Barcelona (1935).

    , oil on canvas, 61 × 46 cm, Félix Mas (1935–). Madrid: Galería de Arte Castello 120, Exhibition 30 October – 14 November 2001. Ref. Website: Galería de Arte Castello 120 (2003). A young woman wearing a hat made of leaves, her eyes closed, holds a slender neo-baroque recorder.

Henri Leopold Masson

Canadian artist best known for his genre, landscape, and figure drawing; born Belgium (1907), died Ottawa, Canada (1996).

    , oil on masonite, 20.3 × ? cm, Henri Leopold Masson (1907–1996). Location unknown; sold by Galerie d’Art Vincent, Ottawa Ref. Website: Website: Galerie d’Art Vincent (2005, col.) A young woman in a white gown plays an alto recorder. , pastel on board, 30.4 × 20.3 cm, Henri Leopold Masson (1907–1996). Location unknown, sold by Red Kettle, Victoria BC. Ref. Website: Red Kettle Art & Collectibles (2006). A young woman seated plays a recorder, another woman standing by her side listens. (1958), print, Henri Leopold Masson (1907–1996). Toronto: Heffel Fine Art Auction House, Fine Canadian Art, Toronto, 31 May 2014, Lot 543 (sold). A man sits playing a stylised, direct-blown bass recorder.

Quinten Massys [ Matsijs ]

Painter in the Flemish tradition and a founder of the Antwerp school where he was active for over 20 years, creating numerous works with religious roots and satirical tendencies; born Leuven (1466), died Antwerp (1530).

  • Triptych: Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels in a Garden, (1500 or a little later), oil on oak panel, 67.8 × 45.2 cm, follower of Quinten Massys (1466–1530). London: National Gallery, Inv. 1085. Ref. Davies (1953, 21: pll. I, Iii, IIA, col; VI, VI, VII, detail of the harp, IX, detail of the recorder, X, detail of the lute); Friedländer (1971-, 7: No. 83, pl. 72–73); Paris RIdIM (1999, detail); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Website: Friedländer 3.0 Database (2016, col); Website: Lute Iconography LI-9424 (2022, col.) Formerly thought to be by the Master of the van Morrison Triptych (15th century, Flemish). The central panel is a mystic treatment of the Marriage of Saint Catherine of a type known as ‘Virgo inter Virgines’. The edifice in the background may stand for the Gateway into Heaven. Angels (singing?) play a harp and a lute. Another approaches, holding a small flared-bell recorder with a decorated bell in his right hand. Left wing: Saint John the Baptist. Centre background: Saints Agnes and Agatha. Right wing: Saint John Evangelist. The greatest stylistic influence notable is the work of Geertgen tot Sint Jans. Friedländer (loc. cit.) notes a replica with several more figures is in El Escorial.

Master of 1416

Italian painter, active in Florence in the late 14th century and the second decade of the 15th century; the name of this anonymous artist derives from an altarpiece dated 1416, preserved in the Accademia Gallery in Florence; his style is very close to another Florentine painter Lorenzo di Niccolò di Martino, with whom he has sometimes been identified.

  • Childbirth tray (desco da parto) with scenes from Boccaccio’s Commedia delle ninfe fiorentine: Ameto’s Discovery of the Nymphs and Contest Between the Shepherds Alcesto and Acaten (1410), verso of a marriage salver, tempera on wood, 12-sided, 53.7 × 56.2 cm, Master of 1416 (early 15th century). New York: Metroplitan Museum of Art. Ref. Website: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Like its companion piece (26.287.2), the reverse of this marriage salver illustrates an episode from Boccaccio’s Comedia delle Ninfe Fiorentine, written in about 1342. The hunter Ameto and two nymphs judge a musical competition between the shepherds Alcesto (who represents leisure) and Acaten (who represents industry). The contestant on the left plays a pipe, quite possibly a duct flute (flageolet or recorder). The incident was a critical prelude to Ameto’s embrace of the virtuous life. The escutcheon at the right appears to be that of the Di Lupo Parra family of Pisa.

Master of the Aachen Altarpiece [Master of the Aix-la-Chapelle Altarpiece]

German painter (formerly thought to be Flemish), named after the great winged altarpiece with scenes from the Passion (ca 1510, Aachen, Domschatzkam.), painted for the Carmelite church in Cologne; he adopted a restless and capricious style of Mannerism, his figures being alluringly full and soft; known from works in Aachen and Munich; active from ca 1460–1520, in Cologne between ca 1480 and 1500.

    (ca 1480), oil on panel, 52.5 × 46.3 cm, Master of the Aachen Altarpiece (op. ca 1460–1520). Munich: Alte Pinakothek, Inv. 10756. Ref. Buchner (1960: pl. 26, col); Stange (1969, 5: no. 241); Ragghianti (1969: 31, pl., col); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Website: klassiskgitar.net (2007, col.); Munich RIdIM (2013: Mstag – 799, b&w). On each side of the Virgin and Child are trios of musical angels. On the left are two singers and a lutenist reading from a large score. On the right are a singer, an organist and a duct flute (probably a recorder) player. The duct flute is cylindrical and the window/labium is clearly depicted.

Master of [the Abbey of] Affligem = Master of the Joseph Sequence

Master of S. Agostino (early 14th century), Italy

  • Life of St John the Evangelist: The Journey to Ephesus, St John on Patmos (early 14th century), Master of S. Agostino (early 14th century). Rimini: Chiesa di San Agostino. Ref. Berenson (1968, 1: 359); Fratelli Alinari, S. p. A., Florence: photographs 30417-30418; Marcheselli (1972; pl. III & 4); Marle & Marle (1923-1938, 4: 308–310 & fig. 157); Volpe (1965: 31–35, 77, & figs 144–148); Brown (1985: 270 & pl. 325b, b&w). “On the journey to Ephesus, one figure in the boat plays a shawm or recorder, and another plays pipe and tabor” (Brown, loc. cit.) The “recorder” is clearly a shawm, judging by the expansion and tuning hole at the bell end; the lowest holes are almost half-way up the instrument, which is played with inflated cheeks (Rowland-Jones, pers. comm.)

Master of the Aix Annunciation [? Jean Boyer (French)] (15th century), French

French painter of the Annunciation altarpiece in the church the Église des Pręcheurs in Aix-en-Provence the wings of which are preserved at Brussels and Vierhouten and one fragment at Amsterdam; thought by some to be executed by Jean Boyer, Court Painter to King René of Provence ca 1450.

  • The Marriage of Jacob and Rachel, canvas on wood, 178 × 256 cm, Master of the Aix Annunciation (15th century). Aix-en-Provence: Musée Granet. Ref. Lallement & Devaux (1996: 256). Includes a recorder. Not seen.

Master of the Aix-la-Chapelle Altarpiece = Master of the Aachen Altarpiece

Master of the Acquavella Still-life (op. ca 1610-1620), Italian (Rome)

Italian painter, considered the most important still-life painter working in Rome during the second and third decades of the 17th century; named after the Still-life with a Basket of Fruit and a Vase of Flowers formerly with the Acquavella Gallery, New York, and subsequently in the Lorenzetti collection, Bergamo. Scholars have since identified a stylistically coherent group of still-lives thought to be by the hand of this anonymous post-Caravaggesque master variously ascribed to Luca Forte, Angelo Caroselli, Giovanni Battista Crescenzi and Pietro Paolini. Of the pictures in this group, compositions that combine figures with exuberant displays of fruit, vegetables and foliage are thought to be collaborations with Bartolomeo Cavarozzi (ca 1600–1625).

    (c.1620), oil on canvas, 83 × 118 cm, Master of the Acquavella Still-life (op. ca 1610–1620). Private Collection. Ref. Postcard: Royal Academy of Arts, London (2001); Exhibited Royal Academy of Arts: The Genius of Rome, 1592–1623), Brown (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (2001b: 13–16, fig., b&w); Heyghen (2005: 313); Ausoni (2009: 286–287, col) A young man in a feathered cap gazes directly at the viewer as he plays a violin in front of a bench on which there is an enormous bowl of fruit (grapes, pomegranates, apples, pumpkins, pears, apples and pears), two music books and three cylindrical recorders. Of the latter only the head of one is visible (showing beak and window/labium), the body and foot of another (showing holes for six fingers, including paired holes for the lowermost finger) and, behind the fruit, the body of a third much bigger ?recorder (no details visible). One of the music books is an open canto part-book with the music of Cipriano De Rore’s madrigal Anchor che col partire written for monodic performance. Curiously, the score faces the viewer rather than the musician. Heyghen (loc. cit.) suggests that the two recorders in the foreground are a tenor and ‘discant’ respectively and that the ‘discant’ is of “Ganassi” style − wishful thinking, perhaps.

Master of Arguis

Spanish artist active in the first half of the fifteenth century; stylistically, his work is derived from the tradition of the International Gothic in Aragon; his name is derived from a retable of Saint Michael dating to about 1440, now in the Museo del Prado, Madrid, and once the main altarpiece of the church of Arguis; two other paintings, both dedicated to St Anne, are attributed to him, one is in Barcelona, and the other, a small triptych, is in Alquezar.

  • Altar-piece dedicated to St Anne: Meeting of St Anne and St Joaquin, Master of Arguis (15th century). Alquezar (Huesca): Collegiata, Iglesia Parroquial. Ref. Ballester (2000: 14, fig. 5a, b&w; 15, fig. 5b, b&w). Depicts the marriage of the parents of Mary. To the right of the Saints stands a musician holding a flared-bell recorder with an incised decorative ring on the beak and seven finger holes visible, the lowermost offset.

Master of Astorga

Spanish artist active in Castile in the early 16th century.

  • Altar-piece (in part): Birth of Christ with Saint Domingo and Saint Lorenzo (1510-1515), oil on panel, 135 × 98 cm, Master of Astorga (early 16th century). Detail. Madrid: Museo Lázaro Galdiano, Inv. 3014. Ref. Ruck et al. (1926-1927, 2: 499, no. 1023); Sartori (1963-1964: fig. 277); Salmen (1976: 64-65, fig. 14); Thomson (1974: op. p. 33, b&w); Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University 376.As86.22N (2002); Rasmussen (2002, Bagpipe); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Website: RIdIM database, Record 1096 (2021, col.) The top frame depicts the adoration of the Christ Child by his parents, angels and shepherds, and the two frames below depict St Domingo and St Lorenzo. The main scene takes place amongst a series of Corinthian pillars surmounted by arches, with the ruins of an arched doorway in the background. On the right, a shepherd is dancing, to music played by two of his companions on bagpipe and a cylindrical recorder. Perhaps uniquely, the player’s thumb position whilst pinching the thumb hole is clearly depicted. In the lower frame, the two Saints stand before open windows with drapes of gold.

Master of the Barbarigo Reliefs (early 16th century), Italian

Italian sculptor active around Venice between about 1486 and about 1515; his name is derived from a set of reliefs in bronze, depicting the Coronation and Assumption of the Virgin and the Twelve Apostles; these may be seen today in the Ca’ d’Oro in Venice; they were formerly on the altar, serving as a double tomb for the Barbarigo family, which once stood in the Santa Maria della Carità (today’s Accademia). The complete tomb design is shown in an engraving from 1692; according to this the bronzes were placed on the altar of the central bay, flanked by the kneeling figures on either side. Further effigies, depicting figures reclining on a bier, were placed in each adjoining bay. Documentary evidence indicates that work on the sculpture was begun around 1486, at Marco Barbarigo’s death, and probably completed by 1515.

  • Assumption of the Virgin, bronze relief, Master of the Barbarigo Reliefs (op.1486-1515). Venice: Ca’ d’Oro, formerly Santa Maria della Carita, on the funerary monument of the Doges Marco and Agostino Barbarigo. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000); Website: Wikipedia (2013). Two angels lift the Virgin from below. Between them a third angel-putto plays a slender, flared-bell soprano recorder (left hand lowermost). Beside the Virgin, two other angels play rebec and fiddle. The complete tomb design is shown in an engraving from 1692; according to this the bronzes were placed on the altar of the central bay, flanked by the kneeling figures on either side. Further effigies, depicting figures reclining on a bier, were placed in each adjoining bay.
  • Coronation of the Virgin, bronze relief, Master of the Barbarigo Reliefs (op.1486-1515). Venice: Ca’ Doro, formerly Santa Maria della Carita, on the funerary monument of the Doges Marco and Agostino Barbarigo. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000); Website: Wikipedia (2013). Angels at the upper left and right play trumpets; those on the lower part play lute, ?crumhorn, rebec, portative organ, and what may be a small recorder.

Master of the St Bartholomew Altarpiece [Master of the St Thomas Altarpiece]

Early Netherlandish painter active in Germany; one of the most recognizable artists of the early Renaissance period in German art; his identity remains unknown, but it has been suggested that given the number of commissions he executed for the Carthusian order he may have been a member himself; his paintings are characterized by their use of bright, enamel-like colors and an affinity to the International Gothic style; op. 1470-1510.

    , oil on oak, 52 × 38 cm, Master of the St Bartholomew Altarpiece (op. 1470-1510). London: National Gallery, Inv. NG6499. Ref. Langmuir (1999: 17, pl. 13, col.). The Virgin and Child enthroned are surrounded by angel musicians who sing and play instruments including psaltery, fiddle, lute, harp and a small conical pipe with a flared bell. A magnified view of the little piper (accessible from the link above) shows his instrument to be a clearly depicted (if inexpertly held) recorder with its distinctive beak, window/labium, offset hole for the little finger of the lowermost hole, and flared bell. There is a simply turned raised bead between window/labium and the body of the recorder. The flowers in the painting are symbolic. Most prominently, on the left grows a columbine, so called because of its dove-like appearance, which alludes to the Holy Ghost. It generally has seven blooms, which conveniently refer to the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit. Similarly, on the right are cornflowers in a vase, symbolic of the Queen of Heaven, Mary, and Christ. The plants in the foreground include yellow-flowering mustard, perhaps an allusion to the Parable of the Mustard Seed ( Matthew 13:31–32; Mark 4:30–32; Luke 13:18–19).

Master known as ‘BB’, from the studio of Evaristo Baschenis (17th century), Italian

  • Still-life with Musical Instruments (ca 1650), Master known as ‘BB’, from the studio of Evaristo Baschenis (1607-1677). Kassel: Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. Ref. Archiv. Moeck. A spinet sits on a table with three lutes, a violin and the head of a cylindrical duct flute (probably a recorder).
  • Strumenti musicali, oil on canvas, 87 × 115 cm, Master known as ‘BB’, from the studio of Evaristo Baschenis (1607-1677). Bergamo: Collegio Vescovile Sant’Alessandro. Ref. Francone et al. (1996: 278-279, pl. 61, col) On a draped table beneath richly embroidered hangings lie a book with an apple on top, several books piled on top of each other, two music books, three lutes, a guitar, a harpsichord, a violin and bow, and a flared-bell recorder only the foot and lower body of which are visible.

Master of Bedford [Master of the Duke of Bedford, Bedford Master]

A manuscript illuminator active in Paris during the fifteenth century, named for the work he did on two books illustrated for John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, English Regent in France 1422-1435, one a Book of Hours, the other a Breviary; active 1405-1435. The Bedford Master is known to have been the head of an atelier.

  • Livre de la chasse [Book of Hunting] by Gaston Phoebus, Count of Foix and Béarn (1331-1391): Banquet (1405-1415), painted miniature on vellum, margins decorated with a border of floreate rinceaux, atelier of Master of Bedford (op. 1405-1435). New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M.1044, fol. 58r. Ref. Website: CORSAIR (2011, col.); Website: theartwolf.com (2011). Gaston recorded the three “special delights” of his life as “arms, love and hunting” his Livre de chasse, composed between 1387-1389, was dedicated to Phillip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. It is written in a clear narrative voice and is illustrated with exquisite miniatures. It has become the most famous hunting book of the middle ages. This miniature depicts the hunt meal before the hunt. The Lord or Master of the Hunt, wearing hat and fur-lined garment sits behind a draped table, flanked by two men, one wearing a hat. Two of the men face each other in conversation: one points to a servant bearing the steaming droppings of the stag to be hunted; the other gestures towards a servant carrying a pitcher. The third man gestures to a servant carrying a platter of food (fish or chicken, perhaps). At the left end of the table, are six horses penned within a wattle fence which two of the horses seem to be chewing. At the right end of the table, a man plays a cylindrical pipe, probably a recorder since there is a faint hint of the window/labium and all fingers of this lowermost (left) hand seem to be employed. The huntsmen sit on turf benches at two other draped tables on which are loaves, platters of food (fish or chicken, perhaps) and goblets. One of them drinks from a goblet, another eats, one reaches for food, and another cuts a loaf with a knife. In front of the horse pen, a man wearing a hood sits swigging from small cask. Beside him are five dogs; and behind those four more dogs drink from a stream in which three covered pitchers are cooling. The scene is set in a grassy landscape with trees against a decorated background. This book is thought to have been commissioned by Philip the Bold’s son, John the Fearless (1371-1419), who presumably inherited his father’s manuscript and had copies made. During the late fifteenth century, it was owned by King Ferdinand II of Aragón and Queen Isabella of Castile, who added to it their full-page coat of arms. It is one of the 46 known surviving copies, including one in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France made at the same time and containing the same cycle of 87 miniatures. However, the musician is absent from the banquet depicted in MS Française 616 (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris), which differs in many other ways, too. Early printed editions of Le Livre de la chasse, made in Paris, date from ca 1507. A facsimile edition was published by Faksimile Verlag, Lucerne, in 2005.

Master of the Béguins

? Flemish painter, possibly Abraham Willemsens (op. 1627-1672), active in Paris; his name is in reference to the type of peasant bonnet (béguin) worn by many of the female figures in his paintings; flourished ca 1650-1670. The works now given to this artist were formerly attributed to the Le Nain brothers.

  • The Tavern, canvas, 93 × 117 cm, Master of the Béguins (op. ca 1650-1670). Paris: Louvre, Inv. 6839. Ref. Lallement & Devaux (1997: 200). Men, women and children with a shepherd and sheep, a still-life of vegetables, against a landscape with ruins. A small boy plays on a pipe (possibly a flageolet).

Master of the Berlin Passion

German or Netherlandish engraver, named after a Passion cycle of nine engravings (1482), of which seven were glued in a manuscript (Berlin, Kupferstichkab.) from the Lower Rhine, written in the convent of the Sisters of the Common Life at Arnheim; recently identified with Israhel van Meckenem’s father; fl. 1450-1470.

  • Ornament with a Couple Playing Chess, engraving, 10.5 × 14.5 cm, Master of the Berlin Passion (fl. 1450-1470). Oxford: Ashmolean Museum. Ref. Ashmolean Museum: postcard. Shows a couple playing chess, surrounded by plants, animals and their keepers, a hunter, and two musicians. One of the latter plays a straight trumpet, the other a cylindrical duct flute (flageolet or recorder).

Master of the Brussels Initials, Master of Egon, & the Third Painter

  • The Hours of Charles the Noble, King of Navarre (1361-1425), Compline: Coronation of the Virgin (1404-1405), ink, tempera, and gold on vellum, 19.4 × 13.7 cm, Master of the Brussels Initials, the Egon Master and the Third Painter. Cleveland: Museum of Art, 1964.40, folio 96 recto. Ref. Ford (1991: 8: 3, #63 & #78); Anthony Rowland-Jones (2006: 4). Behind the main scene, four angels play musical instruments. At left, an angel plays a fiddle (5 pegs); another plays a lute. At the right, another angel plays a vertical pipe (recorder?), another plays a harp. The figures are all minute so there are no details shown on the pipe. It is cylindrical, of soprano or alto length, and played right hand uppermost, three fingers down. The lower (left) hand shows only two fingers. The upper wrist is very low, suggesting a thumb hole.

Master of the Burnham Collection – see Bonanal Zaortiga

Master of Boethius

Fifteenth-century French illuminator active ca 1450-1475

  • Des cleres et nobles femmes: Minerva Crowned (early 15th century), illumination on parchment, Master of Boethius (op. ca 1450-1475). London: British Library, Royal 20 C V f. 15. From an anonymous French translation of Giovanni Bocaccio’s De claris mulieribus (On Famous Women), a collection of biographies of historical and mythological women, first published in 1374. Here, Minerva, crowned, instructs men in making armour, while a man uses counters and another plays a cylindrical pipe, right hand uppermost. Although a window/labium is not depicted there is no sign of a reed or pirouette so this probably represents a duct flute (flageolet or recorder).

Master of Canapost [Master of Seu d Urgell]

Late 15th-century Spanish (Catalan) painter known by two different names whose artistic personality is apparent in a small group of works from Canapost, Girona and Seu d’Urgell, Puigcerdà and Perpignan.

    (ca 1470), oil on wood, Master of Canapost. Girona: Museo d’Art. Ref. Museum of Art, Girona: postcard No. 25 (detail, col.); Gudiol (1986: 1002); Rowland-Jones (1996, 2a: 10); Vicens & Barral (2002, col.); Ballester (1990: 152-153 & pl. 56); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Originally the altarpiece of the Virgin from S. Esteve, Canapost, near Girona. The Virgin and Child are entertained by angel musicians playing vielle and a narrow, cylindrical duct flute (flageolet or recorder).

Master of Cappenberg – See Jan Baegert

Master of the Carnation (Berner Nelkenmeister) Swiss, op. 1466-1510

A name given to a group of anonymous painters whose works included carnations, symbolic of the Passion of Christ; they w orked in workshops in Solothurn, Bern, Zurich and Baden producing religious wall and panel paintings.

    (1508-1509), tempera on panel, 102 × 117 cm, Master of the Carnation (1466-1499). Detail. Zurich: Kapelle des Kappelerhofs. Ref. Wikimedia Commons (2016, col.) Mary is crowned sitting between Christ and God the Father as a dove hovers above. On the right of the throne angels sing; on the left angels play harp and two wind instruments, one clearly a duct flute, probably a recorder, the beak and window/labium of which are clearly depicted. An interesting feature of the recorders depicted is the absence of sidewalls to the window/labium which can be seen in a number of 15-16th century depictions of recorders and survives well into the 18th century (see Li Virghi 2011). Atop the two pillars of the throne tiny angels play lute and a marine trumpet.

Master of Castelsardo

Italian artist who owes his name to the splendid altarpieces that are conserved in the Cathedral of Sant’Antonio Abate, Castelsardo; he is considered an artist of the first rank in the period in which Sardinia had become a meeting point for the trends of the Italian Renaissance and the Flemish and Catalan schools; active late 15th and early 16th centuries.

    (after 1492), tempera and oil on panel, Master of Castelsardo (late 15th century). Castelsardo (near Sassari): Duomo di Sant’Antonio Abate. Ref. Angelo Zaniol (pers. comm., 2003). One of four polyptych elements painted before 1492 using a combination of tempera and oil on wood with a background of gold depicting the Madonna with Child and angelic musicians, the Trinity with cherubs (winged putti) and tetramorph, the Arcangel Michael and in the two compartments of the predella, the Apostles Philip, Bartholomew, Mathias and Matthew. Here, six rather grim-looking musical angels surrounding the Virgin and Child play vielle (fretted), lute, harp, guitar (with a distinctive sickle-shaped peg-box), jingle ring, and a slender shawm (the pirouette clearly depicted). On top of the back of the throne two cherubs play slender cylindrical duct flutes (possibly recorders) and a third plays a bagpipe.

Master of Le Champion des Dames, French

French illuminator and tapestry designer; known from 182 illuminations distributed in eight manuscripts, and from two tapestries; active around Lille during the second half of 15th century.

  • The Nine Muses (1441-1442), from Martin le Franc (1410-1461), Le Champion des Dames, Master of Le Champion des Dames (late 15th century). Grenoble: Bibliothèque Municipale de Grenoble, Ms 875, fol. 365. Ref. Buchner (1961: fig. 136); Hindley et al. (1971: 90, b&w); Bowles (1983: pl. 12); Moeck (1984: August, col.); Zaniol (1984, November: 5); Rowland-Jones (1999c: 32-33); Hijmans (2005: 220); Website: Lute Iconography (2022, col.) The Nine Muses sing and play organetto, symphony, pipe & tabor, shawm, hammered dulcimer, straight trumpet, gittern and a cylindrical recorder of the Dordrecht kind.
  • Francvouloir and Malebouche [Freethinker and Evil Tongue], (1441-1442), from Martin le Franc (1410-1461), Le Champion des Dames, Master of the Champion des Dames (late 15th century). Grenoble: Bibliothèque Municipale de Grenoble, Ms 352 Res. Ref. Buchner (1961: fig. 136); Moeck (1984: August, col.); Rowland-Jones (1999c: 32-33). A girl sits by a pool playing a cylindrical recorder of the Dordrecht kind. Beside her, Freethinker and Evil Tongue argue about her virtue! (1451), from Martin le Franc (1410-1461), Le Champion des Dames, miniature, 4.6 × 8.4 cm, Master of Le Champion des Dames (late 15th century). Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, MS Fr. 12476, fol. 109v. Ref. Wangermée (1968: 17, pl. 7, col); Spruit (1969: 28); Alamire, Postcard C2 BEF200 (1996); Rowland-Jones (1999c: 32-33); Hijmans (2005: 220). The Muses play shawm (Euterpe, Muse of music and lyric poetry), organetto (Urania, Muse of astronomy), double pipes (Melpomene, Muse of tragedy), slide trumpet (Caliope, Muse of epic poetry), rebec (Clio, Muse of history), a small cylindrical pipe, possibly a recorder (Polyhymnia, Muse of sacred hymns) and triangle (Erato, Muse of lyric and erotic love poetry), and sing (Thalia, Muse of comedy and pastoral poetry). This manuscript of a long poem by Martin le Franc, inspired by the Roman de la Rose, is a dedicatory copy prepared for Philip the Good, whose arms appear on it. The copyist, J. Boignan d’Arras, signed his work and dated it on fol. 147v.

Master of the Cité des Dames

Prolific French illuminator, active in Paris during the first two decades of the 15th century; named after the five or more copies of Christine de Pisan’s Cité des Dames illustrated by the Master and his workshop; his early work is closely related to that of Jacquemart de Hesdin, with whom he executed the Barcelona Hours (ca 1401; Barcelona, Bib. Central, MS. 1850); both artists used the same Italianate method of modelling flesh tones with green under-paint, and many of Jacquemart’s figures and compositions were adopted by the Master of the Cité des Dames; although the Italian elements in his work are pronounced, it has been argued that he came from the Netherlands in consideration of his evocation of realistic detail in scenes of domestic and city life, his innovative treatment of landscape, and his distinctive rendering of interior space and architectural settings.

  • From L’Epître d’Othéa: Midas Judging the Contest Between Pan and Apollo, from Christine de Pisan: Oeuvres (1410-1414), illumination, attributed to the Master of the Cité des Dames and his workshop, French. London: British Library, MS Harley 4431, fol. 108R. Ref. Archiv Moeck; Boragno (1998: 13, b&w); Rowland-Jones (2006c: 6 & fig. 4, col.); Warburg Institute (2013, b&w). King Midas gets donkey’s ears by making a false judgement (stultitia) between Phoebus Apollo, playing a harp, and Pan, playing a cylindrical duct flute (probably a recorder). In the text, the latter is called both ‘frestel’ and ‘flaiol’, and the harp is called a lyre. Boragno (loc. cit.) gives the date as ca 1450 and may thus refer to a later edition such as that edited by Jan Miélot (Flemish, after 1460). In a slightly earlier version of this illumination by the Master of the Epistle of Othéa (1406) the recorder is of square profile.

Master of Cologne – see Stephan Lochner

Master of the Death of the Virgin – see Joos van Cleve

Master of the David Scenes in the Grimani Breviary

Italian illuminator whose workshop specialized in manuscripts with rich and special border decoration for their rich and wealthy clientele; fl. Bruges, around 1500.

    , from the Breviary of Cardinal Grimani (1490-1510), attributed to the Master of the David Scenes in the Grimani Breviary (late 15th century). Venice: Biblioteca San Marco, fol. 288v. Ref. Mellini (1972: 46); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Website: “What a Piece of Work is a Man”, Reading the Body in Medieval Manuscripts. Part V: The Body in Pieces (2008, col ) The subject of this full-page miniature is the defeat of Goliath by the young David, who felled the giant with a stone from his sling, and then cut off his head with his own sword. Here David is portrayed as a conquering hero, leading Saul’s army into camp, bearing the severed head on the point of Goliath’s sword. The Welcoming Women play rebec, harp, lute and duct flute (tabor pipe or recorder. The window/labium of the latter is clearly depicted, but only the head is visible, the remainder being hidden behind the harpist. In the background we see David hurling his stone at Goliath. , from the Hours of Joanna I of Castile(1496-1506), attributed to Master of the David Scenes in the Grimani Breviary (late 15th century). London: British Library, Ms Add. 18852, fol. 5v. Ref. Kren (1983: 62); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Website: Susan Kapuscinski Gaylord (1 May 2012 , col) A Book of Hours, use of Rome, made for Joanna I of Castille ( 1479-1555), Queen of Castile from 1504 and of Aragon from 1516. On the left-hand folio is a miniature of a man and two ladies on a pleasure trip. The ladies sing and play lute; the man is listening but holds a flared-bell pipe which Rasmussen (loc. cit.) describes as a recorder but which could just as easily be a shawm. The boat is piloted by two figures that bear a strong resemblance to grotesques: the one at the bow propels boat with a long pole; the one at the stern plays a bagpipe whilst operating the rudder with his feet.

Master of Delft

Netherlandish painter named after the wings of the Triptych with the Virgin and Child with St Anne by the Master of Frankfurt, which is now in Aachen; the Master’s works display the influence of Cornelis Engelbrechtsz, and he also incorporated quotations from the early prints of Lucas van Leyden; op. ca 1490-1520.

  • Triptych, central panel: Nativity (op. ca 1490 – 1520), Master of Delft (op. ca 1510), Netherlandish. Utrecht: Museum Catharijneconvent. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). to the right of the Virgin are three musical angels. One plays bagpipes, one sings from music, and a third plays a slender cylindrical recorder. The window/labium is clear, the left hand is held lowermost with the middle and little fingers lifted, the other two down. All fingers of the upper (right) hand are down. (1505-1515), 84.5 × 68.0 cm, Master of Delft (op. ca 1490-1520). Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, Inv. SK-A-3141. Ref. Friedländer (1973, 10: no. 62, pl. 47); Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University, 374.M3926.34[a]; Rassmussen (2002, Bagpipe); Arnold den Teuling (pers. comm., 2008). The central panel of a triptych. The Virgin sits in a garden, the Child on her lap. Before her are two Sibyls, one with a book, the other with a flower. To her right is Joseph. Background music is provided by three musical angels, to her right. One of the latter plays bagpipes, one sings from music, and a third plays a slender cylindrical recorder. There is a hint of a window/labium, the left hand is held lowermost with the middle and little fingers lifted, the other two down. All fingers of the upper (right) hand are down. Similar to the above or, perhaps, one and the same.

Master known as ‘DS’ (16th century), German.

    from Gregor Reisch Margarita philosophica [Pearls of Wisdom] (1503, Johanne Schottus, Freiburg im Breisgau), woodcut, Master known as ‘DS’, German. Cambridge: Harvard University, Houghton Library (1508 edn); Erfurt: Angermuseum (1515 edn), Amplonius Library (1516 edn); London: Science Museum (1535 edn – coloured); Vienna: Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Ref. Haas (1928: 106); Peter (1958: 43); Leichtentritt (1956: cover); Reisch (1970: cover); Archiv Moeck; Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002); Schmid (1994: 247-260, figs 1 & 2). A personification of Music is surrounded by players of harp, lute, organ and recorder who seem to be being conducted by a man with a long stick. The recorder is cylindrical and played right-hand down (including the little-finger). To the right, Pythagoras holds a pair of scales. Note that Jubal working at his forge is not present, here. The 1516 edition spells the author’s name as ‘Reiss’. “The illustration is exactly the same; presumably the appearance of a man [Pythagoras] with the scales in it is a [visual] pun!” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) An adaptation of this woodcut appears in a 16th-century Italian miniature, probably from an Italian edition. A very different illustration of Typus Musices (sic.) by an anonymous artist, also including a recorder player, appeared in the Grüninger edition (Strassburg, 1504) and the fourth edition (1517). (sic.), from Gregory Reisch Aepitoma Omnis Phylosophiae, Alias Margarita Phylosophica, Tractans de omni genere scibili : Cum additionibus …, published by Grüninger, Strassburg – as Argentina, (1504), woodcut, ?after Master known as ‘DS’, German. Berlin: Bibliothek für Bildungsgeschichtliche Forschung, Nachweis: VD 16 R 1034Verf. Ref. Frings (1993: 152, fig. 12); Ausoni (2009: 13). A personification of Music is surrounded by players of harp, lute, organ and recorder who are being conducted by a man with a long stick. The recorder is cylindrical and played left-hand down (including the little-finger). To the right, Pythagoras holds a pair of scales. In the background, Jubal works at his forge. This also appeared in the 1517 edition. A very different illustration of Typus Musice (sic.) by the Master known as “DS” appeared in the original (Strassburg, 1503), and a number of subsequent editions. (sic.) from Gregory Reisch Margarita Philosophica (1517), print, ?after Master known as ‘DS’, German. Leiden: Universiteit, Bibliothek. A female personification of Music holds a manuscript surrounded by musicians singing and playing organ, harp, lute, organ, and a cylindrical pipe, probably a recorder. An old bearded man (Pythagoras) holds a pair of scales; behind him Jubal works at his forge. Gregorius Reich’s Margarita Philosophica [Pearl of Knowledge] dates from 1503 and was first published in Germany. This version, printed in France, is identical to that of the Grüninger edition (Strassburg, 1504).
  • Untitled, from Gregor Reisch’s Margarita Philosophica [Pearls of Wisdom] (1508, Strassburg), woodcut, Master known as’ DS’, German. Ref. Bock (1924, #21); Wiese (1988: fig. 36); Reisch (1970: cover); Archiv Moeck. A man and two women frolic on a patio beside a culvert. They are entertained by two naked musicians one of whom sings whilst the other plays a slightly flared recorder (all fingers of the lowermost hand cover holes). In the distance boats lie offshore and birds fly overhead.

Master of Egerton 1070

French miniaturist who may have been Netherlandish by birth, but his known activity is linked to Paris where he worked from ca 1405-1420.

  • Book of Hours: Tree of Jesse (ca 1418, Master of Egerton 1070. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, M. 919, folio 23r. Ref. Ford (1988: #539 & cover illustration); Rowland-Jones (2006: 7 & fig. 5c). Illustration for ‘Liber generationis Jesu Christi’, Book of Matthew. In the Middle Ages the prophecy of Isaiah that a Messiah would spring from the family of Jesse, the father of David, was interpreted visually as a genealogical tree at the foot of which was the reclining figure of Jesse. On the branches of the tree appear the ancestors of Christ. It culminates in the Virgin and the Saviour. In this example, seven kings play instruments: a fiddle, lute, recorder, harp, gittern and portative organ. David plays a harp (right border). The pipe is of tenor size, slender and cylindrical, and the hands are placed as if for a recorder, but a third of the instrument is below the player’s lower hand, and the detailing at his mouth is unclear. There could be a tuning hole at the bell end, a characteristic associated with the shawm, although the ring decoration and the slightness of the flare at the bell suggest that it might be a recorder, which would be more appropriate than a shawm to appear amongst the bas instruments played by all the other kings in this particular band. Amongst the former owners of this manuscript was the English art critic of the Victorian era, John Ruskin (1819–1900).

Master of Egon – see Master of the Brussels Initials

Master of the Epistle of Othéa

Anonymous illuminator active at the beginning of the 15th century probably of Lombard origin, influenced by Giovannino dei Grassi (m. 1398); he owes his name to the copy by the Duke Jean de Berry of L’Epître d’Othéa by Christine de Pizan kept at the National Library of France (under number 606) of which he is one of the three illuminators, with the Master of Egerton and the Saffron Master. Originally, the manuscript was part of an important collection bringing together several works by Christine de Pizan and now divided into five volumes.

  • From L’Epître d’Othéa: Midas Judging the Contest Between Pan and Apollo, from Christine de Pisan: Oeuvres (ca 1406), illumination, Master of the Epistle of Othéa. Pairis: Bibliothèque nationale de France, Français 606, f. 14r. King Midas gets donkey’s ears by making a false judgement (stultitia) between Phoebus Apollo, playing a harp, and Pan, playing a cylindrical duct flute (probably a recorder). In the text, the latter is called both ‘frestel’ and ‘flaiol’, and the harp is called a lyre. Sadly, Midas preferred wind instruments to strings and was given the ears of an ass for his pains. Remarkably, the profile of the recorder in this illustration is of square profile. In a slightly later version (1410-1414) of this illumination attributed to the Master of the Cité des Dames and his workshop (London: British Library, MS Harley 4431, fol. 108R) the recorder is clearly cylindrical in profile.

Master of the Female Half-Lengths

The group of works traditionally given to the Master of the Female Half-Lengths are now thought to be in large part the product of an Antwerp workshop of Netherlandish painters specializing particularly in half-length depictions of the Magdalene and elegantly dressed young ladies. They are shown reading, writing or playing musical instruments, usually in a wood-panelled interior. Some of the women are represented with an ointment jar, the attribute of the Magdalene. The workshop also produced a group of landscapes.

    (early 16th century), oil on panel, 44 × 31 cm, Master of the Female Half-Figures (early 16th century). Pozna ń : Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu, Inv. MNP FR 442. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, illustration 1000279590, col.) An elegantly attired young woman sits at a table playing the clavichord. Beside the instrument is an ornate bronze ointment jar. On a shelf behind her, beside a window, a perfectly depicted one-piece recorder with a flared bell leans against a column. The window/labium and holes for 7 fingers (the lowest doubled) are clearly depicted.

Master of the Fiesole Epiphany [Maestro dell’Epifania di Fiesole]

Italian painter probably from late 15th-century Florence known from a large panel representing the Epiphany of Christ in the church of San Francesco in Fiesole; he was possibly the same person as Filippo di Giuliano (1449-1503), an artist who shared a workshop with Jacopo del Sellaio (ca 1441–1493) in Florence after 1473.

    (c.1490–c.1510), Master of the Fiesole Epiphany (late 15th century). Florence: Galleria della Accademia, Inv. (1890) 496. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002); Website: AllPosters.com (2013, col); Website: Catalogo generale dei Beni Culturale (2022, col.); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1302 (2022, col.) Angels play lutes, viola da braccia, psaltery, tambourine, and two wind instruments, probably shawms. One of the wind instruments has a key and fontanelle for the little finger; the other is played left hand uppermost, but shows eight finger holes in line and paired holes for the little finger of the lowermost hand and thus possibly a recorder.

Master of [Maestro de] Fonollosa (15th century), Spanish

Spanish painter of a series of anonymous early fifteenth-century works from Osona and Bages which have a stylistic affinity and are preserved largely in the Episcopal Museum; his art makes use of a palette of varied and contrasting colors, rather than the pastel colors of the Italian gothic style, and approaches the world of international gothic introduced by Lluís Borrassà; there is also a desire to represent reality more truthfully. Gudiol & Alcolea i Blanch (1986: 100) have suggested the possibility that this master can be identified as the painter Nicolau Verdera, possibly a native of Girona, recorded as active in Vic in the early years of the 15th century.

  • Altar-piece, centre panel: Virgin and Child (1410), painting on panel, Master of Fonollosa (15th century). Barcelona: Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya. Ref. Ballester (1990: 156-157 & fig. 64); Rowland-Jones (1997a: 11 & fig 9A; 1997b: fig. 8A, b&w; 2006c: 20-21 & fig. 20, b&w); Website: gallica (2011, b&w). Originally from Centelles (Osona), near Zaragosa, which, like Valencia, was one of the centres of music-making of the Aragonese court away from its principal location in Barcelona. The Virgin and Child are surrounded by angel musicians playing vielle, harp and two duct flutes (flageolets or recorders), one small and one large. Rowland-Jones (1997a, loc. cit.) suggests this is the first representative in art of a tenor recorder.

Master [Maestro] Francesco [Master of the Teaching Christ]

Italian artist who worked in the late Gothic Tuscan tradition involving lavish use of gold, during the last years of the 14th century and the early years of the 15th century.

Madonna and Child Enthroned (ca 1400), wood panel, 138 × 68 cm, Master Francesco (late 14th – early 15th century). Florence: Ospedale degli Innocenti, Inv. AFS 236505. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). The Madonna and Child are surrounded by angels one of whom plays a narrowly conical pipe. The instrument has a very narrow mouthpiece and there is no sign of a window/labium. The outstretched thumb of the upper hand may indicate the presence of a thumb hole. This and the low wrists and careful placing of the fingers, including that of little finger of the lowermost hand offset may indicate that a recorder was intended, and the context of the subject calls for soft music. If it were a recorder it would be the earliest representation in Italian art.

Master of Frankfurt [? Hendrik van Hueluwe]

South Netherlandish painter of the St Anna Altar (ca 1505) made for the Dominican Priory in Frankfurt (now in the Städelsches Kunstintitut, Frankfurt) and to whom some some 40 paintings are attributed; he seems to have run a large and very active workshop in Antwerp from around 1490 until about 1520. Although we do not know his name, there is a portrait of the Master of Frankfurt and his wife in the Royal Museum in Antwerp; he has been tentatively identified as Hendrik van Hueluwe, a free Master in Antwerp from 1483 onwards and a prominent member of the artists’ Guild of St Luke during the early 16th century.

    , panel, Master of Frankfurt (op. 1460-1520). Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery. Ref. Sale Catalogue, Sotheby’s, London, 3 February (1954: No. 101); Friedländer (1971, 7: cat. no. 131, pl. 104); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). The Virgin feeds the Christ Child whilst she is being read to by a Joseph. They are serenaded by angels playing harp, rebec, lute and a slender flared pipe. The little finger of the lowermost hand is covering its hole, so this may have been intended to represent a recorder rather than a shawm, which would be far too loud in this context. However, the pirouette of a shawm is clearly depicted and there is no sign of a window/labium. In the foreground is a monkey. The composition of the Walker’s panel is similar to works painted by other artists, in particular a picture now in a Lisbon museum. During the 15th and early 16th centuries it was quite common for artists to borrow whole compositions as well as details from other artists. It is thought that both the painter of the Lisbon picture and The Master of Frankfurt took their composition from an unidentified earlier picture by another artist – possibly Joos van Cleve, one of the major Antwerp artists at this time.

Master of the Glorification of Mary

German painter, active in Cologne (1460-1480); named after a series of paintings of the Vigin’s life.

    (1470), tempera on oak panel, 108.7 × 93.4 cm, Master of the Glorification of Mary (op. 1460-1480). Worms: Museum Heylshof, Inv. 002. Ref. Linde (1991: 82 – b&w); Angelo Zaniol (pers. comm., 2003). The Virgin and Holy-Child surrounded by a glory of angels, many of whom play musical instruments including fiddle, lute, organetto, lute, psaltery, harp, hurdy-gurdy, and three cylindrical duct flutes (possibly recorders).

Master of Gysbrecht van Brederode

Netherlandish illuminator who, between 1465 and 1470, produced nearly all the miniatures in a breviary for Gijsbrecht Brederode; his work is known from nine other books of hours, and a bible for Evert Zoudenbalch; active 1450-1475.

  • Hours of Gysbrecht van Brederode: Coronation of the Virgin, illlumination, 10.5 × 7.0 cm, Master of Gysbrecht van Brederode (fl. ca 1450-1475). Liège: Université de Liège, Bibliothèque, MS Wittert 13, ff. 13v-14r). Ref. Website: Université de Liège, Bibliothèques; Brassinne (1924). The Virgin and Child surrounded by a mandorla are crowned by two angels. Amongst the marginal decorations are a bird, the head of a man with glasses, and musical angels playing harp, rebec, pipe and tabor, lute, and a cylindrical recorder. The beak and window/labium of the recorder are clearly depicted.

Master known as ‘HB’ = Hans Brosamer

Master known as ‘HL’

German sculptor, wood-carver and engraver active in the Upper Rhine (c.1511-1526) who has remained anonymous to this day, known only by the monogram featured on those works attributed to him.

    (1526), wooden sculpture, Master known as ‘HL’ (op.1515-1526). Detail. Breisach: St Stephensmünster. Ref. Walter Bergmann (ex Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm., 2003, b&w). Two hands hold an elaborate crown surmounted by a dove above the Virgin’s head. The crown itself is richly carved with angel musicians playing organetto, lute, gittern, and a slender flared pipe (possibly a duct flute). On the far left-hand side a fifth angel can be seen playing a pipe with a much wider flare.

Master of the Holy Blood [Maître du Saint-Sang]

Anonymous Netherlandish painter of the triptych of the Lamentation that belonged to the Bruges Brotherhood of the Holy Blood. Some 30 works have been attributed to this Master, who has been characterized as a competent but unassuming practitioner; active in Bruges c.1530.

    (c.1500-1520), panel, Master of the Holy Blood (op. c.1530). Private Collection; shown Central Picture Galleries, New York (1960). Ref. Advert, Le Conoisseur, April 1960; Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie 21322 (2001). To the right of Mary, an angel plays a short duct flute held in the right hand, the left hand lower but obscured. The mouthpiece and window/labium are very clearly depicted.

Master of the Holy Night (op. early 16th century), Germany

  • Holy Family, Master of the Holy Night (op. early 16th century). Bonn: Landesmuseum (formerly Provinzial Museum). Ref. Cohen (1927: pl. 33); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). Angels play fiddle, harp, lute and recorder. “Cf. sale, Sotheby’s, 26 June 1964, lot 8. Similar to an early 16th century German painting in Madrid, Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen.

Master of the Housebook [Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet]

German engraver and painter named for a series of vigorous and sophisticated drawings of everyday life found in the Hausbuch at Castle Wolfegg; many of his engravings are in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; his work is thought to have influenced Bosch, Bruegel, and Dürer; he is apparently the first artist to use drypoint, a form of engraving, for all of his prints (other than woodcuts he may have designed); born 1430/5, died after 1480.

  • The Fool Marcolf and his Wife Polikana Dancing (ca 1480), engraving, Master of the Housebook (1430/5 – op. 1480). Ref. Lehrs & Mayor (1969: no. 549); Hutchinson (1972: 175); Filedt Kok (1985: no. 107); Rasmussen (2004, Bells). The fool has a recorder in his sock and two large pellet bells on his jacket (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen.
  • From Venus and Mars, fol. 14r: Apollo (The Sun) and his Children (ca 1480), Master of the Housebook (1430/5 – op. 1480). Schloss Wolfegg, near Ravensburg; Berlin: Gemäldegalerie; Paris: Bibliothèque National, Print Collection. Ref. Graul (1934: pl. 6); Waldburg Wolfegg (1480/1997: 35, pl. 18); Mirimonde (1977: 210, fig. 133); Welker (1983: 121); Moeck (1984: September, b&w); Paris RIdIM (1999); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001); Blazekovic (2003: fig. 12.4a); Hijmans (2005: 216); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). An illustration in a medieval house-book. Children play in and around a walled garden; some sing and play musical instruments, including two shawms, trumpet, and bagpipe; one lad holds a lute under his arm and a small tabor in the other hand. A young couple feed a falcon on a table watched by another couple. In a chapel, a priest prays, and a woman gives alms to a cripple seated on the porch. A jester figure leans over a small wall and pipes along with the singers on a cylindrical duct flute (flageolet or recorder) with window/labium and four finger holes visible. Both his hands are on the upper part of the instrument. Behind, youths play various games including wrestling and jousting. Above, Apollo rides across the sky on a magnificent steed, a sceptre in one hand, a banner on a spear in the other.Venus and Mars contains illustrations of the planets, gardens of love and jousting tournaments, medicinal and household remedies, as well as chapters on mining and the art of war. Completed around 1480, this unique book is particularly famous for its meticulous draughtsmanship. Active in the Middle Rhine region, the illustrator, who portrayed his world with sensitivity and wit, exercised a considerable influence on his younger contemporary, Albert Dürer. The identity of the artist and his patrons, however, still remain a mystery, though some of the illustrations are thought to be by the Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet. For over 300 years this world-renowned manuscript has been kept in the collection of the Princes of Waldburg Wolfegg at Schloss Wolfegg near Ravensburg, Germany.

Master of the Incredulity of Saint Thomas = Bartolomeo Mendozzi

Master known as ‘J.H.’ (op. 1647-1666)

  • Bacchic Procession of Putti, Master known as ‘J.H.’ (op. 1647-1666). Disley: Lyme Hall, Great Staircase, South wall. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2003). A long landscape-shaped composition of great merit. A putto at centre left plays what could be a soprano duct flute, perhaps a recorder. It is not at all clearly painted. Note by Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)

Master Jocomart – See Jaime Baco

Master of the Joseph Sequence [Master of Affligem]

South Netherlandish artist active in Brussels (1490-1500), named after a series of tondi illustrating the Legend of St Joseph. Eight panels with scenes from the Life of Christ and the Life of the Virgin from the Abbey of Affligem have been attributed to the same painter and give the artist his alternative name.

  • Joseph Sold to the Ismaelites, Master of the Joseph Sequence (op. 1490-1500). Berlin: Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Gemäldergalerie. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). At the top of the painting, a group of shepherds sit on a grassy knoll having a picnic lunch. One of their member stands behind them, apparently playing a pipe, though this is obscure.

Master of James IV of Scotland

A Flemish manuscript illuminator and painter most likely based in Ghent, or perhaps Bruges, in the period c. 1465–1541 . Circumstantial evidence, including several larger panel paintings, indicates that he may be identical with Gerard Horenbout (fl. 1515-c.1541). He was the leading illuminator of the penultimate generation of Flemish illuminators. The painter’s name is derived from a portrait of James IV of Scotland which, together with one of his Queen Margaret Tudor, is in the Prayer book of James IV and Queen Margaret, a book of hours commissioned by James and now in Vienna. He has been called one of the finest illuminators active in Flanders around 1500, and contributed to many lavish and important books besides directing an active studio of his own.

  • Spinola Hours: May, (c. 1541), illumination in tempera colors, gold, and ink on parchment, leaf 23.2 × 16.7 cm, workshop of the Master of James IV of Scotland (c.1465-c.1541). Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. Ludwig IX 18, fol. 3v. Ref. Website: Lute Iconography LI-1035 (2022, col.); Website: Wikipedia, Spinola Book of Hours (2021). In the largest of four illuminated panels surrounding the calendar for May, two men on horseback cross a stone bridge, followed by a bird catcher on foot. A boat drifts in the river below with an oarsman at each end – the man at the rear drinking from a flask. There are three passengers, one of whom plays a small lute, another a slender pipe, possibly a duct-flute (recorder or flageolet). In the background are a farm and a small castle with a moat.

Master of Lanaja = Blasco de Grañen

Master of the Leafy Embroidery [Master of the Embroidered Foliage]

A catch-all name referring to a group of painters active in Brussels and Bruges in the late fifteenth century who created a number of works that include foliage depicted in an almost mechanical technique, with small luminous raised marks, reminiscent of embroidery stitches; known from conflations or copies of Rogier van der Weyden’s work; active ca 1495-1500. Recent research suggests that some of the paintings attributed to this Master were in fact not created by a single artist. Instead, they were probably painted by different artists using a common source that circulated within one or among several workshops (Exhibition: Medieval Mystery, Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 2004).

  • Triptych: Virgin with Child and Three Angel Musicians with St Catherine and St Barbara, oil on oak panels, 158 × 123 cm (centre panel) 158 × 57 (wings), Master of the Leafy Embroidery (op. ca 1495-1500). Polizzi Generosa (Sicily): Chiesa Madre. Ref. Friedländer (1968, 4: 129, pl. 111); Paris RIdIM (1999); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Website: Friedländer 3.0 Database (2016, col) Part of an altarpiece in the style of Memling, to whom this work has been attributed. The Virgin reads a book to the Christ-child flanked by four musical angels , two per side: on the left, angels sing; on the right they play lute and a cylindrical duct flute (flageolet or recorder). The bell of the latter instrument is hidden and the window/labium is quite clear, but the disposition of the fingers seems haphazard. In the side panels two Holy Virgins are depicted with the attributes of their martyrdom: on the left, St Catherine of Alexandria with a sword and a book; on the right, St Barbara with palm and beside the tower where she was imprisoned . Initially placed in the Church of St. Mary of Jesus of PP . Minor , its arrival in Polizzi is shrouded in legend . C onsidered the most beautiful painting of Flemish Sicily, it has been variously attributed to Memling or Van Eyke or Van der Weyden . There is another version (with angel playing fiddle as well as lute- and recorder) in a private collection in Palermo (see below).
  • Virgin and Child with Six Music-making Angels, oil on wood panel, 174 × 135 cm, Master of the Leafy Embroidery (op. ca 1495-1500). Paris: Louvre, Inv. RF1973-35. Ref. Gábrici (1924/25: 145-161); Besseler (1931: pl. XIII); Pirro (1940: opp. p. 80); Clsson & Borren (1950: 56); Sale catalogue: Charpentier, Paris, 7 December 1951; Friedländer (1968, 4: 88, pl. 83); Lambotte (1935: pl. 17); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Fischer (1972: 13); Paris RIdIM (1999); Website: Joconde (2010, col); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Website: Friedländer 3.0 Database (2016, col.); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1268 (2022, col.) In front of an embroidered screen, the Virgin with the Christ-child on her lap is crowned by two flying angels. On her right, angel musicians sing from a book a motet by the English composer Walter Frye (fl. 1450-1475), illustrated by this painting; on her left, angels play lute, vielle, and a small cylindrical duct flute (flageolet or recorder). The bell of the latter instrument is hidden and the window/labium is quite clear, but the disposition of the fingers seems haphazard. Another version can be found in Polizzi Generosa (see above).
  • Madonna with Angel Musicians, Master of the Leafy Embroidery (op. ca 1495-1500). Paris: Collection Féral. Ref. Wiese (1988: fig. 16, b&w); Archiv Moeck. Mary and the Christ-child are surrounded by angel musicians singing and playing lute, vielle and a small, cylindrical duct flute (flageolet or recorder).

Master of the Legend of St George

Painter, active in Germany, apparently an immigrant in Cologne, possibly of Netherlandish origin; named after the St George altarpiece (Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne) the central panel of which is divided into four sections with multiple narrative scenes from the Life of St George; flourished 1460-1490).

  • Altarpiece: Nativity, Master of the Legend of St George (op. 1460-1490). Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, 117. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999: KNwr 113). Mary prays before the Christ-child; Joseph holds a candle; beasts eat from a trough in the barn behind. A choir of miniature angels sing, and two others parade with censor and mitre rather officiously. In the background, are shepherds and their dogs in a field of sheep. One of the shepherds stands cross-legged playing a duct flute with a clear window/labium, three holes showing beneath the player’s hand, and a Virdung-style bell end. An angel hovers above but, unlike the other shepherds and the dogs, the recorder-player doesn’t notice. In the foreground is a procession of visitors, including a man and two nuns. There are two shields bearing coats of arms at the bottom of the painting.

Master of the Life of Mary (fl 1460-1480), German

Active in Cologne (fl. 1460-1480); named after a series of paintings of the Vigin’s life in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich.

    (1470), tempera on panel, 108.7 × 93.4 cm, Master of the Life of Mary (fl. 1460-1480). Worms: Museum Heylshof, Inv. 002. Ref. Linde (1984/1991: p. 82, b&w). Mary and Child are surrounded by a heavenly choir accompanied by angels playing various instruments including shawm, organetto, lute, psaltery and 2 cylindrical duct flutes (flageolets or recorders).

Master of Longares = Enrique de Essencop

Master of the Louvre Nativity

Italian painter active in Florence (c.1460-1490), probably Fra Diamante (according to Bernard Berenson). Fra Diamante was a Carmelite prior and frescoist who was the friend and assistant of Filippo Lippi; born Prato (c.1430), died c. 1498.

  • Altar-piece, centre panel: Nativity, ? oil/tempera/ wood, 166.5 × 166.5 cm, Master of the Louvre Nativity (op. c.1460-1490). Paris: Louvre, Inv. 338. Ref. Joconde Website (1999). Intended for the church of Santa Margherita de Prato. The Holy Family is shown before a ruined barn; animals look on; angels hover overhead; a shepherd sits amongst his sheep playing his pipe, probably a duct flute (possibly a recorder); in the distance are a river and a walled town. The composition is very similar to a Nativity painted in fresco in Spoleto Cathedral, where Fra Diamante worked from 1467 to 1469 with Filippo Lippi, and even after the latter’s death in 1469.

Master of the St Lucy Legend

South Netherlandish painter and draughtsman who takes his name from a group of some 45-50 paintings linked stylistically to the panel of the Legend of St Lucy (1480; Bruges, St Jacob); The Master’s paintings are technically proficient reworkings of established themes; the static compositions, cool colours and subdued emotion of his works give his paintings a solemn, rather than expressive, effect; active ca 1475-1505.

    (ca 1485), oil on panel, 199.2 × 161.8 cm (panel: 201.5 × 163.8 cm), Master of the St Lucy Legend (fl. c.1475-1505). Detail. Washington: National Gallery of Art, Samuel H. Kress Collection 1952.2.13. Ref. Canfalonieri, in Fabbri (1964, 1: 103 – detail); Remnant (1981: 116, pl. 96, b&w); Ford (1986: 36); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1624 (2022, col.) Depicts three facets of Marian iconography: the Virgin’s corporeal assumption, the Immaculate Conception—the crescent moon and the radiance behind her identify Mary as the Woman of the Apocalypse, mentioned in Revelation 12:I—and the Coronation of the Virgin. Mary is supported by angels and surrounded by a host of angel musicians singing and playing three shawms, folded trumpet, vielle, two harps, dulcimer, two lutes, positive organ and a trio of flared-bell recorders of different sizes (soprano, alto and tenor). Two of the singing angels hold books bearing legible texts and notation. This music, which is the source of the painting’s title, has been identified as derived from a setting of the Marian antiphon, Ave Regina Caelorum, by Walter Frye (d. 1474/1475), an English composer whose works were popular on the Continent, particularly at the Burgundian court.

Master of the Lyversberg Passion

Flemish artist who worked in Cologne, known for a number of altarpiece sections formerly in the Lyversberg Collection which are now to be found at Cologne and Nuremberg; active 1460-1490.

    (ca 1463), painting, 110.6 × 113.0 cm, Master of the Lyversberg Passion (op. 1460-1490). Detail. Munich: Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammaster, Inv. WAF 621. Ref. TIBIA – Musikbilder auf Postkarten, Series 3, Nr 1 – Ed. Moeck Nr 11103 (1987, col) Thomson & Rowland-Jones (1995: 14, fig. 7); Card Aid, London: postcard 41746, Angeli Musicali; CD Cover: A Christmas Tapestry, The Dolmetsch Ensemble, Fidelis (Harmonia Mundi) FIDCD 103; CD Cover: Lucente Stella, Pierre Hamon, Opus 111, OPS 30-122; Rowland-Jones (1999b: 13); Hijmans (2005: 216); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Wikimedia Commons (2008, col.); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1259 (2022, col.) This altarpiece was donated to the church of St Ursula in Cologne by Johann von Hirtz (m. 1481). Mary is crowned by God the Father and God the Son, the Holy Spirit hovers above. Angels hovering below hold up the throne, and a host of angel musicians on either side sing and play three large cylindrical recorders accompanied by gitterns and harps (left), and three smaller recorders accompanied by sackbut, lutes and vielle (right). However, the lower hand of each recorder player is occluded by the angel in front. This painting has also been attributed to the Master of the Life of Mary.

Master of the Mailänd Offertory (16th century)

  • Holy Family with Priest and Angel Musicians, Master of the Mailänd Offertory (16th century). Berlin: Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Gemäldegalerie. Ref. Wiese (1988: fig. 20, b&w). A man reads from a book to a boy whilst angel musicians play lute, vielle and a slender pipe (possibly a recorder).

Master of the Manassei Chapel (late 14th century), Italian (Florentine)

Thought by Berenson to have been Angelo [or Agnolo] Gaddi di Taddeo (ca 1350-1396), by Salvrini to be the Master of Vicchio di Rimaggio (op. ca 1390), and by Zeri to be a follower of Angelo Gaddi, etc., etc.

  • Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels, Master of the Manassei Chapel (late 14th century). São Paulo, Brazil: Museo d’Arte São Paulo. Ref. Boskovits (1975: 241, fig. 420); Brown (1985: 266, #315, b&w). “Two angels play shawms or recorders” (Brown, loc. cit.) The reproduction is very indistinct: there is no bell flare, but too much of the instrument is below the lower hand to suggest a recorder. Shawms or single duct flutes would be my suggestion here” (Rowland-Jones, pers com.)

Master of Maria am Gestade (op. ca 1460), Austrian

  • Altar-piece: Coronation of Maria, 202 × 161 cm, Master of Maria am Gestade. Vienna: Redemptoristenkloster. Ref. Pächt (1929: 19); Liesbeth van der Sluijs (pers. comm., 2001). Against a Gothic balcony, God the Father (centre right) crowns the kneeling Maria (center left). Small female angels arrange Maria’s cloak. At the bottom right, three small female angels sing from a book. On the balcony, is an orchestra of small angels who play before church windows. To the right are players of ? tenor recorder, triangle, shawm, cornetto, and singers. To the left players of lute, harp, vielle, and singers. In the middle are an organist, a lutenist, and four singers. This composition is cruciform and symmetric, and the figures are light and lively. Notes by Liesbeth van der Sluijs (loc., cit.)

Master of the Mazarine Manuscript (fl. 1410-1415), French

  • Heuresà l’usage de Paris: Annunciation to the Shepherds (1410-1415), illumination on parchment, 24.8 × 17.4 cm, Master of the Mazarine Manuscript (fl. 1410-1415). Paris: Bibliothèque Mazarine, ms. 0469, f. 056v. Ref. Master of the Mazarine Manuscript (1410-1415). Long attributed to Maître de Boucicaut, but now to Maître de la Mazarine, named after this manuscript. A scene in the centre of a page illustrates Luke 2,9 depicting the three shepherds seated on the ground look upwards at three angels, one of whom holds a banner reading [G]loria in [altissimis] deo” (Luke 2,14). Their sheep graze, a dog looks back at its master. One of the shepherds holds a duct flute in his left hand. A number of finger holes are visible and their is a hint of a windway/labium.In the lower left corner, a scene illustrating Luke 2,8 depicts Shepherds Watching their Sheep. One shepherd sits beneath a tree leaning on his hand; the other leans over a rock playing a duct flute with a slightly flared bell, his dog curled up in front of him. There is the hint of a window/labium and a number of finger holes are visible.

Master of the Milan Adoration – See Jan de Beer

Master of Olot

The anonymous late 15th-century Spanish painter of a series of altarpieces parish church of St Stephen at Olot, Santa Cristina Hermitage, Rigardà and elsewhere in a Flemish-influenced style; the suggested identification of this artist as Miquel Torell (op. 1471-1487) is controversial.

  • Altarpiece dedicated to Saint Eulàlia: Virgin and Child (1470-1487), panel, Master of Olot (15th century). Detail. Rigardà: La iglesia paroissiale Sainte Eulalie et Sainte Julie. Ref. Ballester (1990: 176-177 & pl. 103); Rowland-Jones (1996: 14, fig. 12, b&w, detail); Recorder Magazine 25(4): (2005: 142 & front cover, col.); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Originally from a nearby monastery which escaped the destruction of the French Revolution. Restored 40 years ago, but most of the work was to preserve the wood, especially the panel joins, with not much pictorial touching up. Between two angel musicians, the Holy Child sits on Mary’s lap reading from a book. The angel on the left plays a lute; that on the right plays a flared tenor-sized recorder with double holes for the little finger of the lowermost hand which looks almost too good to be true.

Master of Ottobeuren [Meister von Ottobeuren], German (Memmingen)

  • Christ being Crowned with Thorns (ca 1510-1515), Master of Ottobeuren (possibly Hans Thomas), wooden sculpture, German. Hamburg: Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe. Ref. Rowland-Jones (1998: 129, fig. 6, b&w). “With great force two men beat the crown of thorns deep upon Christ’s head, while a curly-haired younger man kneels beside Christ and puts in his hand what at first looks like a short stick or baton. It could be the ‘reed in his right hand’ mentioned in Matthew ch. 27, v. 29, but the object is here being put into Christ’s left hand which may have symbolic intent. Moreover, the upper end is shaped roughly conically as if it were the beak of a duct flute and the bottom end is bored out some way up, which suggests that the ‘gift’ might be a pipe of some kind. The face of the man is badly damaged around his nose and mouth, but his eyes seem to express hate. Christ bows his head in anguish, hardly noticing the insult which would be implied by a pipe. His eyes are closed” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)

Master of the Ovile Madonna – see Bartolomeo Bulgarini

Master of Perea [Maestro de Perea] (late 15th century), Spanish

Little known Spanish Gothic painter active in Valencia in the late 15th century; he was amongst those that first adopted the innovations of the Quattrocento; his style combines Italian-style landscapes properly constructed according to their geometric perspective with the older Gothic style in the rendering of the figures and the application of gold leaf to some surfaces; his name refers to an altarpiece made for Pedro de Perea in the church of the monastery of Portacoeli.

  • Altar-piece of Santa Ana, panel: Anunciation to St Joaquin, Master of Perea (late 15th century). Xàtiva: College. Ref. Ballester (2001: 13, fig. 4, b&w). Depicts the appearance of an Angel who inform the Saint that that his wife will give birth to a daughter of whom the Messiah will be born. According to legend, San Joaquin dedicated himself to the care of his flocks and was indeed in the fields when the Angel appeared to him, so it is not surprising that that the artist represents his companions as shepherds. Thus, in the foreground beneath the Saint, stand two shepherds; another kneels, a flared-bell pipe (possibly a duct flute) stuck through his belt.

Master of the Pollinger Panels [Meister der Pollinger Tafeln] (15th century), Bavarian

German (Bavarian) artist (possibly Gabriel Angler, fl. 1434-1482); one of the most distinctive artists in early Bavarian painting who created a series of paintings formerly in the convent church at Polling, two from an altarpiece depicting the life of the Virgin; eight others illustrate the foundation of a monastery and formed the wings of an elaborate cruciform altarpiece.

    (1444), Master of the Polling Panels (15th century). Munich: Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen 814 (formerly German National Museum, Inv. 4565). Ref. Peter (1958: 43); Munich RIdIM (1999, Mstag – 814, b&w & Ngnm – 90). Altarpiece dedicated to the Virgin Mary, from St Augustine’s Church, Pollinger, Nuremberg. ” … a group of angels is gathered around the crib. Some of them are kneeling in a circle round the Christ-child in adoration; a little to one side, at the head of the crib, there stands a group of angels making music. Three of them are singing from an open Codex, whilst three others are accompanying the singers on a treble recorder, a regal and a harp” (Peter, loc. cit.) Another group of musical angels at the bottom right of the painting sing to the accompaniment of lute and vielle. The recorder is cylindrical perfectly depicted, the window/labium clear and the fingers all covering their holes correctly.

Master of the Prayer Book of 1500

Flemish painter of illuminated manuscripts active in Bruges; his name is derived from a collection of devotional manuscripts from the same artist dating to about the start of the 16th century; notwithstanding his name, the Master is best known for the work he did painting secular images, incorporating details from daily life in a number of his original narratives; his interest in courtly life, as well as the daily activities of the lower classes, may be seen as well in his paintings for calendars; op. 1485 – c.1520.

  • Book of Hours: Virgin and Child (1490-1500), illumination, ca 17.7 × 10.0 cm, Master of the Prayer Book of 1500 (op. 1485 – c.1520). Paris: Musée Marmottan Monet: Wildenstein Collection, No. 152, M.6307. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2004). The fifth of ten illuminations from a Book of Hours published in Bruges. The Virgin suckles the Holy Child. Facing her are two musical angels, one playing a clearly depicted tenor recorder, left hand lowermost, all fingers on, and the right thumb flatly covering its hole underneath. The mouthpiece is beaked and the window/labium is clear.
  • Roman de la Rose: Dance of Mirth (ca 1490-1500), Master of the Prayer Book of ca 1500, ? Bruges. 394 × 292 mm, London: British Library, Harley MS 4425, f. 14v. Ref. The Museums & Galleries Collection: postcard KGB90 (1995); Brassy (1999). Musicians play pipe & tabor, harp, and a flared-bell recorder with the window/labium area and a hole for the little finger of the lowermost (right) hand clearly shown

Master of the Putti [Maestro dei Putti] (op. 1680-1690), Italian

  • [Faun], sculpture, Master of the Putti (op. 1680-1690). Vicenza: Palazzo Leoni Montanari, Sala dei Fauni. Ref. Brugnolo Meloncelli & Cevese (1993: 75, col.); Paulo Biordi (pers. comm, 2002). Watched by a bust of a woman with elaborately coiffured hair, a young satyr plays a conical duct flute (probably a recorder). The windway/labium and five finger holes are clearly visible, the lowermost not offset. Although wide, the bell has very thick walls indicating that the bore is not particularly flared.

Master of the Saluces Hours (15th century), French

The Saluces Book of Hours dates from the second half of the 15th century (probably the third quarter). Although it came from Saluzzo, the illuminator’s name is derived from that part of Savoy which is now in France.

  • Mary with the Child and Angel Musicians, from the Saluces (Savoy) Book of Hours (ca 1460), illumination, Master of the Saluces Book of Hours. London: British Library, MS. Add. 27697, fol. 105 v. Ref. Calendar: Musica 1970 (Bärenreiter); Archiv Moeck; Paris RIdIM (1999); Walter Bergmann (ex Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm., 2003). The Virgin and Holy Child, enthroned, are surrounded by musical angels. Those on the left play tambour, psaltery, nakers, shawms and a duct flute (possibly a recorder) the beak and window/labium of which are clearly visible. Those on the right play lutes, harp, organetto, triangle, pipe and tabor. Three angels appear to be singers.

Master of Seu d Urgell – See Master of Canapost

Master of the St Thomas Altarpiece – See Master of the St Bartholomew Altarpiece

Master of La Secuita [Maestro de La Secuita] (15th century), Spanish

    (1425-1440), tempera and gold leaf on panel, Master of La Secuita. Tarragona: Museu Diocesà. Ref. Gudiol (1986: 574); Ballester (1990: 184-185 & pl. 118); Rowland-Jones (1996: 11, fig. 7, b&w; 1999c: 33); Pedros (2007: 176 & fig. 73, b&w); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1278 (2022, col.) The central panel depicts the Virgin and Child surrounded by four angel musicians playing lute, harp, psaltery, and a duct flute with rather more holes than fingers. The lowermost finger hole of the latter is clearly doubled, which makes it quite likely that this represents a recorder. Pedros (loc. cit.) attributes this work to Pascual (or Pascasi, or Pasqual) Ortoneda (doc. 1421/3-1460), possibly a nephew of the painter Matthew Ortoneda (doc. 1391-1433).

Master of the Stockholm Musicans (17th century), Dutch

  • [Shepherd with a Recorder], 78 × 62 cm, Master of the Stockholm Musicians (17th century). Location unknown: auctioned P. de Boer, Amsterdam (1945), attributed to Dirk van Baburen. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, The Hague, Negative L34200; Ruth van Baak Griffioen (pers. comm., 2003). A man in a loose-fitting shirt holds a hand-fluyt, the foot of which is out of frame.
  • Young Woman with a Recorder, after Jan van Bijlert (1598-1671) by the Master of the Stockholm Musicians (17th century). Private Collection; auctioned by Sotheby’s, London (9 December 1981), Lot. 78. Ref. Sotheby’s, Sale Catalogue; Buijsen & Grijp (1993: 224-227, fig., b&w); Wind (1997: vol.2, cover, col.) Attributed to Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656) by Sotheby’s (loc. cit). Identical to Bijlert’s Girl with a Flute in the Art Gallery of New South Wales (see above), Sydney and an unsigned version in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow.

Master of the Teaching Christ Master = Master Francesco

Master of the Trapani Polyptych

Early fifteenth-century Italian artist, most likely a Sicilian, influenced by contemporary Tuscan painters.

  • Virgin with Child and Angels, painting, Master of the Trapani Polyptych (early 15th century). Detail (restored). Palermo: Galleria Regionale della Sicilia Palazzo Abatellis, Inv. 18. Ref. Brown (1980; 1986: #540, b&w); Thomson & Rowland-Jones (1995: 4, pl. 2B); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000; 2006c: 15 & fig. 14, col) From the monastery of S. Martino alle Scale, Palermo. Formerly attributed to Turino Vanni (fl. 1390-1427), Italian (Sicilian). The Virgin and Child are surrounded by six angels. An angel on the lower left-hand corner of the painting plays a double pipe. Another on the lower right-hand corner plays a duct flute which may be a flageolet or a recorder. The instrument, with its beaded foot piece, is strikingly suggestive of the Dordrecht recorder, the lower tenon of which had provision for just such a foot-piece. However, the fingers are deployed in a ‘four-plus-two’ fingering suggestive of flageolet playing. Since the photograph reproduced in Thomson & Rowland-Jones (loc. cit) was taken, this painting has been allowed to deteriorate considerably but has recently been restored, minus the angel’s little finger on each hand and with the halo partially obliterated. Also there are slight signs of a little finger hole, probably added by the restorer who assumed the instrument to be a recorder rather than a flageolet (perhaps he was an admirer of Howard Mayer Brown). Anyone now looking at the picture would assume it is a recorder, despite earlier evidence to the contrary.
  • Coronation of the Virgin with Saints Peter and St Paul, painting, Master of the Trapani Polyptych (early 15th century). Detail. Palermo: Galleria Regionale della Sicilia Palazzo Abatellis, Inv. 24. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000); California State University Systems: World of Art Web Kiosk (2002, col.) From the Church of St Pietro la Bagliata, Palermo. The Virgin is crowned by Christ. A panel to the left depicts St Peter; that on the right St Paul. Beneath the Virgin, angel musicians play straight trumpets, organetto, fiddle, harp and lute, and two play identical cylindrical pipes. On the pipe on the left, three finger holes for the upper (left) hand are clearly visible, and although only three fingers of the right hand seem to be used the index finger seems to be operating two holes. On the pipe on the right only one finger of each hand is covering its hole, but there are a further two holes visible above and a further two below the lower (left hand). Thus these instruments very possibly represent recorders, though there is no window/labium visible on either.

Master of the van Morrison Triptych (15th century)

Two works containing recorders previously thought to be by this artist are now attributed to an anonymous Netherlandish Master of the early 16th century.

Master of the Vitae Imperatorum

Italian illuminator, amongst the foremost of those employed at the court of the Visconti; active Milan (1431-1459).

  • Pontifical: marginal decoration (1433 to 1438), illumination on parchment, 35.0 × 25.5 cm, Master of the Vitae Imperatorum (1431-1459). Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum, MS 28 Surrounded by birds of various kinds, two putti sit on either side of the papal coat of arms, one playing a small lute, the other playing a flared-bell pipe, possibly intended to represent a recorder.

Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce

Flemish illuminator, a follower of Willem Vrelant (ca 1450-1475). The extraordinary focus on recorders in the illuminations detailed below is similar to those by an anonymous artist in a 15th-century French manuscript version of the Eclogues held in the Bibliotheque Municipale, Dijon.

  • Virgil, Opera omnia, Volume 1, Eclogues, follower of Willem Vrelant (illuminator), Bruges: Flute-playing Contest Between Menalcas and Dametas with Palemon as Judge (ca 1450-1475), illuminated miniature on vellum, 10.0 × 9.5 cm, Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce (15th century). The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 76 E 21 I, Fol. 20r: min. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). Surrounded by sheep and a pert looking cow, Palemon leans on his staff listening as Menalcas and Dametas play their recorders. One shepherd has a further three recorders in a bag suspended from his waist; the other has two more in a sling around his side. The instruments are cylindrical and of plain profile; the window/labium and the characteristic paired holes for the little finger of the lowermost hand are clearly depicted.
  • Virgil, Opera omnia, Volume 1, Eclogues, follower of Willem Vrelant (illuminator), Bruges: Mopsus and Menalcas About to Play a Song Eulogizing Daphnis, the Ideal Shepherd (ca 1450-1475), miniature on vellum, 9.0 × 9.5 cm, Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce (15th century). The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 76 E 21 I, Fol. 25r: min. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). The two shepherds meet each other in a hilly pasture, recorders at the ready, their sheep following. The beak, and window/labium of each cylindrical instrument are clearly visible. On one the paired holes for the little finger of the lowermost hand are clearly depicted, but no other finger holes are visible. On the other the three uppermost finger holes are visible but the lower ones are covered by the player’s hand.
  • Virgil, Opera omnia, Volume 1, Eclogues, follower of Willem Vrelant (illuminator), Bruges: Damon Complains to Alphesibeus About his Unrequited Love (ca 1450-1475), miniature on vellum, 9.0 × 9.5 cm, Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce (15th century). The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 76 E 21 I, Fol. 32r: min. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). Two shepherds seem to be having a discussion about recorders: one has a recorder in a sling at his side, the other holds his up as if to make a point. A woman reads from a book at a podium. Beside her another shepherd plays his recorder earnestly. The characteristic window/labium and paired holes for the little finger of the lowermost hand are clearly visible in each instrument. In the background a bride and groom stand either side of a priest at the door of a church. In the center of the picture Damon clasps his hands beseechingly.
  • Virgil, Opera omnia, Volume 1, Eclogues, follower of Willem Vrelant (illuminator), Bruges: Meris, Virgil’s Tenant, Brings Goats to Lyadas, the New Owner of Virgil’s Estate (ca 1450-1475), miniature on vellum, 8.0 × 9.5 cm, Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce (15th century). The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 76 E 21 I, Fol. 35r: min. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002); Recorder Magazine 23(3): front cover (2003: detail, col.) Meris drives his sheep (not goats) up the road leading to a castle. On the grass beside the road two shepherds sit playing their recorders, two more beside them on the ground. All four instruments are cylindrical, their window/labium and finger holes clearly depicted. One of the recorders on the ground has holes for 7 fingers, the lowermost paired.
  • Virgil, Opera omnia, Volume 1, Eclogues, follower of Willem Vrelant (illuminator), Bruges: The Shepherds Commiserate with Gallus, Because Lycoris has Left him (ca 1450-1475), miniature on vellum, 8.0 × 9.5 cm, Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce (15th century). The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 76 E 21 I, Fol. 37r: min. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). Gallus, lying prostrate on the grass is surrounded by his friends leaning on their staves, and their sheep. Two of the shepherds have recorders in slings around their waists. Another shepherd sits on a rocky ledge nearby playing his recorder. All the instruments are cylindrical, their window/labium and finger holes clearly visible.
  • Virgil, Opera omnia, Volume 2: Georgics, follower of Willem Vrelant (illuminator), Bruges: Farmers and their Livestock (ca 1450-1475), miniature on vellum, 7.0 × 9.5 cm, Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce (15th century). The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 76 E 21 I, Fol. 28r: min. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). Two farmers stand amidst their sheep, pigs, cows and donkeys, a number of which are copulating. Behind them a shepherd sits on the grass playing a cylindrical pipe (probably a recorder) to some sheep.
  • Virgil, Opera omnia, Volume 2: Georgics, follower of Willem Vrelant (illuminator), Bruges: Flute-playing Contest between Corydon and Thyrsis with Daphnis as Judge (ca 1450-1475), miniature on vellum, 9.0 × 9.5 cm, Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce (15th century). The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 76 E 21 I, Fol. Fol. 30r: min. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). Daphnis sits beneath a tree, a recorder on the ground at his side. Corydon and Thyrsis stand beside him playing their recorders. One of the contestants has a second recorder tucked in a sling around his waist. The beak, window/labium and finger holes of each instrument are clearly depicted.

Master of the Västerås Triptych (op. Antwerp, ca 1515-1520), Flemish

  • Virgin and Child, Master of the Västerås Triptych (op. Antwerp, ca. 1515-1520). Location unknown; sold Milan (1996). Ref. Burlington Magazine 138 (1996, col.); Die Weltkunst (1984, 54: 3485); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). “Three angels at the left sing and one plays a harp. Angels at the right play fiddle, lute and recorder” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Die Weltkunst (loc. cit.), ie Munich art market, attributes this to Jacob Cornelisz van Amsterdam; Rasmussen asserts that it is not. Not seen.

Master of Viella (late 15th century), Spanish

  • Altarpiece: The Decapitation of Saint John the Baptist and the Feast of Herod, tempera, Master of Viella (late 15th century). Blanes (Barcelona): Private Collection. Ref. RIdIM/RCMI Newsletter 20 (1): 35 (1995). From the Retaule de Sant Joan Baptista. “On the right, Salome offers Saint John the Baptist’s severed head to Herodias, in front of Herod and a servant. On the left, the executioner sheathes his sword beside Saint John’s beheaded body. In the background, two minstrels playing two recorders.”

Master known as ‘WR’ (16th century), German.

  • Musical Instruments (1524), Master known as ‘WR’, German. Erlangen: Universitätsbibliothek, Ms. B 200, fol. 128 r. Ref. Lutze (1936: S. 58 u. 69 f.); Scharenberg (1993); Archiv Moeck. Includes copies of illustrations from Virdung (1511) including trumpets, drums, kettledrums, and a pair of recorders.

Master XXX with an L (op. ca 1559), Netherlandish

  • Vanitas (1559), engraving, Master XXX with an L (op. ca 1559). Ref. Hollstein (1949-2010, 13: 104, nos 1-2); Rasmussen (2002, Lute). “A man and a woman seated beside a table. Among the objects on the table are a lute and two ? recorders” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.)

Master of Zweder van Culemborg precursor, Netherlandish

Miniaturist, active in Utrecht (op. ca 1425).

  • Book of Hours (use of Utrecht): Hours of the Holy Spirit: Sext: An Angel Making Music, illuminated initial and border decoration on vellum (ca 1425), 30 × 35 cm, Master of Zweder van Culemborg, precursor (illuminator), Utrecht. Detail. The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 133 M 131, Fol. 116v: hist. in. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). A kneeling angel plays a cylindrical duct flute, possibly a recorder, the window/labium clearly depicted.
  • Book of Hours (use of Utrecht): Hours of the Holy Spirit: None: An Angel Making Music, illuminated initial and border decoration on vellum (ca 1425), 30 × 35 cm, Master of Zweder van Culemborg, precursor (illuminator), Utrecht. Detail. The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 133 M 131, Fol. 119r: hist. in. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). A seated angel plays a cylindrical pipe, probably a duct flute, possibly a recorder since the little finger of the lowermost (left) hand covers its hole.
  • Book of Hours (use of Utrecht): Hours of the Holy Spirit: Compline: An Angel Making Music, illuminated initial and border decoration on vellum (ca 1425), 30 × 35 cm, Master of Zweder van Culemborg, precursor (illuminator), Utrecht. Detail. The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, 133 M 131, Fol. 126r: hist. in. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). A seated angel plays a cylindrical pipe, probably a duct flute, possibly a recorder since the little finger of the lowermost (left) hand covers its hole.

Jacob [Jacques] Matham

Dutch engraver, draughtsman and painter; born Haarlem (1571), died Haarlem (1631); stepson of the pre-eminent engraver Hendrick Goltzius, whose style he closely imitated; father of Theodor Matham (1605/6-1676).

  • Proclamation to the Shepherds (1621), print after Veronese by Jacob Matham (1571-1631). Ref. Bartsch (1854-1870,4: 1309.206); Munich RIdIM (1999). One of the shepherds has a recorder in his belt.
  • The Times of Day (series): Meridies [Midday] or The Passage of Phoebus, (1621), print after Karel van Mander by Jacob Matham (1571-1631). Ref. Bartsch (1854-1870, 3: 174, 177); Munich RIdIM (1999). The four times of day were Matin (Aurora), Midi (Phoebus), Soir (Venus), Nuit (Morpheus). Labourers in the field stop for lunch. One carries a bagpipe and a pipe with a sharp bell-end which could be a bagpipe chanter, shawm or recorder. The beak and windway of the latter are clearly depicted, side-on. Two finger holes are visible beneath the hand holding the instrument. Apollo (surprisingly) plays a hurdy-gurdy. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000).
  • Satyr Admiring Sleeping Venus, print after Hans Rottenhammer the Elder (1564-1625) by Jacob Matham (1571-1631). Ref. Bartsch (1854-1870, 4: 193.180); Munich RIdIM (1999). The Satyr holds a recorder.
  • Rest on the Flight to Egypt (1610), engraving by Jacob Matham (1571-1631), after Bartholomaeus Spranger (1546-1611) Ref. Bartsch (1854-1870, 4: 183/202); Rowland-Jones (2000f: 165 – figs, b&w). Mary holding the Holy Infant in one hand and the arm of the young St John the Baptist in the other as they stroll out of the picture to the right. Behind them, Joseph assisted by an angel and two putti tethers the horse, watched by a dog. A basket on the ground beside the dog contains Jospeph’s carpenter’s tools and a very likely ‘Virdung’-type recorder. The latter has a beaked mouthpiece and, although no finger holes are shown, the window/labium is clear. The foot has a marked turned bead above a strong but short bell flare. Is this one of the nativity shepherds’ gifts, or did Joseph make it himself? There could be a second, smaller recorder in the basket. Notes (in part) by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000).

Jacob Mattham le Jeune

Dutch printmaker best known for his engravings of works by Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617); born Haarlem (1571), died Haarlem (1631); stepson of artist Hendrick Goltzius; brother of engraver Simon van Poelenburgh.

    [Midday], engraving, Jacob Mattham (1571-1631)). Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w). It is mid-day and Phoebus Apollo rides across the sky in his chariot above a rural scene in which farmers are harvesting wheat, boatmen are transporting goods along a river, and shepherds are watching their goats. In the foreground right four shepherds and a shepherdess are taking a lunch-break. The shepherdess is opening a basket of food, a shepherd boy plays a conical pipe (possibly a small shawm), and a shepherd with a bagpipe tucked under one arm holds a cylindrical recorder in one hand, the beak and window/labium clearly depicted. A second hungry shepherd who holds a crook tugs impatiently at the shepherdess’ arm, and a third is holding what looks like another pipe of some kind the head of which is hidden behind his companion.

Theodor [or Dirk] Matham

Dutch engraver and draughtsman; born Harlem (1605/6), died Amsterdam (1676); son of Jacob Matham (1571-1631).

  • Vanitas (1622), engraving, Theodor Matham (1605/6-1676). Haarlem: Gemeinde Archiv. Ref. Fischer (1972: 85-91). Through a double window-frame can be seen a room situated higher and further away in which a richly-clad company is banqueting, raising glasses to the accompaniment of music played by a group of musicians sitting on a balcony. Beneath the window is a cartouche with a skull and the title ‘Vanitas’. In the foreground is a table on which are a tray with glass goblets, a pewter wine flask with a long neck, a two-part song-book with music and four couplets by the priest-musician Jan Albert Ban, a cittern, lute, five-stringed cello and a wind instrument all but the flared bell of which is hidden behind the lute. The flared bell of the wind instrument, described by Fischer (loc. cit) as a ‘flute’, may belong to a recorder. There is also an open chest with gold coins and jewels and, on a cupboard, a cup with a cherub’s head. The complex symbolism of this work and its relationship to a number of sources are discussed at length by Fischer (loc. cit.)

Paolo de Matteis

Italian painter and silversmith working in Naples, Paris, Calabria, Genoa, Rome; painted frescoes, altarpieces and allegorical and mythological pictures; born Piano del Cilento near Salerno (1662), died Naples (1728).

    , painting, Paolo de Matteis (1662-1728). Location unknown: auctioned 05/06/2002 (unsold) Ref. Gabrius Data Bank (2007, col.) A naked child reclines on a large orange cushion holding a mirror in his left hand and a slender, cylindrical duct flute in the right. The beak of the duct flute is clearly depicted but it could represent a flageolet or recorder. Possibly allegorical.

Matteo di Giovanni di Bartolo [Matteo da Siena]

Italian painter working in Sienna influenced by the discoveries and innovations of the early 15th-century Florentine school; born ca 1430?, died 1495.

    (probably 1474), tempera on wood, 33.5 × 174.0 cm, Matteo di Giovanni di Bartolo (ca 1430? -1495). London: National Gallery, NG1155. Ref. Howard (1945: 6-7, pl. 2, col); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1077 (2022, col.) The painting, said to have been dated 1474, formed the centre of an altarpiece in S. Agostino, Asciano, near Siena where Matteo di Giovanni worked. Side panels representing Saint Michael and Saint Augustine survive in Asciano. The Virgin is surrounded by musical angels, six each side and eight beneath. To her right, one angel plays a pipe, probably a recorder as at least seven finger holes and the window/labium are shown. The mouthpiece of the instrument is of a different material (white) to the body; there are no double holes. An angel centre left plays a double duct flute; however these have enough finger holes (including paired holes for the lowermost vent) to be recorders. Other angels sing and play lute, tambourine (with jingles), nakers, sackbut (with bell over the shoulder), vielle, harp, and cymbals. Next to the harpist is another recorder player whose instrument is largely hidden but the bell-end is visible with the players third and little right-hand finger on their holes.

Ben Mathews

British artist who spent much of his working life in France and Spain; born 1889, died 1975.

  • Man Playing a Recorder, oil on board, 76 × 51 cm, Ben Mathews (1889-1975). Northampton: Northampton Museum & Art Gallery. A man with a green face plays a slender, tenor-sized, near-cylindrical pipe the upper three holes of which are visible.

Taco Iwashima Matthews

Contemporary Japanese-born graphic artist whose website is here.

  • [Recorder Player] (2001), Taco Iwashima Matthews (20-21st century). Ref. Chopin (2001); Taco. One of a series of illustrations of girls playing musical instruments. In this a slender girl walks off stage left, holding her neo-baroque recorder in one hand, a score in the other. Chopin is a magazine introducing American compositions, musicians, and schools to Japanese readers.

Pieter Matthijsz. (17th century), Netherlands

    (1641), wood carving, ? Pieter Matthijsz. (17th century). Alkmaar: Grote Sing Laurenskerk, Van Hagerbeer/Schnitger organ, between shutters of the Rugpositief and the main chest. Ref. Bouterse (2009 – pers. comm.) One of two swags of musical instruments; one depicts harp, horn, flute, lute, ? oboe, tambourine (with jingle rings and pellet bells), and triangle; the other depicts horns, trumpet, violin, and a baroque recorder. Despite the date, the mouthpiece of the recorder looks very baroque, the rest (especially the foot rings) are more ‘transitional’. The case of the main organ was designed by the painter/architect Jacob van Campen (1595-1657). The case of the Rugpositief organ was made in the workshop of Van Hagerbeer in Leiden. Although the organ has undergone many repairs and renovations over the years, the original casework has been retained. Frank van Wijk, the current organist at the Laurenskerk in Alkmaar, confirms that the woodcarvings are from 1641 by Pieter Matthijsz. whose name and the year appear on the panels. More information about the organ and its history can be found here.

Broder Matthisen

German painter and printmaker; a follower of Rembrandt, his subjects include vanitas, pronk still lifes and still-lifes of fruit; active from1637, died Husum (1666).

    (1664), oil on canvas, Broder Matthisen (op.1637-m.1666). Dresden: Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Cat. 1996A. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, illustration 356303 (2014, b&w). Beneath some open drapes, on a table partially covered by an oriental cloth, lie a skull, a cap with a large feather, an ornate goblet, a lute, a terrestrial globe, a columbine cup, a bible, books (some open, others closed), a watch and key, and a small cylindrical recorder with a slightly flared foot and seven finger holes visible (the lowermost offset) but the head hidden behind a small box. A column can be seen in the background.

Paulus Matthysz

Dutch music-printer, composer, publisher prominent in Amsterdam; probably an amateur recorder player himself, he published Jacob van Eyck’s Der Fluyten Lust-hof and a collection entitled ‘t Uitnement Kabinet; born 1614, died 1684. Three extant copies of Der Fluyten Lust-hof include the tutor Vertoninge en Onderwyzinge op de Handt-fluit (1649), presumably by Matthysz, and a tutor by Gerband van Blanckenburgh, Onderwyzinge hoeman alle de Toonen…op de Handt-Fluyt (1655/6).

  • Vertoninge en Onderwyzinge op de Hand-fluit: Recorder (1649), Paulus Matthysz (1614-1684). Ref. Morgan (1984); Legêne (1995: 110-114); Thiemo Wind (2006, pers. comm.); Website: Jacob van Eyck Quarterly 3 (2007). Part of part of the anthology ‘t Uitnemend Kabinet. Shows a recorder with an externally cylindrical profile. This illustration is identical to that published later by Gerbrandt van Blanckenburgh (1655/6).

Johann Conrad von Mechel I (1642-1715) & Johann Conrad [called Hans Conrad] von Mechel II (1681-1734)

Members of a Swiss family of print-makers and publishers who were active in Basel for more than a hundred years (ca 1682-1812).

  • Der Todten-Tantz: The Musician (1717), woodcut, Johann Conrad von Mechel I (1642-1715) & Johann Conrad von Mechel II (1681-1734). Heidelberg: Universitätsbibliothek, Basel, 1724 [VD18 14296691]. Ref. Mechel (1724); Hagstrøm (n.d., accessed 2015). Amongst the material the Mechel-family inherited were Huldrich Frölich’s books about Basel’s Dance of Death mural. Frölich’s books combined texts from Basel’s and Bern’s dance of death (along with a Latin translation of Basel’s dance of death). With a few exceptions however, the illustrations were neither from Basel nor Bern, but were poor copies of Holbein’s dance of death. In their reprint of Frölich’s woodcuts the Mechels added a number of their own in their 1717 printing and subsequent editions, including The Musician, one of the few that actually shows a scene from the Basel mural. In the Mechel brother’s print, Death dances as he plays a six-string fiddle with frets. Around his waist is a rope belt supporting a rectangular box which dangles in front of him. The lid is open and a long hook of some kind projects from it. A musician holding a shawm dances with Death, holding on to the rope belt. On the ground, between the musician’s feet is a narrowly conical pipe, probably a duct flute (possibly a recorder) the beak of which is clearly clearly indicated; five finger holes are visible.A caption above the illustration reads:

Todt zum Kirbepfeiffer:
WAs wölln wir für ein Täntzle haben,
Den Bettler oder schwarzen Knaben,
Mein Kirbehans, Spiel wär nicht gantz,
Wärst du auch nicht an diesem Tantz.

Death to The Musician:
Which dance are we going to have?
“The Beggar” or “Black Boy”,
My Carnival-Hans? The play wouldn’t be complete
If you too were not in this dance.

A caption below the illustration reads:

Der Kirbepfeiffer:
KEin Kirb war mir Wegs halb zu weit,
Davon ich nicht hab bracht mein Beut:
Nun ists auß, weg muß ich mit Noth,
Die Pfeiff ist g’fallen mir ins Koth.

The Musician:
No church fair was so far away
That I didn’t earn from it.
Now it’s over, I’m obliged to go away.
The pipe has fallen from me into the dirt.

Although the lower caption describes the instrument on the ground between Death’s feet as “Die Pfeiff”, it is clearly beaked and thus likely to be a duct flute, perhaps a recorder.

Moshe Maurer (1891-1971)

Austro-Hungarian-born artist who emigrated to Holland and thence to London where he lived and worked; his oil paintings and watercolours depict everyday Jewish life and religious ceremonies, and stories from the Jewish ghettos; born Brody in Ostgalizien (1891), died London (1971).

  • Street Music in Warsaw (1964), Moshe Maurer (1891-1971). Locality unknown. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). Two old Jews in the ghetto play a violin and what could be a flared-bell soprano recorder, although the instrument is unclear.

Lodovico [Ludovico] Mazzanti

Italian painter; works include religious and mythological subjects, and portraits; born Orvieto (1679), died 1775.

  • Mercury and Argus, oil on canvas, Lodovico Mazzanti (1679-1775). Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2000, b&w). Watched by Io (as a heifer), Mercury lulls Argus to sleep by playing on a slender, flared-bell pipe (possibly a recorder). Offered for sale with a pendant entitled Zephyr and Flora.

Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli

Italian painter and draughtsman of the Parma School; born Viadana (ca 1505), died Parma (ca 1569-1570); cousin and disciple of Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola (Parmigianino), to whom many of his works have been attributed.

  • Nativity, Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli (ca 1505 – ca 1569/70). Parma: S. Maria della Steccata. Ref. Bottari et al. (1966, 4: 347); Exhibition: Viadana, Sodalizio Amici dell’Arte, Disgeni di Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli (1971: no. 50); Universita cattolica del Sacro Cuore (1972: pl. 138); Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University, 372.M4597.22N[a]; Rasmussen (2002, Bagpipe; 2007, Flute). “Shepherds play recorder (pausing) and bagpipe. Three other figures (nude to the waist) play flutes of various sizes. One of them has a flute case at his waist.” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.)

Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola [Mazzuoli] = Parmigianino

Angelo Mazzoleni

Contemporary Italian painter working in Bergamo; his work has embraced the use of archetypes and symbols, primitivism, and neosincretismo; many of his works are paintings in oil or mixed technique on canvas, but he has also used acrylics, tempera, sand and special plasters and pastas, fabrics, and has modelled in clay and other materials; born Florence (1952). Web Page.

    , oil on canvas, 70 × 60 cm, Angelo Mazzoleni (1952-). A woman in a red cap plays a slender conical pipe with one hand. There are far more holes than fingers!
  • Sunoatoro di Flauto, oil on canvas, 90 × 50 cm, Angelo Mazzoleni (1952-). A man in a top hat wearing a checked jacket, shirt and pants and red shoes plays a slender, conical pipe. There are far more holes than fingers. , oil on canvas, 80 × 100 cm, Angelo Mazzoleni (1952-). Three naked women play rebec, keyboard and a slender, conical pipe. The pipe has far more holes than fingers.

Lodovico [Ludovico] Mazzolino [Mazzuoli, Manzulin or Mazzuoli da Ferrara] known as Il Ferrarese (ca 1480-p. 1530), Italian

Italian Renaissance painter active in Ferrara and Bologna; born Bologna (c.1480), died Ferrara (1528/1530).

    (1521), Lodovico Mazzolinio (ca 1480-p. 1530). Dublin: National Gallery of Ireland, Inv. NGI.666. Ref. Boydell (1985: 48, fig. 38). Amidst the confusion of Israelites on the right hand side of the painting, two men play slender duct flutes (flageolets or recorders) and another the drum.

J.G. Meall

English artist, active 1674-1675.

    (1675), oil on panel, 40.6 × 32.0 cm, J.G. Meall. London: Christie’s, Sale 6068, Old Master Pictures, 16 December 1998, Lot 109. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie, illustration 44196 (2014, col) In the middle of a neglected weed-ridden field, a well-dressed man sits on a stone block amongst the ruins of a church, including an archway through which can be seen a windmill. His left arm is outstretched and in his hand he holds a small recorder, perfectly depicted. On the seat beside him is a flute. On a wall or bench beside him a violin and bow, an oboe, and a cornetto lie crossed over an open book of music. On the ground before him lie a rifle and a dead duck. In the lower left-hand corner is the coat of arms of the Uyl family. An unusual vanitas portrait.

Richard Meares (English)

  • Frontispiece, A Compleat Method for Attaining to Play a Through Bass upon either Organ, Harpsichord or Theorbo Lute (1717), by Gottfried [Godfrey] Keller, published by Richard Meares, London, England. London: British Museum. Ref. Mirimonde (1974: 55, fig. 39); Paris RIdIM (1999). St Cecilia sits at a chamber organ surrounded by garlands of musical instruments. That on the right includes a trumpet, violin, oboe and turned baroque recorder.

Israhel & J. van Meckenem

Dutch printmakers (father and son with same name) who worked in Boscholt and Cleves (active 1450-1503).

  • The Dancing Fool, 75 × 52, print, Israhel & J. van Meckenem (op. 1450-1503). Vienna. Ref. Strauss (1978, 23: 95, no. 13); Archiv Moeck; Rasmussen (2002, Horn). A fool dances, making music by scraping a brush on a cow’s jawbone. A curved horn hangs from his arm and, beneath his feet, lies a recorder of which the paired holes for the lowermost finger are clearly shown.
  • Der Narr [The Jester], 75 × 52, print, Israhel & J. van Meckenem (op. 1450-1503). Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999); Bartsch (1854-1870, 9: 236); Rasmussen (2002-2004, Bagpipe). A fool with a bagpipe, and a recorder tucked into his belt, bells on his cap and sleeve and a bagpipe on the ground between his feet.

Barend van der Meer [Vermeer]

Dutch Golden Age painter of still-life and vanitas works, active in Haarlem and Amsterdam; born Haarlem (1659), died Haarlem (1700); son of landscape painter Jan van der Meer I (1628-1691) and brother of landscape painter Jan van der Meer II (1656-1705).

    , Barend van der Meer (1659-1700). Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w). On a shelf in front of a drape is a jumble of ornate silverware, shells, a decorated nautilus shell, flowers, a shawl, and a perfectly depicted soprano-sized hand-fluit. This still-life is not so still: something has just been thrown into a hexagonal bowl causing the water to splash into the air!

Reinier Megan [Meganck or Meganet]

Flemish printmaker and painter whose works include landscape, genre and vanitas subjects; born 1637, died 1690.

  • Vanitas, Reinier Megan (1637-1690). Private Collection. Ref. Grijp (1998: 40, fig. 75). On a draped marble bench are a candlestick and lighted candle (almost burnt down), a skull, some books, a goblet, a rebec and bow, an hour-glass, a pocket watch, an open music book and an ivory duct flute only the head and first two finger holes of which are visible.

Johann Caspar [Kaspar] Meglinger (1595 – ca 1670), Swiss

Swiss artist; born Lucerne (1595), died (ca 1670); his works include the original 72 panels of the Dance of Death for the Spreuerbrücke (Mill Bridge) in Lucerne; he also painted barrels and sculptures and undertook other decorative work; son of stonemason and sculptor Michael Meglinger.

    Dance of Death, painting, Johann Caspar Meglinger (1595 – ca 1670). Lucerne: Spreuerbrück / Pont des Moulins. Ref. Paris RIdIM (2000). One of 16 triangular paintings affixed at intervals in the apex of the roof above the bridge. At the base of this one are coats of arms and a couplet either side reading:

Leg him Bildhauer dein mensur
Ein Todstreich hat geschlagen d’Uhr

Ein Todtenlopf dein werk nachtracht
Truk d augen zu so ist er gmacht.

Sculptor, thy chisel lay aside,
Or now thy doom doth thee betide.

Close but thine eyes: thy work is done –
A Death’s head stands where yet was none.

Meissen Porcelain

Meissen porcelain or Meissen china was the first European hard-paste porcelain. It was developed by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus in 1708 whose work was continued by Johann Friedrich Böttger who brought porcelain to the market and has often been credited with the invention. The production of porcelain at Meissen, near Dresden, started in 1710 and attracted artists and artisans to establish one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers, still in business today as Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen GmbH. Its crossed swords logo, one of the oldest trademarks in existence, was introduced in 1720 to protect its production. Meissen dominated the style of European porcelain until 1756.

  • [Musicians], porcelain figurines, 26 cm & 25 cm high, Meissen Porcelain (19th century). Jersey: Bonhams Sale 15317 – The Channel Islands Sale, 5 November 2007, Lot 5. Modelled as a gentleman playing bagpipes, a dog and sheep at his feet, his lady companion playing a baroque-style alto recorder, a sheep at her feet, both wearing detailed 18th-century costume, crossed swords mark, incised No. 3. The characteristic beak and window/labium of the recorder are clearly depicted. The foot-piece seems to have fallen off, and the player’s left hand clasps the head rather than the body of the instrument.
  • Boy musician (c. 1780-1790), porcelain figurine, 11 cm high Meissen Porcelain. Knowles: Bonham’s Sale 16292 – European Ceramics, Glass & Asian Art, 8 July 2008, Lot 377. A boy standing and playing a pipe, wearing a light blue coat over black breeches, a puce scarf tied around his waist, on a square base with moulded border, crossed swords and star mark used during the Marcolini period of Meissen production. The bulbous beak of the instrument would seem to indicate a recorder; the foot is missing.

Johann Peter Melchior

German master porcelain modeler who worked for three German manufactories: Hochst, Frankenthal, and Nymphenburg; many of his models were based on Boucher’s paintings and demonstrate extraordinary skill in translating their delicate mythological or pastoral scenes into figure groups; as rococo figures went out of fashion as table decorations in the 1770s, Melchior contributed designs to neo-classical table-wares and figurines, adding playful putti and cupids to tureens and in relief on urns, and he fashioned classical busts that could either be painted and glazed to resemble bronze or left in the biscuit state; born Lintorf, now part of Ratingen near Dusseldorf (before 1747), died ? Munich (1825).

  • Musical Goup: Woman Playing with Children, porcelain figurine, 21.6 cm high, Johann Peter Melchior (a. 1747 – 1825). Heidelberg: Kurpfälzisches Museum, Inv. Po 10. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2002, HDkm – 59); Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). The woman sits holding a duct flute in one hand, a roll of music in the other, a small boy on either side of her.

Andrea Meldolla = Andrea Schiavone

Altobello dei Meloni

Italian painter known for his expressionistic religious frescoes, and fine portraits; born Cremona (ca 1490), died ca 1547.

  • The Madonna in Glory with Angels, Altobello dei Meloni (fl. 1497-1530). Cremona: Chiesa de S. Abbondio. Ref. Signori (1928: 59); Campi (1938: 184); Paris RIdIM (1999); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). The Virgin holding the Christ-child is surrounded by angels some of whom play musical instruments. Below her, three angels play two violas da braccio and lute; two flanking angels on each side play long cylindrical recorders with flared bells, their windows quite clearly shown.

Elif Memisoglu

Contemporary USAmerican graphic artist living and working in Passaic, New Jersey. Artist’s website.

  • Untitled (2008), cover illustration, Elif Memisoglu (contemporary). Ref. American Recorder Journal 49(3): front cover (2008, col.) A stylised girl sits on a park bench a recorder in her lap, an earthworm beside her, and flowers, trees and butterflies around.

Hans Memling

Leading Flemish painter of the Bruges school during the period of the city’s political and commercial decline; his altarpieces, devotional diptychs and triptychs, and portraits are characterized by their gentle, sweet tranquillity; born Seligenstadt, near Frankfurt am Main ( ca 1430/35), died Bruges (1494).

    : right panel: St John the Baptist and the Evangelist (1479), painting, Hans Memling (ca 1430/35-1494). Detail. Bruges: Sint-Janshospitaal. Ref. AVM, Marconistraat 5, B-8400 Ostende: postcard; Peter (1958: 43); Hindley (1971: pl. 11, col.); Hijmans (2005: 218); Ausoni (2009: 163, col) Legend has it that St John the Evangelist, while exiled on the isle of Pathmos in the Aegean Sea, wrote down several letters and visions. These were compiled as the Revelation of St John. Here he is seen looking from his book to see Christ enthroned surrounded by the four living creatures int he forms of a lion, a calf, an eagle and a man, each with six wings. A lamb receives from God “a book written within and on the back, sealed with seven seals”. Around the throne sit the elders, i.e. the twelve patriarchs and the twelve apostles, at the head of the Church Triumphant, who sing and play various instruments. One elder tootles on a small cylindrical pipe, but seems to have no idea of what to do with his fingers. The pipe is a duct flute (flageolet or recorder), with the labium/window very clearly shown. To the right of the painting the second angel sounds the trumpet and a great mountain of fire is cast into the sea as one-third of all living beings perish and one-third of all ships are destroyed. The Virgin Mary with a crown of stars is threatened by a dragon with seven heads and ten horns (Satan), whose tail drags behind it a third of the stars in the sky, making them fall to earth. On the opening of the sixth seal, all the mountains and islands are removed from their laces and men hide themselves in caves among the rocks. The left panel of the triptych shows the beheading of John the Baptist; the centre panel depicts the mystic marriage of St Catherine.
  • Triptych, central panel: Virgin and Child (15th century), anonymous copy after Hans Memling (ca 1430/35-1494). Madrid: Colección Adanaro. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). The Virgin holds the Christ-child out to a young angel on her left. To her right, a second angel plays a long slender cylindrical pipe, possibly a recorder.

Bartolomeo Mendozzi [Bartolomeo della Leonessa, Master of the Incredulity of Saint Thomas]

Italian artist active in Rome during the second and third decades of the 17th century; one of Caravaggio’s accomplished followers, alongside artists such as Bartolomeo Manfredi, Nicolas Tournier, Valentin de Boulogne and Cecco del Caravaggio; born Leonessa (c. 1600), died 1644.

    , oil on canvas, 49.0 × 57.5 cm, Bartlomeo Mendozzi (c.1600). Rome: Minerva Auctions (Finarte), Old Master Paintings and 19th Century Art, 25 November 2019, Lot 274, Sold. A man in a hooded gown plays a soprano-sized recorder, the beak, window-labium and upper body clearly visible. , oil on canvas, 48 × 65 cm, Bartolomeo Mendozzi (c.1600). Private Collection. Wikimedia Commons (2020-col.); Rome: Bertolami Fine Art, Auction 55, Antique Paintings, Drawings and Frames, Lot 55, 14 November 2018. A young man with curly hair holds a soprano-sized duct-flute (possibly a recorder), the beak, elongated window/labium and body with a slightly flared foot clearly visible but not the finger-holes. One of a pair of paintings, the other depicting a flute player.

Anton Raffael [Raphael] Mengs

German fresco and portrait painter who settled in Italy and also worked in Spain, decorating the Royal Palaces at Madrid and Arunjuez; the leader of the neo-classical reform in painting and as highly regarded as Tiepolo in his day, though his frescoes seem dull and sterile now; born ? Dresden (1728), died 1779; son of a court painter of Dresden, Ismael Mengs (d. 1764).

    (1761), oil on panel, 55 × 101 cm, Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1779). St Petersburg: Hermitage. Ref. Levey (1959: 203, pl. 105); Website: Wikimedia Commons (2018, col.) This painting was a sketch for Mengs’s fresco of 1761 in the central part of the ceiling of the Villa Albani in Rome, commissioned by Cardinal Alessandro Albani. Apollo stands surrounded by the Muses who variously write, sing, declaim, dance and make astronomical observations. ? Euterpe (Muse of music and lyric poetry) holds two flared-bell pipes, one longer and more slender than the other. Neither seems to have a window/labium and only three finger holes are visible on each, so they probably represent cornetti rather than recorders. At the centre of this painting a spring gushes forth; and behind Apollo an old man lies in the bushes. Each Muse is depicted with her relevant attributes. Clio bears the features of Mengs’s wife Margarita, while Mnemosyne is a likeness of Vittorucchia, daughter of Countess Ceroffini. (1780-1785), engraving by Raffaello Sanzio Morghen (1758-1833) after Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1779). Rome: Villa Albani. Ref. Levey (1959: 203, pl. 105); Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Inv. AA5 (Mengs). An accurate print on the original painting by Mengs. Apollo stands surrounded by the Muses who variously write, sing, declaim, dance and make astronomical observations. ? Euterpe (Muse of music and lyric poetry) holds two flared-bell pipes, one longer and more slender than the other. Neither seems to have a window/labium and only three finger holes are visible on each, so they probably represent cornetti rather than recorders. At the centre of this painting a spring gushes forth; and behind Apollo an old man lies in the bushes. (1764), ceiling fresco, Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1779). Madrid: Palacio Real, Gasparini Drawing Room. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). “Includes a group of women and putti, with a winged Father Time. The musicians include a singer with a lyre and a player of a small trumpet or cornetto, together with a young woman who blows one pipe in her right hand and holds another exactly parallel in her left. This may have been intended to refer to marriage symbolism. The pipes are of soprano/alto size, but the detailing is insufficient for identification” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)

Hieke Meppelink

Contemporary Dutch figurative sculptor working in Haarlem; also a distinguished soprano specialising in baroque music. Artist’s web-site.

    (2008), bronze statuette, Hieke Meppelink. Ref. Website: Cultuur in Groningen en omgeving (27 March 2008). A young man leans forward playing a stylised soprano-sized pipe, his hands and fingers well-deployed for recorder-playing, though it is not clear what note he is playing. Twelve copies of this were made.

Philip [Philippe, Pierre-Philippe] Mercier

French painter and etcher who worked in London; his works comprise domestic genre and conversation pieces; born Berlin 1689/1691, died London 1760.

    , oil on canvas, 119 × 96 cm, Philip Mercier (1689-1760). Vienna: Dorotheum, 15 October 1996, Lot 122. Ref. Sale Catalogue, Dodrotheum, Vienna (1996: 122). A room full of bustling characters each looking wildly in a different direction! The central figure is a woman holding a mask in one hand and her little boy’s hand in the other. In the top left hand corner a man in a red jacket plays a clearly depicted baroque recorder of alto/tenor size, right hand uppermost. , oil on canvas, 47 × 58.4 cm, attributed to Philip Mercier (1689-1760). Vienna, Dorotheum, Old Master Paintings, 22 June 2010, Lot 148. In a forest glade, a man and a woman dance to music provided by musette (with double chanters) played by a man, a tambourine (with both jingle rings and pellet bells) played by a woman, and a conical pipe (possibly a recorder) played by a boy. Another young man holds a wine-glass. A small girl reaches out for her mother, one of the dancers. A couple in the bushes behind the central scene seem to find more interested in each other than in the merry-makers.

Matthäus Merian

Swiss-born engraver who worked in Frankfurt for most of his career, where he also ran a publishing house; he was a member of the patrician Basel Merian family; born Basel (1593), died Bad Schwalbach, near Wiesbaden (1650).

  • Todten-Tantz (1616-1649): The Musician (1621), etching, Matthäus Merian (1593-1650). Basel: Universitätsbibliothek, FO IV 20:3. Ref. Merian (1625); Hagstrøm (n.d., accessed 2016). The Dance of Death was a mural in Basel some 30 metres long with 39 dancing couples made from c. 1440 onwards. It was made famous throughout Europe by the copperplates that Matthäus Merian created, published in a series of editions from 1616-1649. Merian’s copperplates along with copies made by Jacques-Anthony Chovin, Beck (Lips & Spalinger), Abraham & Alexandre Girardet, Rudolf Feyerabend, Otto Stuckert, and Felix Schneider were published in countless editions through several centuries. It is important to note that when Merian first produced his copperplates the painting on which they were based was already some 200 years old and had been subjected to several restorations and changes, especially by Hans Kluber in 1568. In Merian’s print, Death dances and plays a six-string fiddle with frets. Around his waist is a rope belt supporting a rectangular box which dangles in front of him. The lid is open and a long hook of some kind projects from it. A man holding a shawm dances with Death, holding on to the rope belt. On the ground, between the musician’s feet is a narrowly conical pipe, probably a duct flute (possibly a recorder) the beak of which is clearly clearly indicated and five finger holes are visible. A caption above the illustration reads:

Todt zum Kirbepfeiffer:
WAs wölln wir für ein Täntzle haben,
Den Bettler oder schwarzen Knaben,
Mein Kirbehans, Spiel wär nicht gantz,
Wärst du auch nicht an diesem Tantz.

Death to The Musician:
Which dance are we going to have?
“The Beggar” or “Black Boy”,
My Carnival-Hans? The play wouldn’t be complete
If you too were not in this dance.

A caption below the illustration reads:

Der Kirbepfeiffer:
KEin Kirb war mir Wegs halb zu weit,
Davon ich nicht hab bracht mein Beut:
Nun ists auß, weg muß ich mit Noth,
Die Pfeiff ist g’fallen mir ins Koth.

The Musician:
No church fair was so far away
That I didn’t earn from it.
Now it’s over, I’m obliged to go away.
The pipe has fallen from me into the dirt.

Although the lower caption describes the instrument on the ground between Death’s feet as “Die Pfeiff”, it is clearly beaked and thus likely to be a duct flute (perhaps a recorder) rather than a fife as such.

Marin Mersenne (17th century), French

French priest, mathematician, natural philosopher and theologian; born near Oizé, Maine (1588), died, Paris (1648).

    (1636), engravings from Harmonie Universelle III: 237, 239, Marin Mersenne (1588-1648). Published by Sébastien Cramoisy, Paris. Ref. Pottier (1995: 136, pl. 11). Depicts more or less cylindrical, flared-bell recorders of various sizes.

Gabriel Metsu (also spelled Metzu)

Dutch painter of genre scenes of everyday middle-class Dutch life, executed with consummate taste in color and tone; he also painted some historical subjects, occasional portraits and still lifes; born Leiden (1629), died Amsterdam (1667); son of the painter Jacques Metsu.

  • The Concert, 55.5 × 48.0 cm, Gabriel Metsu (1629-1667). Location unknown: formerly C. Benedict Collection, Paris. Ref. Robinson (1974: 209, fig. 181); Griffioen (1988: 440-441). a woman sits playing the virginals on a table. Seated on on end of the player a man plays a lute. Seated to the side and behind him another man plays a flared-bell recorder of alto size. Behind the virginals and to the right sits a woman, possibly a singer. , oil on panel, 19.3 × 17.3 cm, attributed to Gabriel Metsu (1629-1667). Roermond: Private Collection. Ref. Bouterse (1995: 85-86); Moeck, Celle: TIBIA – Musikbilder auf Postkarten, Series 2(4), No. 11102 (col.); Website: Getty Research Institute, Study Photo Archive (1999); Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie 186694 (2010, b&w); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Waiboer (2012: D-31, rejected paintings). The painter himself as a young man plays an early baroque style recorder of simple design with flared, ornamented bell. He reads from music on a table supported by a small statue and an artist’s palette. This might almost be a companion piece for Berkheyde’s Self-portrait. Prior to 1977 this painting was in the collection of Hans A. Wetzlar, Amsterdam. Wetzlar died in 1970 and his vast collection was dispersed following the death of his widow in 1977 in an evening auction organised by Sotheby’s Amsterdam. The sale included this painting as Young Artist Playing a Recorder as Lot 21 (18.8 × 16.9 cm).
  • [Unknown], Gabriel Metsu (1629-1667). Whereabouts unknown. A woman plays a viol with a recorder and the same statue as above also depicted (Rowland-Jones, pers. comm.)

Quentin Metsys [Massijs]

Flemish artist, the leading painter in Antwerp from ca 1510 until his death; his eclectic style was borrowed from Leonardo, Dürer, van Eyck, van der Weyden and van der Goes amongst others; produced portraits, satirical or genre works, and religious paintings, the latter often against a mountainous landscape painted in aerial perspective; born ca 1465/6, died Antwerp (1530).

  • Triptych The Lineage of Saint Anne: left panel: The Shepherd and his Sheep, Quentin Metsys (ca 1465/6-1530). Detail. Brussels: Koninklijke Musea voor Schone Kunsten van België, Cat. MA 299. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). From an open window in a tower beside a village a figure looks out over the moat and across a pasture to a shepherd who is blowing a cylindrical flared-bell recorder, his bâton ou houlette (a shepherd’s crook with a wooden or metal scoop to pick up stones or clods to throw at his sheep in order to move them) in the crook of his arm supported by his shoulder. All fingers of the lower (left) hand are employed covering the holes of his recorder; the shadow of the window/labium of the instrument is clearly visible. The sheep seem to be enjoying the music.
  • Nativity, School of Quentin Metsys (ca 1465/6-1530). Santa Barbara: Museum of Art. Ref. Gazette des Beaux-Arts 69 (1967); February: La chronique des arts, no. 1176, p. 68); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). “Angels play lute and recorder” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.)

Johann Georg Mettel (18th century), German

    (1760), drawing on paper, 30.6 × 22.9 cm, Johann Georg Mettel (18th century). Darmstadt: Hessiches Landesmuseum, Inv. H2 AE 337. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, DAhl – 149). A rather sallow-looking woman holds a turned baroque alto recorder in her right hand; in her lap is a musical score; behind her a sly looking bearded old man peers at her lasciviously. The woman, her posture, her music and her recorder bear a strong resemblance to N. Mettelli’s Flautist (Frankfurt am Main). The similarity between the artists’ names must be significant.

N. Metteli (18th century), Italian.

  • Flautist, engraving after Franciscus von den Majn, by N. Mettelli (18th century). ? Milan. Ref. Angelo Zaniol (pers. comm., 2003); Il Laboratorio (1988). A woman holds a turned alto recorder in her right hand; in her lap is a musical score. The woman, her posture, her music and her recorder bear a strong resemblance to Johann Georg Mettel’s Woman with a Flute watched by an Old Man (Hessiches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt). The similarity between the artists names must be significant.

Johann Jacob Mettenleiter (1750-1825)

German-Russian artist, designer, decorator teacher; known for his genre-scenes and portraits born Grosskuchen, died Gatchina, near St Petersburg (1825); father of artist Paul Mettenleiter (1792/3–?).

  • Portrait of a Man with a Flute (1784), oil on canvas, 45 × 32 cm, Johann Jacob Mettenleiter (1750-1825). Website: eBay (Germany), Item 111610783122 (March 2015). A blind man holds a baroque recorder only the head of which is seen, but the beak, window-labium and profile are perfectly depicted.

Christian Wilhelm Meyer

German sculptor and porcelain modeller active in Berlin; born 1761, died 1788.

  • Boys Emblematic of the Senses (ca 1769-1770), 2 Berlin porcelain figurines, 11.5 cm high, modelled by Christian Wilhelm Meyer (1761-1788). London: Christie’s, A Century of Berlin Porcelain: The Dr K.H. Wadsack Collection, 8 October 2002, Lot 204. Ref. Website: Artfact (2004). Blue sceptre marks to undersides of bases. Hearing in a grey hat, pale-pink jacket over a white shirt, orange breeches supported by brown braces, holding the bagpipes and a bell. Sme ll in a beige jacket, white apron and shirt and lilac breeches, with a basket and posy of flowers, standing before a draped potpourri vase. Both supported by tree-stumps on triangular scroll-moulded bases enriched in gilding (the first with restoration to hat, bagpipes, bell, recorder in his pocket and with minute chipping to bows at knees, the second with damage and restoration to head and hat, left arm extensively damaged and restored and with restoration to basket, flowers and posy, some minute chipping to base).

Michael & Eutychios = Michael & Eutychios Astrapas

Théobald Michau

Flemish painter of mostly small-scale cabinet pictures depicting landscapes, river views, scenes of winter, markets and villages, peopled with tiny figures strolling or working, sometimes celebrating or drinking, often dressed in blue or red and accompanied by a few animals; born Doornik [Tournai] (1676), died Antwerp (1765).

  • Landscape with Dancing Peasants, Théobald Michau (1676-1765). Location unknown. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie 32446 (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). A young man by a tree plays a soprano sized pipe with a medium bell-flare, left hand lowermost. The details are not clear, but the instrument is held in recorder playing position.

Claude Michel, called ‘Clodion’

French sculptor who worked in Rome and Paris; he enjoyed a wide reputation until the French Revolution when the rococo style was superseded by neo-classicism; a superb modeler of small-scale terracotta pieces, he also excelled at carving marble with subtlety and precision, including some life-size pieces.

    (ca 1774-1778), marble sculpture, 117.5 × 88.9 × 60.0 cm, Claude Michel (1738-1814). Washington, National Gallery of Art, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1952.5.98. Ref. Ford (1986: #163). One of four representations of the arts and sciences commissioned by Louis XV’s finance minister, Abbé Terray, to decorate the dining room of his Parisian mansion, celebrating his appointment as Director of the Royal Buildings in 1774. Ford (loc. cit.) notes the presence of a recorder in this sculpture. A standing putto (Music) plucks a viol; his companion (Poetry), seated, holds a note-book in his lap and a stylus in the other. On the ground before them in a wreath lie a trumpet and a slender cylindrical object the tip of which is cut obliquely and might represent the back of the beak of a duct flute with its characteristic block. A featureless cylindrical object projecting from beneath a drape in between the violist’s feet appears to be a scroll of paper rather than a wind instrument. (1774), terracotta sculpture, 27.0 × 23.3 × 15.6 cm, Claude Michel (1738-1814). Washington, National Gallery of Art, Loula D. Lasker Fund 1976.10.1) In this model the standing putto (Music) plucks a lute his companion (Poetry), seated, holds a note-book in his lap, his right hand raised to his brow. On the ground before them in a wreath lie a trumpet and a slender cylindrical object the tip of which is cut obliquely and might represent the back of the beak of a duct flute with its characteristic block. What may be a recorder projects from beneath a drape in between the violist’s feet, namely the upper part of a cylindrical pipe the (unusually truncate) block and first three finger holes of which are visible but no details of a window/labium. It seems categorically different from the paper scroll in the model (see above), but could just as well represent a transverse flute.

Parrasio Micheli

Italian Mannerist artist who belonged to the apostolic patrician Michiel family (‘Micheli’ is the surname he himself preferred); he was deeply influenced by Titian, but later in life began to imitate the style of Veronese; he painted religious, mythological and allegorical subjects and portraits; born Venice (1516), died Venice (1678).

    (c.1560-1570), oil on canvas, Parrasio Micheli (1516-1678). Private collection. Ref. Website: About Art Online (2020, col.) Three women with elaborately coiffured hair play viol, lute and violin. The violist and lutenist gaze upwards and to the right; behind them, the violinist seems to be preoccupied, gazing downwards. In the foreground and to the right, a winged putto holds a slender duct-flute (probably a recorder), the beak, window/labium and five inline finger holes clearly depicted, but others hidden by the putto’s hand. The violist, déshabillé and bare breasted, appears to represent Venus, although she looks almost apologetic. The little recorder player casts his eyes downwards, mirroring the gaze of the violinist. The Lute-playing Venus with Cupid (p.1550) by Micheli in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, strikes an almost identical pose.

Jean Michelin

French artist who started out in his career as primarily a bamboccianti painter but later branched out into religious themed paintings; born Langres (1623), died Jersey (1696).

    , canvas, 60.5 × 75 cm, Jean Michelin (1623-1696). Bordeaux: Musée des Beaux-arts, Bx 1964 11 3. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). An old woman with a basket of wood on her back sits on a stone in front of a stone building. A young boy plays on a tiny duct flute (flageolet or recorder) watched by two smaller girls. A bearded man leans on his stick. There is a similar work in the National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin. , canvas, 87 × 117 cm, Jean Michelin (1623-1696). Location unknown; offered for sale by Drouot-Richelieu, Paris, 24 February (1992), Cat. No. 25. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). Two men and seven women sit around a long table served by two waiters. At the far end of the table one of the women is wearing a garland in her hair. To the side, a man plays a violin and a small boy plays a tiny duct flute (flageolet or recorder). Through a doorway the kitchen can be seen.

Jan Miel

Dutch painter, active in Rome and Turin, one of the Bamboccianti, a group of mainly Dutch artists that worked in Rome in the mid-seventeenth century, followers of Pieter van Laer, who was nicknamed ‘il Bamboccio’ (meaning puppet or large baby) because of his physically deformed body; most of Miel’s pictures are scenes of low life, but he also painted frescoes in Roman churches and palaces, and figures for Claude’s landscapes; born Beveren-Was, near Antwerp (1599), died Turin (1663).

  • The Flute Player, oil on panel, 23 × 19 cm, Jan Miel (1589-1663). Location unknown; sold at Doullens (between Paris and Amiens), 27 November (1994). Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). A man holds a slightly flared pipe which is blown by an old crone sitting on a step. There is insufficient detail to tell if a shawm or recorder is intended. The latter seems far more likely. (a. 1650), oil on canvas, 70 × 60 cm, attributed to Jan Miel (1589-1663). London: Agnew’s Gallery (exhbitied TEFAF, Maastricht, 13–25 March 2015, as Shepherd Boy, Bamboccianti School.); sold Cologne: Lempertz, Auction 1040, Old Master Paintings and Drawings, Sculptures, Lot 1042 ( 15 November 2014). A young lad in a floppy hat with a spray of flowers plays a soprano recorder with details of the beak, window/labium and fingering perfectly depicted. He is playing right hand lowermost with all fingers covering their holes. Interestingly, there are two holes plugged with wax instead of the usual one. In the player’s lap are a printed paper, a leafy twig and some fruit, possibly Bitter Oranges (A rancia amara) which might hint at the bitterness of love or simply represent growth and fruition — Botticelli’s Primavera is famously set in a garden of Bitter Orange trees. Agnew’s give this work the title Shepherd Boy and attribute it to Bamboccianti School.

Hans Mielich [Muelich]

German artist; the leading painter in Bavaria in the mid-sixteenth century; born ca 1516, died 1573.

    (ca 1570), illumination, 59.9 × 44.7 cm, Hans Mielich (c.1516-1573). From Psalmi Poenitentiales by Orlando di Lassus. Detail. Munich: Bayerisches Staatsbibliothek, MS A11 f.187. Ref. Wangermée (1968: 274, pl. 97, col); Salmen (1976 : 156-157, pl. 106); Boydell (1978); Meer (1983: pl. 126, col); Schmid (1985); Langdon & Norwich (1991: pl. 4, col); Alamire M13 (1996); Ausoni (2009: 222, col.); Website: Bowed Strings Iconography Project, bsip356 (2022, col.); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1489 (2022, col.) A contemporary painting of the Munich Hofkapelle in a hall of the palace. It shows Orlando Lassus standing by the side of the Duke on the extreme left listening to an ensemble of musicians depicted in realistic detail. Salmen identifies among the many instruments a bass recorder and a ? tenor recorder. The bass recorder with its distinctive bocal and window is very clear, though only the upper section is visible; in addition there actually appear to be at least two other duct flutes, possibly an alto and tenor recorder, immediately to the basset recorder player’s right. Schmid (1985) claims that the bass recorder depicted here may by one of the two 16th-century great basses by Hans Rauch von Schratt that survive in the Musikinstrumentenmuseums München. Boydell (1978) has argued that the instrument immediately behind the seated viol player is a windcap instrument rather than a recorder. Other instruments include virginals, dulcian, flute, trombone and cornetti of various sizes. The musicians, whose names are listed on the scroll below, were recruited by the composer in Flanders, Germany and northern Italy.
  • The Banquet (1548), Hans Mielich. Detail. Hartford: Wadsworth Atheneum. Ref. Wollitz (1982: 124, detail, b&w); Website: Will Kimball, Trombone (2015, col) Musicians (both male and female) play all kinds of instruments including harpsichord, trombonse, viols, lute, transverse flutes, and a long pipe with a flared bell (probably a tenor recorder, judging by the position of the lower hand which shows the little finger covering its hole).

Frans van Mieris the Elder

Dutch artist from an illustrious family of goldsmiths and painters; his minutely proportioned subjects with bright colors, a shiny finish, and precise attention to detail were painted on small wooden or copper panel; he represented common incidents in the lives of the working class as well as the habits and customs of the wealthy; born Leiden (1635), died 1691); father of Jan van Mieris and Willem van Mieris (1635-1681).

    , oil on panel, 18.5 × 14.0 cm, follower of Frans van Meris (1635-1681). Ref. Sotheby’s (New York), Sale NO8166: Old Master and 19th Century European Art, 28 January 2006, Lot 81; Bonham’s (Knightsbridge), Sale 13502 – Old Master Paintings, 14 June 2006, Lot 198. Beneath a small bird-cage, a boy in a soft hat with a feather beats a drum which he leans on a bench beside him. In the background, another boy plays a duct flute (flageolet or recorder), only the head of which is visible. One of a pair of paintings auctioned together, the other depicting a man leaning against a table with a large roemer in his right hand. The present whereabouts of the original paintings by van Mieris is unknown.

Willem van Mieris

Dutch artist and teacher from an illustrious family of goldsmiths and painters; he adopted his father’style, but besides genre pieces also produced portraits, landscapes, history pieces and mythological subjects; after 1700 Van Mieris specialised in shop and kitchen interiors; his dispassionate, meticulous style was much admired; born Leiden (1662), died Leiden (1747); son of Frans van Mieris (1635-1681), brother of brother of Jan van Mieris.

    (1689), canvas, 63.5 × 80.5 cm, Willem van Mieris (1635-1681). Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie, illustration 149309 (2014, col) Location unknown: auctioned Sotheby’s, London, Old Master Paintings, 16 December 1999, Lot 55. Whilst Chloe sits beside a stream beneath a tree stroking a lamb she is entertained by Daphnis playing cylindrical pipe. No details of the pipe can be seen, but his fingers are perfectly disposed for recorder-playing. Beside Daphnis his dog sits patiently. At Chloe’s feet a baby crawls towards the river bank. A couple are swimming in the river.

Pierre Mignard, called le Romain

French painter and frescoist in the classical Baroque manner, active in Rome and Paris; known primarily for his court portraits (many of them allegorical), but also historical and regious paintings; his style was based on the approved models of the Carracci, Domenichino and Poussin; he was strongly opposed to the Académie royale, and, in spite of his own stylistic origins, championed the Venetian or ‘colourist’ school; born Troyes (1610), died Paris (1695).

    (1691), oil on canvas, 74 × 56 cm, Pierre Mignard (1610-1695). Paris: Louvre, Inv. 6641. Ref. Dalla Corte (1936, 2: 179); Mirimonde (1974: 179, pl. 139); Mirimonde (1975: fig 91, b&w); Haynes (1988: 32, fig. 17, b&w); Sadie (1990: pl. 26, b&w); Pottier (1992: 49, pl. XXXV, b&w; 1995: 134, pl. 8, b&w); Lallement (1997: 200, 202, pl. 15, b&w); Louvre (1974: no. 572); Joconde Website (1999); Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University, 375.M585.38C; Rasmussen (1999, Tambournine); Magni Dufflocq (1929: 548); Paolo Biordi (pers. comm., 2000); Burgess & Haynes (2004: pl. 19, col.); Rowland-Jones (2007: 7 & fig. 3, b&w); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Looking heavenward, St Cecilia plays the double harp; a cherub (winged putto) at her side sings from a music book. Leaning against a table beside her is a viol; on the floor lie an oboe, a timbrel, and a baroque alto recorder with ivory mounts. Elements of this work found their way into the frontispiece of Handel’s Alexander (1726) engraved by John Cluer (?-1728) and again for the title page of Handel’s Admeto (1727). Eva Legêne (cited in Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) believes this to be ‘the earliest representation in French painting of a late Baroque recorder’. Whilst that may or may not be true of paintings, a number of French precedents are to be found in the present enumerative catalogue, including:

    • The Elements: L’Air, tapestry, Le Brun (1664). Florence: Palazzo Pitti
    • Spring, tapestry, Le Brun (before 1680), Château de Versailles
    • Title Page: La fuite de roi à Angleterre, à trois instruments (1689), engraving, Dérosier, Amsterdam
    • Frontispiece: Piéces de clavecin composées par J. Henry d’Anglebert …- Paris, l’auteur (s.d.) Gravure d’après P. Mignard (1689), engraving, Cornelis Vermeulen
    • Title page: Les Trios des Opera de Monsieur de Lully (1690), engraving, published by Amédée le Chevalier
    • Musical Still-life (ca 1680-1690), oil on canvas, Desports, present location unknown
    • Hearing, tapestry, Le Brun (1691 or before), Château de Versailles

    Heroman [Herman] van der Mijn

    Netherlandish portrait and still-life painter known particularly for his flower paintings; born Amsterdam (1684), died London (1741).

      , oil on panel, 93 × 70 cm, Heroman van der Mijn (1684-1741). Munich: Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Alte Pinakothek, Inv. 5233. Ref. Munich RIdIM, Mstag – 459 (2013, b&w). A putto steps towards the viewer, a bird on his right wrist. He is surrounded by numerous plants, animals and objects, which are arranged as a kind of still-life. To the left a large bouquet of flowers which are entwined around the putto. A dog barks at the right. Amongst the many scattered objects are a violin (only the scroll and pegbox visible) and a duct flute (only the mouthpiece visible). And there are music books, one of which is open.

    Natasha Milashevich

    Contemporary Russian painter whose subjects include child portraits and still-lifes; born Dushanbe (Stalinabad), Tajikistan (1967).

      , oil on canvas, Natasha Milashevich (1967-). Ref. Website: I am a child, children in art history (2014, col) A young girl with a pony tail and wearing a red T-shirt and a long multi-coloured skirt sits on a step playing a neo-baroque soprano recorder, right-hand uppermost.

    Gustav Adolph Millar (18th century), Austrian

    • Frontispiece: Gradus ad parnassum by Joseph Fux (1725), engraving, Gustav Adolph Millar (18th century). Ref. Blume (1949-1963, 4: pl. 48); Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). As the winged horse Pegasus spreads his pinions above, a personification of Music seated at the top of a stair crowns the composer before an audience of scantily clad nymphs. An ornamental frame around the scene includes trophies of masks and musical instruments including trumpets, harp, lyre, musette, bagpipe, organ, oboes, syrinx (duct flute style), viol, tambourine, shawms and a three-piece alto baroque recorder.

    Lloyd Miller

    Contemporary USAmerican graphic artist and designer based in New York with a reputation for creating complex hybrid images. Artist’s Web-site.

    • Still-life with Recorder, cover image, Lloyd Miller (contemporary). American Recorder 48 (2): front cover (2008). A stylised recorder split longitudinally into two colours is seen against a table with a blank scroll of manuscript paper and a vase with a leafy stem. In the background is an open window with billowing curtains.

    Carl Milles

    Swedish sculptor, born Carl Emil Wilhelm Andersson; apprenticed as a cabinetmaker and studied sculpture at evening classes followed by study in Paris where he worked as a coffin-maker and at other jobs while attending lectures at the Sorbonne; later joined Auguste Rodin’s studio; born Uppsala (1875), died Millesgården (1955).

    • Boy with a Recorder, bronze sculpture, ? Carl Milles (1875-1955). St Louis: Missouri Botanic Gardens, Shoenberg Temperate House. Ref. Website: Webshots (2004, col.) A young boy sits, legs astride, playing a long cylindrical recorder. At his foot is a frog; on his knee a bird is perched.

    Hendrick van Minderhout

    Dutch artist; born Rotterdam (1532), died Antwerp (1696).

    • Landscape with the Rape of Europa, Hendrick van Minderhout (1632-1696). Rouen: Museés des Beaux Arts, Inv. 818.1.16 Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). At right foreground Mercury (pretending to be a shepherd) watches a cowherd. Mercury’s caduceus and winged helmet are on the rock nearby. He plays a slender duct flute (flageolet or recorder), right hand uppermost, the left with the second, third and little finger raised. The detail is too small for any finger holes to be visible, but the beaked mouthpiece is clear.

    Pablo Minguet e Yrol

    Spanish writer and engraver who published a series popular manuals on subjects ranging from from religion to magic tricks. Among them were Academia musical de los instrumentos (Madrid, 1752-1754), a set of instrumental tutors.

    • Title page: Academia Musical de los Instrumentos (1752-1754), engraving, Pablo Minguet e Yrol. Published Madrid. Ref. Early Music 9 (4): 559 (1981); Thomson & Rowland-Jones (1995: 86, pl. 25): Pascual (1997: 32); Tyler (1980: 113, pl. 22); Website: alamy (2019, b&w, col.) Musicians play around a harpsichord, including a baroque recorder with flute, harp, violin, guitar, and a plucked dulcimer: a flageolet with 5 finger holes visible lies on the bench on which the harpsichord stands. In front, from left to right, are tiple, vandola, citara, bandurria (Tyler, loc. cit.)

    Misume (contemporary)

    • [Untitled] (1975), drawing, Misume. Ref. Advertisement for Roessler, Early Music 14(1): 150 (1986). Stylised drawing of a young boy playing a soprano recorder.

    Agostino Mitelli

    Italian painter active in Bologna and Madrid; specialised in quadratura (illusianistic ceiling painting); born 1609, died 1660.

    • Untitled, chalk drawing, Agostino Mitelli (1609-1660). Munich: Staatsliche Graphische Sammlung, Inv. 2810. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, Mgs – 442): Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm. 1999). A landscape with an Arcadian loggia decorated with musical instruments which seem to include a recorder, although it is in shade and difficult to identify.

    Nicoletto [Rosex] da Modena [called Nicolo Rosa]

    Italian painter and engraver known from about 78 engravings; born Modena, active ca 1500-1520.

      , engraving by Nicoletto da Modena (op. 1500-1522). Britsh Museum, Inv. 1873,0809.696; Paris: Louvre, Rothschild Cabinet. Ref. Mirimonde (1977: 28, pl. 3) Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Mercury stands before an archway in his winged helmet and sandals, his caduceus in his right hand and in his left a one-piece recorder of alto size, the beak, window/labium, finger holes and flared bell of which are clearly depicted. The lowermost finger hole is offset to the others. The engraving is signed “N.J.RO”, i.e. NICOLETI MODENENSIS ROSEX. The close diagonal hatching indicate that it was made before 1500.

    Jean Baptiste Moerkercke (? – 1689), Flemish

      , oil on canvas, Jean Baptiste Moerkercke (? – 1689). Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2001, col.) On and around a table are scattered a carved nautilus shell, an elaborate vase, a statuette, fruit, sheet music, a violin, a large cittern, and a cylindrical alto-sized recorder the window/labium and seven finger holes (in line) are clearly depicted.

    Isaac Moillon

    French decorative painter, designer of tapestries, painter of military and historical scenes, and portraitist; born Paris (1614), died 1673; son of painter, art dealer and pawnborker Nicolas Moillon (15654-1619).

      , Isaac Moillon (1614-1673). Paris: Musée du Louvre, RF 1996-11. Ref. Lallement & Devaux (1997). In a garden a man in a brown toga sings something interminable from a long piece of paper, doubtless his latest creation. He is accompanied by an enormous woman in baggy, dissaranged drapes who plays an equally outsize lute. Beside them, an emaciated looking violinist awaits his entry. Before them are some music books and a small conical pipe which may represent a recorder. In the background are dancers and a woman playing a tambourine. On a balcony is a statue of a man climbing up a rock: he looks as if he is about to jump off, so the performance must sound as awful as it looks – hence the allegory, one might suppose.

    Rafel [Rafael] Mòjer [Moguer] (1424 – op. 1489), Spanish (Balearic Islands)

      , painting, Rafel Mòjer (1424 – op. 1489). Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Two angels stand before the Virgin, enthroned, with the Child on her lap and surrounded by angel musicians playing a small lute, harp, ? psaltery and three recorders. One of the recorders is conical and the others cylindrical; each has a beak made of a darker material than the body, and in each the window/labium is clearly depicted. One of the cylindrical recorders (on the right) has clearly depicted paired holes for the little finger of the lowermost (right) hand.

    Antonio Mola and Paolo Mola

    Italian intarsia artists active in Mantua; known from 1489, died 1532 and 1545.

      (? 16th century), Antonio Mola (op. 1489 – m.1532) & Paolo Mola (op. 1489 – m. 1545). Mantua: Palazzo Ducale, Studiolo of Isabella d’Este. Ref. Website: Web Gallery of Art (2014, col) Intarsia on a cupboard door lining the walls. Instruments depicted are a lira da braccio, two shawms, an ocarina in the shape of a bird, a guitar, a ? straight cornetto, and two duct flutes side by side. One of the latter is twice as long as the other but of equal diameter. Both instruments have four finger holes. These would appear to represent double pipes rather than recorders.

    Pier Francesco [Pierfrancesco] Mola

    Italian artist, one of the chief representatives of a distinctively romantic strain in Roman painting in the mid-17th-century, whose style is characterized by warm colouring and soft modelling; he painted frescoes in Roman churches and palaces, but his best-known works are small canvases with religious or mythological figures set in landscapes; born Coldrerio, near Como (1612), died Rome (1666).

      , oil on canvas, 58.7 × 99.4 cm, Pier Francesco Mola (1612-1666). Oberlin: Allen Memorial Art Museum, Inv. 61.85. Ref. Archiv Moeck; Rowland-Jones (1998: 16; 1999); Paulo Biordi (2000, pers. comm.) A scene from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Argus leans heavily on his staff whilst Mercury (Hermes), seated on a log, soothes him to sleep by playing on a flared-bell, one-piece recorder. A goat and Io (whom Jupiter has turned into a white heifer) look on. Four other versions of the same subject by the artist are known: a painting in the Staatliche Museen, Berlin, and another in Birmingham which includes a flute rather than a recorder; and a preparatory drawing for the Berlin painting now in the museum in Orléans; and an etching. , oil on canvas, 81.3 × 111.8 cm, attributed to Pier Francesco Mola (1612-1666). Location unknown. Ref. Website: artnet (2016, col)
    • Mercury and Argus (ca 1640), painting, Pier Francesco Mola (1612-1666). Berlin: Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Gemäldegalerie. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “Mercury plays a tenor-sized pipe, right hand lowermost. The instrument has a cylindrical body and a short medium flare. The playing position and the lower little finger possibly covering the offset finger hole suggest a recorder, but other details are not visible” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) (1640s), preparatory drawing, Orleans: Musée des Beaux-Arts. Ref. Pinterest (2016, col) Sitting beneath a tree, Argus leans sleepily on his staff. Sitting opposite him, Mercury plays a slender recorder, his sword hidden behind him.
    • Mercury and Argus, engraving after Pier Francesco Mola (1612-1666). Ref. Bartsch (1854-1870, 19: 207.6). Seated on a rock, Mercury plays a flared-bell pipe to Argus who reclines beneath a tree. In the background is Io (who has been turned into a white heifer by Jupiter). A dog seems as rapt in the music as Argus himself. The beak of the pipe is very narrow (more like a reed pipe) and no window/labium is visible, but there are holes for all four fingers of the lowermost (right) hand so this probably represents a recorder. , canvas, oil on canvas, 75 × 100 cm, Pier Francesco Mola (1612-1666). Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Inv.-Nr. GG_9117. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999); Paulo Biordi (2000, pers. comm.); Innsbruck RIdIM (2001, Nr 325); CD cover: Stöltze, Christmas Oratorio, CPO 999 735-2); Prof. Tilman Seebas (pers. comm., 2001). Mary cradles the Christ-child, watched by an admiring angel. Joseph stands to one side, leaning wearily against the wall. A shepherd kneels before the Holy Family, his offering of a lamb lying at his feet; a second shepherd stands behind him waiting to make his own offering, his wife beside him with a basket of produce; a third shepherd, also with a basket, kneels playing an alto sized flared-bell recorder; behind, two boys look on through a gap in the wall.
    • [Recorder Player], pen and brown ink with black chalk, 175 × 141 mm, Pier Francesco Mola (1612-1666). Location unknown. Ref. Warburg Instittute, London. A man sits playing a long, flared-bell, one-piece recorder (slightly bent) to a younger man beside him.
    • Bacchante, Pier Francesco Mola (1612-1666). Location unknown; offered for sale by Casa d’Aste Pitti, Florence, 4-8 November (1976), No. 549. Ref. Paulo Biordi (2000, pers. comm.) The head and shoulders of a Bacchante clutching with her left hand a cylindrical duct flute (almost certainly a recorder), the head, window/labium of which are clearly visible. She points with her right hand as if to capture our attention.
    • Episode in the Life of Bacchus, oil on canvas, 40.5 × 47.0 cm, Pier Francesco Mola (1612-1666). Location unknown; auctioned Sotheby’s, London, 8 December (1976), No. 45. Ref. Sotheby’s Catalogue (loc. cit); Paulo Biordi (2000, pers. comm.) Bacchus as a young boy with a jar of wine at his feet as big as himself, tootles on a duct flute (probably a recorder). The instrument is cylindrical with a flared bell, the end of the bore clearly visible and the window/labium can just be glimpsed beneath his pudgy hand. His efforts are watched by an admiring Bacchante. , oil on canvas, 213.0 × 134.5 cm, Pier Francesco Mola (1612-1666). Bellinzona: Palazzo Governativo, Sala del Consiglio di Stato. Ref. Ferino-Pagden (2000: 137). A young man plays a bass viol in the form of a large cello (? violone). On the ground before him, together with music, a shawm and what appears to be a small trombone, is an alto recorder. The mouthpieces is beaked and the window/labium is very clear. Where the head merges into the body and where the body merges into the foot there are a incised rings possibly at joints. All seven finger holes are visible and the lowermost is offset to one side. Below the lowermost hole there is a gradually increasing bell flare.

    Jan Miense Molenaer

    Dutch artist known for his genre paintings of drinkers, lute-players, girls at the spinet and social gatherings, and dark accounts of peasant life; he also painted religious scenes, allegories and portraits; born Haarlem (ca 1610), died Haarlem (1668), husband of Judith Leyster (1609-1660).

      (1633), oil on canvas, 102 × 127 cm, Jan Miense Molenaer (ca 1610-1688). Detail 1.Detail 2. Toledo, Ohio: Museum of Art, Inv. 1975.21. Ref. Ember (1984: pl. 40, b&w, detail, col.); Sutton et al. (1984: pl. 20); Griffioen (1988: 440-1); Welu et al. (1993: 305, fig. 33b); Southgate (2002, col.); Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie, illustration 1000276592 (2014, col); Ausin (2009: 57, col); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Website: Lute Iconography LI-2052 (2022, col.) An allegory of vanity in which an elegantly dressed girl, her feet on top of a skull, is displaying a ring and holding up a mirror whilst a woman combs her hair. The latter stands in front of a map on the wall behind alluding to the sick condition of the sub-lunar world. Also hanging on the wall are a duct flute (recorder or flageolet), a small transverse flute, a small shawm, a violin, a cittern, a lute and a cello. A virginals stands open on the other side of the room. The instruments represent musica instrumentalis whilst at the same time alluding to sensual pleasures. Cf. A Boy Playing a Flute by Molenaer’s wife, Judith Leyster, National Museum, Stockholm in which the same instruments hang on the wall behind. The duct flute illustrated here, with its distinctive beak, is strongly reminiscent of the ‘Dordrecht-style’ recorder’s beak and foot which have turned tenons for just such additions. Although only six finger holes are shown it is oriented in such a way that there could be an offset hole for the little finger of the lower hand as well as a thumb hole. (1650), 69.3 × 55.1 cm, after Jan Miense Molenaer (ca 1610-1668). Halifax, Nova Scotia: Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Inv. 1932.1; formerly Halifax: Laufer Family Collection. Ref. London: Courtauld Institute, Witt Collection; Thomson & Rowland-Jones (1995: 187, pl. 37, b&w); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). A smiling, happy girl wearing a feathered cap holds a flared-bell alto recorder. An 18th-century etching of this by McArdell seems to have provided the basis for an anonymous engraving and a 19th-century painted copy now in the Bate Collection, School of Music, Oxford University presented, along with his instruments, by French recorder player and teacher Jean Henry (Rowland-Jones, pers. comm. 2000).
    • Girl with a Recorder (1743-1765), mezzotint engraving by James McArdell (1728/9-1765) after Jan Miense Molenaer (ca 1610-1668). The Hague: Gemeentesmuseum, Music Department. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “Based on an original painting of unknown location (see above). The interesting thing about this well-known image is that the engraver has shown the whole recorder, with the bell end still well clear of the left edge of the picture. Has the engraver ‘extended’ his original or was Molenaer’s painting cut?” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) (1760-1780s), mezzotint with some etching, 15.0 × 11.3 cm, after Jan Miense Molenaer (ca 1610-1668). London: British Museum, Inv. 2010,7081.2025 Ref. Website: British Museum (2012, col) Like the engraving by McArdell (see above), this shows the whole recorder with the bell end well clear of the left edge of the picture. A hand-written note at the foot of this etching records that the original on which it is based was “Painted by Frans Halls [sic.]” (19th century), oil on canvas, 29.5 × 23.2 cm, after Jan Miense Molenaer (ca 1610-1668). Oxford: Bate Collection. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library OXM316028 (2013, col) Gifted to the University by French recorder player and teacher Jean Henry. A smiling, happy girl wearing a feathered cap holds a flared-bell alto recorder. Like the engraving by McArdell (see above), this shows the whole recorder with the bell end well clear of the left edge of the picture. (c.1629), oil on canvas, 64.1 × 50.5 cm, Jan Miense Molenaer. Seatle: Art Museum, 61.162. Ref. Sutton et al. (1984: pl. 19); Rasmussen & von Huene (1982: 32, fig. 6, b&w); Griffioen (1988: 440-441); Wind (1997, 1: cover, col); Rowland-Jones (1999e: 6, fig. 4, b&w; 2000c: 87); Seattle Art Museum (2001, col.); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, illustration 251783 (2014, b&w); Website: Lute Iconography LI-943 (2022, col.) A woman (possibly the artist’s wife, Judith Leyster) holds a narrow, one-piece, flared-profile, alto recorder expanding gradually from beak to foot, accompanied by a male theorbist (possibly Molenaer himself) who is using a foot-warmer as a foot-stool. The role reversal here is emphasised by the presence of Molenaer’s signature on the foot warmer, a form of comfort normally reserved for women. , oil on panel, 56.5 × 69.0 cm, Jan Miense Molenaer (ca 1610-1668). Zurich: Galerie Koller, 27 November – 1 December 1984, Lot 5064. Ref. Burlington Magazine 111: 314, fig. 62 (1969, b&w); Connoisseur 146: cover (1960, col); Rasmussen & von Huene (1982: 32, fig. 7, b&w); Griffioen (1988: 440-441); Paris RIdIM (1999); Bridgeman Art Library (2003: Image BAL14079, col.); Dutch University Institute for Art History, Florence (2011, b&w); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, illustration 251807 (2014, b&w). A girl (possibly the artist’s wife, Judith Leyster) holds a narrow, one-piece, flared-profile, soprano recorder expanding gradually from beak to foot, whilst her companion plays the violin, his left foot on a barrel. In the background a young boy holds a cat; in the foreground a girl is playing with a dog. Above the recorder player is a small window through which a maid is peeking.There are a number of versions of this painting, each a little different and with various titles, including:
      • sold by Beaux-arts, Brussels, October 1979
      • sold by Fisher, Lucerne, 1 December 1984
      • offered for sale by Sotheby’s (Amsterdam), 11 September 1999 (unsold); Phillip’s, 4 October 1990 (unsold)
      • Alan Jacobs Gallery, London, ca 2003
      • offered for sale by Sotheby’s (Amsterdam), 13 May 2003

      Molinaretto = Giovane Maria delle Piane

      Antonio Molinari

      Italian baroque painter of the Venetian School; he typically painted tumultuous narratives of mythology and religion in large canvases; his characteristic manner of depicting figures was in poses of extreme torsion and vigorous movement; born Venice (1655), died Venice (1704).

        , drawing on paper, Antonio Molinari (1655-1704). Paris: Musée du Louvre, Département des Arts Graphiques, Inv. 17401, Recto. Argus leans against a tree, asleep, as Mercury plays his cylindrical pipe with one hand and draws his sword with the other. , drawing on paper, Antonio Molinari (1655-1704). Paris: Musée du Louvre, Département des Arts Graphiques, Inv. 17620, Recto. Argus sleeps with his head in his arms as Mercury plays his flared bell pipe with one hand and draws his sword with the other. , oil on canvas, 100 × 135 cm, Antonio Molinari (1655-1704). Versailles: Châteaux de Versailles, MV 7153. Ref. Website: Joconde (2011). In a riverside clearing in the forest, Mercury pipes Argus asleep whilst Io (as a white heifer) grazes. Mercury’s pipe is long and cylindrical with an abruptly flared bell.

      Paolo Monaldi

      Italian figurative and landscape painter and frescoist, active in Rome; his works include bambocciate, scenes of simple country life (games, dances and drinking sessions) in settings that are characteristically amongst ruined buildings, and a few religious paintings; active 1720-1799.

        , oil on panel, Paolo Monaldi (op. 1720-1799). Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.) On a dusty road a beggar holding a score in one hand conducts a boy playing a greatly flared alto-sized recorder, the beak and window/labium of which are clearly visible. , oil on canvas, 61.5 × 47.4 cm, Paolo Monaldi (op. 1720-1799). Location unknown: Estate of Chester and Claire Kellogg; auctioned at Sotheby’s (London), Sale L06032, Old Master Paintings Day, 06 July 2006, Lot 226 (unsold). Ref. Sotheby’s Sale Catalogue LO6032 (2006: Lot 226); Gabrius Data Bank (2007, col.) A family rest beside the road under a tree. Mum slumps exhausted on a rocky ledge, her distaff under her arm, her work in her lap and in a basket on the ground beside her. A young girl sits on the ground with her dog, gazing in concern at her mother. Dad stands cross-legged, playing on a tenor-sized recorder with a strongly flared bell, the window-labium and several finger holes clearly visible. In the background, sheep and goats drink from a river. Another version of this composition by Monaldi is recorded by Andrea Busiri Vici (1975: 269) as on the Roman art market.

      Cristoforo Monari – see Cristoforo Munari

      Monogrammist AB (17th century), Italian (Bergamo)

      • Still-life with Music and Musical Instruments, canvas, 116.5 × 82.5 cm, Monogrammist AB (17th century). Location unknown. Ref. Sale catalogue (colour photograph); Paris RIdIM (2000). on a table covered with a richly embroidered cloth lie a number of music part-books and musical instruments. The latter include violin and bow, harp, bassoon, soprano and tenor chalumeaux, mute cornetto, and two basset recorders of baroque design, both with a single key and one with a side-mounted bocal. (1664), painting, Monogrammist AB (17th century). Lisbon: Museu da Música. Hanging on a wall are a cornetto, a violin and bow, a shawm, and three flared-bell recorders of different sizes, soprano, alto and tenor. The soprano recorders is black with a serrated metal ferule at the foot; the alto has turned ornamental rings on the beak and foot, and a maker’s mark can be seen immediately beneath the window/labium; the tenor is not ornamented. The paired holes for the lowermost finger are visible on all three recorders. A ticket at the lower right of the painting reads “AB me fecit a 1664”.

      Monogrammist AH (16th century), Southern Netherlands

      • Altarpiece Nativity (16th century), oil on canvas, 120.5 × 70.0 cm, Monogrammist AH. Lyon: Musée des Beaux Arts, Inv. H 647 A. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2003); Website: Joconde (2013, col); Website: Wikimedia Commons (2013, col) Like many altarpieces this interestingly constructed painting contains several scenes from the Life of Christ in addition to the central Nativity, including the Visitation (top left), Annunciation to the Shepherds (top right), and their arrival at the gate leading to the manger (centre right). Both the latter show recorders. Very much in Byzantine positioning, the scene at the top right shows two shepherds looking up in response to the (golden) angel above, while a third, apparently unconcerned, sits below with his shepherd’s pipe. Although the detail of the pipe is too small for identification it has an elongated beak. It is at least a duct flute, possibly a recorder. The pipe held by the shepherd at the gate is in larger detail and more can be seen – again the sharp beak, though rather less elongated – the darker wood of the block, the cylindrical body, the flare at the bell. It seems to be just about alto size. This is but one in a series of paintings: others include Adoration of the Magi, Presentation in the Temple, Baptism of Christ, Washing of the Feet, Entry into Jerusalem, Doubting of St Thomas, Pentecost.

      Monogrammist B

      Italian engraver in the style of the Italian printmaker and painter Giulio Giulio (di Antonio) Bonasone (ca. 1510 – a. 1576); active mid-sixteenth century.

      • The Seven Liberal Arts:Music (1544), engraving, 16.8 × 10.8 cm (image), Monogrammist B. San Francisco: de Young Museum 5050161212620016 A001416. Allegorical depiction of Music. A naked female figure sits with an open score on her lap, a long cylindrical pipe (probably a flute) in her hand, a lute beside her, a fiddle and bow at her feet. Behind her are a portative organ and a case for a number of wind instruments, possibly recorders.

      Monogrammist CM

      This artist may represent German book illustrator, glass painter and poet Christoph Murer [Maurer] (1558-1614).

      • Jakob Micyllus’ Metamorphoses: Mercury and Argus (Leipzig, 1582), woodcut, Monogrammist CM. Beneath a tree, Argus nods whilst Mercury seated opposite him plays a slender cylindrical pipe. The latter is very likely a recorder since the little finger of the lowermost (left) hand is crooked to cover its hole, and a shadow appears to represent a window/labium. Borrowed from the designs from the cycle of 178 woodcuts produced by Bernard Salomon for a French (and Dutch) simplified Ovid, the Metamorphose figurée (Lyon, 1557), used by a number of Renaissance artists.

      Monogrammist CS (17th century), northern Netherlandish

      • Allegory of Music (1652), oil on panel, 41 × 36 cm, Monogrammist CS (17th century). London: Sotheby’s , 2007-04-24, Lot 484. Ref. Rijksbureau vor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, Image 0000194202 (2016, col) Auctioned with a pendant. Seated at a table, a man in a floppy hat plays a small violin, off the shoulder. On the table are an open book of music, a book, a small lute and a duct flute. The lower part of the latter is hidden between the lute and the music book, but it is proably a recorder. The bek, window/labium and fiurst two or three finger holes are visible.

      Monogrammist CVN (1731-1795), Dutch = Cornelis van Noorde

      Monogrammist CVP (17th century), Flemish

      • Mercury and Argus, tableau in tiles, Monogrammist CVP (17th century). Antwerp: Museum Brouwershuis. Ref. Warburg Institute, London; Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). Mercury plays a long pipe with both hands, including the little finger of his lowermost (right) hand. His upper thumb is well under the instrument, but no window/labium is visible.

      Monogrammist ES (op. ca 1440-1468) German

      • A Fool and a Lady, engraving, Monogramist ES (op. ca 1440-1469). Ref. Lehrs & Mayor (1969: no. 138); Rasmussen (2004, Bells). “The fool has a recorder stuck in a purse and many bells on his cap. He fondles the lady and she tugs at his gown” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen.

      Monogrammist FM (17th century), Dutch

      • ? Apollo and the Muses, Monogrammist FM (17th century). Ref. Bartsch (1854-1870, 20: 56 UND). Apollo sits on a grassy knoll playing his lyre. Behind him, Pegasus canters across the sky and putti fly through the air and climb trees. At his feet, the Muses sing and play organ, viol, cymbals, lute, tambourine and triangle; one holds a straight trumpet, another bagpipes. Scattered in the foreground are papers and books and an astrolabe which a very small putto is turning. Behind the player of the viol can be seen the end of a tenor or bass wind instrument (shawm or recorder) with fontanelle and bore flare. In the centre foreground is a bearded old man in a loin-cloth above whom two winged putti hold a heraldic device of some kind.

      Monogrammist FMD (18th century), German

      • Serenade with Flute and Harp, grey pen and pencil drawing, Monogrammist FMD (18th century). Munich: Staatliche Graphische Sammlung. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, Mgs – 945). Two men play a recorder and a small harp.

      Monogrammist FP

      • Mercury, Monogrammist FP. Ref. Bartsch (1843-1876: 17); Rowland-Jones (2000c: fig. 11). Mercury, naked but for his winged helmet and sandals, sits in the fork of a tree fitting seven duct flutes (with up to four finger holes) together to form a syrinx, his caduceus between his legs. He’s going to need that magic wand if his contraption is to work!

      Monogrammist GB – See Guillaume Benson

      Monogrammist GP = Georg Pencz

      Monogrammist HS (early 18th century), ? Danish

        , oil on canvas, 105.2 × 88.0 cm, Monogrammist HS (early 18th century). London: Sotheby’s, 20010712 (auctioned as “The Property of a Gentleman”). Ref. Sotheby’s Catalogue (2001: 106, fig. 207). A youth wearing a red jacket stands full-length holding a baroque recorder of soprano/alto size recorder within a classical interior with a view of a courtyard beyond. On a window ledge behind him are his hat and sword.

      Monogrammist H***W*** (op. 17th century), Dutch

        , oil on canvas, 79 × 116 cm, Monogrammist H***W*** (17th century). London: Sotheby’s Sale W05717, Old Master Paintings, 05 July 2005, Lot 491 (sold). Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie 122484 (2010, col) A young boy with flowing locks leans against a table holding in one hand a straw with a bubble to the light and with the other a shell. On the table are scattered an hourglass, a skull, a ? money bag tied at the top, a candlestick and holder, a framed mirror, a statue, a tankard, a violin and bow, and a soprano hand-fluyt, perfectly depicted, with the lowermost hole offset.

      Monogrammist L.V.C. (17th century) Dutch

        (1663), oil on panel, 76 × 97 cm, Monogrammist L.V.C. Utrecht: Museum Catharijneconvent, Inv. RMCC s100. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). The hand of God weighs the arts against a canon and catholic regalia, the arts weighing much heavier. In this representation of the wide road and the narrow road, The figure of Wealth rides her car along the wide road surrounded by her followers, some partially hidden beneath an enormous cloth bearing images of heads representing the vices foolishness, drunkenness, lust, etc. Wealth and her train are immediately followed by Death whose cart, pulled by a bull ridden by Sampson, tramples princes, prelates, scholars all before him. In the upper-left corner one is the temple of human Fortune. To the right is the the narrow gate through which passes the narrow way to Jerusalem. Above, God’s hand holds the scales in which a copy of the bible outweighs a canon, armour and other symbols of pomp and worldly circumstance. Spread across the bottom of the picture are other vanitas objects including books, architectural drawings and many musical instruments, amongst them lutes, flute, violin, shawm, cornetto and, at the centre, an alto/tenor recorder. The latter is fairly cylindrical but the bell is slightly flared with three incised rings. Both the plug in the beak end and the side of the window/labium is visible. There are five finger holes and a sixth seems to be covered by a clay pipe. a number of moralizing texts and allegorical figures reminiscent of the world of rhetoric. This painting can be associated with the Haarlem rhetoricians. Partly based on prints by Cornelis Cort after a design by Maarten van Heemskerck from 1564, The cycle of human action, no. 2 and 3 (New Hollstein, Maarten van Heemskerck, 2, no. 483 and 484, pict.)

      Monogrammist MA (16th century), German

      • Maximilian I’s Prayer Book: Oratio omnis sancti tui que sumus (1514), black ink drawing, Monogrammist MA. Besancon: Bibliothèque municipale, BSB 2 L.impr.membr. 64. Ref. Website: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2016, col.). With his cauduceus in one hand Mercury holds aloft an alto-sized duct flute with the other. At his feet is a snare drum lying on its side. To the left, a swan balances on an ornate line. The monogram MA is clearly seen at the bottom right. The figure of Mercury seems out of place in a prayer book. However, Maximilian had a particular interest in astrology and over the years his geniture was cast and analyzed numerous times by various astrologers. In his chart, Mars, Mercury and Saturn were singled out as particularly significant planets. On the reverse side of this page is another drawing in red ink, like those seen elsewhere in this book by Albrecht Dürer, which illustrates two women standing on a turtle/dog chimera and a winged putto riding a dog/fish chimera. This also bears the MA monogram.

      Monogrammist MT, possibly Martin Treu (16th century), German

      • [Title unknown] (1543), Monogrammist MT (possibly Martin Treu). Location unknown. Ref. Bartch (1854-1870, 9: 73.24); Warburg Institute, London. Two men in slashed jackets and breeches play drum and a conical pipe which could be a mute cornetto, but which just might be a recorder. Cf. Beham’s Three Soldiers.

      Monogrammist PVK = P.V. Kerck

      Monogrammist SPQ (fl. 1560-1564), Italy (Venice)

      • Frontispiece: LA MVSICA DEL MOLTO MAGNIFICO ET ECCELL. M. GIROLAMO FALETI TRADOTTA DAL VERSO HEROICO LATI NO IN OTTAVA RIMA DA G.M.V., illuminated manuscript, Venice (1560-1564), Monogrammist SPQ (fl. 1560-1564). Location unknown. Ref. Sale Catalogue, London, ? vendor (? date); Paris RIdIM (2000). A work authored by G.M. Verdezotti (1525-1600). However, in the top right-hand corner of the ornamental margin of the title page (opposite the frontispiece) in a small rectangular box the monogram SPQ appears, presumably that of the artist. In the frontispiece, the winged figure of Music sits before a lattice-work fence behind which is a bird and a stag. In her left hand she holds a lyre, with her right she points to a campanulate flower, presumably meant to represent a lily. Beside her throne stands a viol and on the ground lies a lute. Beneath her feet is a cylindrical duct flute (flageolet or recorder).

      Monogrammist Z (18th century), German

        (early 18th century), engraving, 15.4 × 18.1 cm, Monogrammist Z (18th century). German. The Hague: Gemeentemuseum. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001); Tibia 30(1): front cover (2005). A small choir (with two boys visible) in a protestant church with recorder and flute playing together with continuo played on both organ and harpsichord. The recorder player reads from a score entitled Cantata … Flauto balanced on the edge of the Italian-style harpsichord. The alto/tenor sized recorder is of the slender three-piece baroque style well fitted to the high tessitura of recorder parts by Bach and Telemann. Beneath the harpsichord the following verse appears:

      Rührt die Zauberthon empfindich deine Brust,
      Erregt dis Saiterspiel bey dir vergnügte Lust,
      Wird durch die Harmonie der Sinnen Kraft benomen:
      Gedencke nur dabey; sie ist vom Himmel Kommen.

      Stir the magical sounds from within your breast,
      Exite the strings for your pleasure and amusement,
      Only by means of harmony driven by the senses
      Will God descend from the heavens.

      Bartolommeo/Bartolomeo Montagna

      Italian early Renaissance painter, the most eminent master of the school of Vicenza whose paintings shows a crystal-clear sense of construction and volume; born Brescia (ca 1450), died Vicenza (1523).

      • Polyptych, central panel: Virgin and Child Enthroned with Angel Musicians, Bartolommeo Montagna (ca 1450-1523). Detail. Lyon: Musée des Beaux-Arts, Palais Saint-Pierre. Ref. Walter Bergmann Collection, No. 45; LP Record Cover: L’Art de la Flûte, Volume I: La Flûte à Bec du Moyen-âge au XVIII e Siècle, Roger Cotte et le Groupe des Instruments Anciens de Paris, Arion 30 A 070 (1969); Levenson et al. (1973: 324 – fig.); Burlington Magazine 98 (1956: 312 – fig.); La Revue des Arts 6 (1956: 81 – fig.); Rasmussen (1999, Tambourine); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.); Websites: Joconde (2010); gallica (2012, b&w). A boy seated on the base of the predella beneath the enthroned Virgin and Child plays a tambourine, his legs crossed. On each side of him a boy kneeling on one leg plays a very clearly depicted, slightly flared recorder. The two side panels have been lost.

      Claude Montgomery

      North American painter of portraits and seascapes, known also for his work with the homeless; born 1912, died Portland, Maine (1990).

      • Portrait of Friedrich von Huene (1972), oil on canvas, Claude Montgomery (1912-1990). Brookline: von Huene Collection. Ref. Burgess (2015: 208 & pl. 25, b&w). The noted wind instrument maker, Friedrich von Huene (1929-2016), seated in side profile, holds a three-piece baroque alto recorder with ivory beak, ferrules and foot, possibly one of the Bressan alto’s from his own collection. One of von Huene’s clients, the artist Claude Montgomery, spent the summers in Maine where Friedrich von Huene and his family also spent their vacations for some years at Indian Point. In 1972, Montgomery (1912–1990) asked Friedrich, his wife Inge and their eight-year-old son Thomas to sit for him. As part payment for his services Friedrich gave Montgomery a basset recorder. The three portraits now decorate the families Brookline music room.

      Carel de Moor

      Netherlandish artist, the greatest of the so-called “Leiden Fine Painters”; born Leiden or Warmond (1656), died 1739.

      • Still-life with Books and Musical Instruments, Carel de Moor (1656-1739). Location unknown; sold Hotel Drout, 1 July (1991), 14:30 pm, Salles 1 & 7, Cat. #21. Ref. Catologue de Vente (1991: #21 , col); Paris RIdIM (1999). Tarot cards, a picture, scarf, watch, papers, a violin, a small lute and the head of a turned baroque (Hotteterre-style) recorder crossed with the middle and foot of another. Probably a vanitas.

      Charles Moreau (1830-?)

        , Charles Moreau (1830-?). Location unknown. Ref. Greetings Card, Woodmansterne, London (1998: S 053118, col.); Website: Getty Images (2010, col) A young boy leans against a tree playing a peculiar pipe to a picnic basket, the lid of which is slightly open. The pipe has an ivory head and foot, the later campanulate. The body is made of wood and has a bulbous expansion near the foot. The boys cheeks are slightly inflated and there is no indication of a window/labium, so this may represent a capped reed instrument of some kind. However, all four fingers of the lower (right) hand seem to be covering their holes.

      Jean François Moreau (18th century), Netherlands

      • Musical trophies (1733-1736), gold-relief in wood, Jean François Moreau (18th century). Gouda: St Janskerk, organ console balcony. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2004). There are two trophies with musical instruments on each side of the balcony, including trombone, viola, oboe, and the head of an alto recorder, up to the third finger hole before the rest is hidden. The recorder is shown side-on with a turned-over beak and clear window-labium.

      Hippolyte François Moreau

      French sculptor who worked in bronze and marble; born Dijon (1832), died Neuilly-sur-Seine (1927); second son of the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Moreau.

      • Rustic Recorder, bronze sculpture, Hippolyte François Moreau (1832-1927). Brussels: Horta, 17 March 1997, Lot 116 . Ref. Artfact (2004). Not seen.
      • Young Man with Recorder and Lady with Cymbals, bronze sculpture on red marble base, Hippolyte François Moreau (1832-1927). Antwerp: Amberes Veilingen, 26 May 1997, Lot 815. Ref. Website: Artfact (2004). Not seen.

      Paulus Janszoon Moreelse

      Dutch painter, miniaturist and architect, best known for his portraits of shepherds and blonde shepherdesses with a deep decolletage; designed the Catherine Gate (destroyed) and possibly the façade of the Meat Market in Utrecht; born Utrecht (1571), died Utrecht (1638).

      • Shepherd with a Pipe, 94.0 × 71.5 cm, Paulus Jansz. Moreelse (1571-1638). Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland. Ref. Kettering (1983: fig. 5); Griffioen (1988: 440-441). A shepherd in a loose fur cloak an wearing a hat with flowers in it, holds a soprano hand-fluyt as if about to play it left-hand up. There is no entry for this in the database of the National Galleries of Scotland. A copy in the Uffizi, Florence, provides the basis for a self-portrait by Jacob Backer.
      • Flute Player, Paulus Janszoon Moreelse (1571-1638). Munich: Bayerisches Nationalmuseum. Ref. Archiv Moeck. A man holds a cylindrical duct flute. The bell is slightly turned; the head is in shadow, but the fingering is as of a recorder. (1636), oil on panel, 66.4 × 55.2 cm, Paulus Jansz. Moreelse (1571-1638). Aschaffenburg: Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Staatsgalerie Aschaffenburg Inv. 6527. Ref. Brochhagen (1964); Website: Il Flauto Traverso Nell’Arte (2005: 2); Munich RIdIM. A shepherd holds a cylindrical pipe which he is about to play. This picture is presented on a web-site devoted to the transverse flute. However, the instrument seems more like a cylindrical duct flute. The head is in shadow, but the position of the player’s thumb and the fingering with the little finger of the lowermost (right) hand down strongly suggest a recorder.
      • Shepherd and Shepherdess or Man with a Tulip, Paulus Janszoon Moreelse (1571-1638). Münster: Westfälisches Landesmuseum. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). A man holds a tulip with his right hand. His left holds a cylindrical duct flute, fairly fat and showing the windway opening from beneath, and the outline of the block. There is a decorative incised ring, well below which appear two holes spaced obliquely. The rest of the instrument is obscured
      • Saint Cecilia Playing the Lute (1620), oil on canvas, 11.3 × 109.5 cm, London: Bonhams , 9 July 2002, Lot 40. Ref. Rijksbureau vor Kunsthisorische Documentie, Image 140126 (2016, col.); Website: Lute Iconography LI-718 (2022, col.) A woman seated in a high-backed chair looks heavenward as she plays the lute. Before her is a desk on which is a large open book, presumably a bible, a long partially unfurled document, a violin and bow from underneath which projects the foot of a recorder, the characteristic offset lowermost finger hole clearly visible.

      Moretto da Brescia [born Alessandro Buonvicino (or Bonvincino)]

      Italian artist, active mainly in his native Brescia where he was the leading painter of his day; he established a large practice as painter of altarpieces and other religious works, the best of which display a characteristic gravity and poetic feeling for nature; also painted portraits and is now credited with introducing the independent full-length portrait to Italy; born Brescia (ca 1498), died 1554.

        also known as The Virgin in Glory with Five Martyrs (1540), canvas, 288 × 193 cm, Moretto da Brescia (ca 1498-1554). Detail. Verona: San Giorgio in Braida. Ref. Gombosi (1943: cat. no.189, pl. 77); Mirimonde (1974: pl. 71); Art Bulletin 64 (1982); Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University, 372.M815.34; Paris RIdIM (1999); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Website; gallica (2012, b&w, etching); Website: Fondazione Federico Zeri, item 42332 (2017, b&w); Website: Lute Iconography LI-270, detail (2022, col.) The Virgin and Child sit comfortably on a cloud. Beneath them the Martyrs (Saints Caterina, Cecilia, Lucia, Agate and Agnes) variously discourse amongst themselves, read a book or gaze heavenward. St Cecilia seems to have a bet each way, one eye gazing upwards, the other down, whilst she holds her organetto upside down such that its pipes must surely fall to the ground where lie scattered a number of other musical instruments including a rebec (with an elaborately carved back) and bow, a lute, a cornetto, and two flared bell duct flutes, one an alto recorder with seven finger holes (including an offset hole for the lowermost finger), the other of soprano size but with only six finger holes showing. The window/labium area of each is clearly depicted. Cecilia’s face is similar to Raphael’s depiction of the same scene, but here the instruments scattered at the Saint’s feet are not broken. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.) Moretto da Brescia (ca 1498-1554). Berlin: Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Gemädergalerie. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, Bgd – 90); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001); Website: Stiftung St Matthäus (2014, col) Shepherds arrive to pay homage to the infant Jesus who lies in a wicker basket. One of the shepherds in the act of doffing his cap and kneeling, turns away from us, in his belt an alto-sized cylindrical recorder with a clear window/labium, a slightly flared bell with a small decorative ring, and holes for seven fingers, including paired holes for the lowermost finger. In the background a second shepherd climbs over a wall a flared-bell pipe in his hand.

      Barbara Brooks Morgan

      American artist whose drawings, prints, watercolors and paintings were widely exhibited in the 1920s and 1930s; she turned to photography in 1935 exploring both expressionist and manipulated image photography; she became well-known for her penetrating studies of modern dancers such as Martha Graham, Merce Cunningham, and José Limón; born southern California (1900), died 1992.

        (1945, printed ca 1980), gelatin silver print, 40 × 50 cm, Barbara Morgan. New York: Swann Galleries, Photographic Literature and Photographs, 6 June 2002, Lot 399; New York: Bruce Silverstein Gallery (2003). Ref. Website: Artfact (2003 – photo available by subscription). A young girl sits on a roof-top playing a recorder. There is a lake in the background. But is it art?

      Andrea Morinello

      Italian artist known for his altar pieces and religious paintings; born Val Bisagno near Genoa (ca 1490), died after 1529; son of the painter Giacomo Morinello (m. 1510).

        , etching and engraving on paper, 39.80 × 30.30 cm, Lorenzo Lorenzi (fl.1750-1780) after Andrea Morinello (c.1490–p.1529). Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland, Inv. P 5321. A shepherd wearing a feathered cap, a ragged shirt and a fur cape, holds a perfectly depicted one-piece flared bell recorder, left hand uppermost.

      Berthe(-Marie-Pauline) Morisot

      French painter and printmaker; an original, influential and highly regarded member of the Impressionists of whom she was the most intimate, depicting people happy and at home; with her sister Edma, she worked as a copyist in the Louvre; born Bourges (1841), died Paris (1895); grand-daughter of the artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806), and sister-in-law of the Realist painter Edouard Manet (1832-1883).

        , coloured pencil on paper, 20.3 × 14.0 cm, Berthe Morisot (1841-1895). Private Collection. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library (2001: Image AGN130351, col.); Macmillan (2008: 136). A young girl, Julie Manet, seen in side profile sits playing a slender cylindrical pipe. Macmillan (loc. cit.) claims this is a recorder, but it is very sketchily drawn and might just as well be a flageolet – or a drinking straw. , pastels on paper, Berthe Morisot (1841-1895). Private Collection: Auctioned 15 May 1990 (unsold). Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.); Website: The Pleasant Companion (2007, col.) Two girls (one in straw hat) sit in a garden playing cylindrical duct flutes. However, as French flageolets were still being played in France during the period when Morisot was active, it seems possible to take this work at face value. , pastels on paper, Berthe Morisot (1841-1895). Location unknown: Auctioned 9 April 2002 (sold). Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.) A girl faces us playing a wind instrument. A very vague sketch for the above.

      P. Morley

      • Girl with a Recorder, oil on board, 64.8 × 37.8 cm, P. Morley (20th century). Warnham: Denhams, Fine Art, Antique and Collectables Auction, 8 June 2014, Lot 838. Seated on a bench, a rather sour looking girl plays a neo-baroque recorder. Leaning against the bench beside her is a lute.

      Giovanni Battista Moroni

      Italian Renaissance painter notable for his sober and dignified portraits of almost photographic precision; born Abino (1525), died Bergamo (1578).

        , (?1556), 136 × 186 cm, variously attributed to Bernardino Licinio da Pordenone (ca 1498 – a.1565) and Giovanni Battista Moroni (1525-1578). Vercelli: Museo Francesco Borgogna. Ref. Limberg (1992: 121, fig. 7, b&w); Paolo Biordi (pers. comm., 2000). A patrician young man and a woman play cornetti and two young women hold cylindrical duct flutes (probably recorders). The women on the right holds an open score which is probably readable.
      • A Composer with a Recorder and Music Manuscript, pen and brown ink on laid paper, 12.1 × 94.0 cm, attributed to Giovanni Battista Moroni (1525-1578). Location unknown: auctioned 1993 by Goodfriend ex coll. Padre Resta (the so-called Borghese Collection). Ref. Goodfriend (1993: 22-23, pl. 77); Michael Fleming (pers. comm., 2006). The attribution to Moroni is given in Padre Resta’s hand on the recto of the sheet. Resta (1635-1714) is generally considered reliable. An oddly pear-shaped, sour-faced man stands at a table on which lies a music manuscript. In his right hand he holds what looks like a container of some kind (for the pipe, perhaps), in his left a pipe (probably a recorder). Only part of the body and one end of the instrument can be seen. Four finger holes are depicted and there seems to have been some attempt to depict the beak and window/labium of a recorder. It has been suggested that the drawing depicts Orlando Lassus (1532-1594). One of the Bassanos is a remote possibility, too. But this may just as well be a picture of a member of a distinguished Venetian family, shown to set off his musical gifts – even to the extent of portraying him rather dishabille. There is a painting of almost identical composition in the Detroit Institute attributed to Titian, probably in error; although the faces of the subjects are different there must be some connection between them (see below). (ca 1560-1565), oil on canvas, 122.2 × 100.3 cm, ? Giovanni Battista Moroni (1525-1578). Detroit: Detroit Institute 27.385. Ref. Goodfriend (1993: 23). An oddly pear-shaped man stands at a table on which lies a music manuscript. In his right hand he holds what looks like a container of some kind (for the pipe, perhaps), in his left a pipe (probably a recorder). Only part of the body and one end of the instrument can be seen. Only part of the body and one end of the instrument can be seen. Holes for seven fingers are depicted, including paired holes for the little finger of the lowermost hand, and there seems to have been some attempt to depict the beak and window/labium of a recorder. The beak appears to be sheathed in metal. This painting is attributed to Titian by the Detroit Institute. However, given its striking similarity with a drawing attributed to Moroni (see above), the latter artist seems more likely. Titian used recorder symbolism in a variety of ways, and was generally rather careful in how he depicted the instrument. Neither the drawing nor the painting shows the instrument at all accurately.

      William Morris

      British craftsman, designer, writer, typographer, and socialist; his career as a designer led to the formation of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. in 1861 (later renamed Morris & Co) was particularly well-known for its stained glass, examples of which can be seen in churches throughout Britain. Morris produced some 150 designs which are often characterised by their delightful foliage patterns; born Walthamstow (1834) died Hammersmith (1896).

        (1873), stained glass, design by William Morris. Detail. Over Stowey, Somerset: Church of St Peter and St Paul, North aisle, West window. Ref. A.B. Sainsbury ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm, 2004); Website: flickr, Over Stowey Church (Nov. 2011). Angels plays rebec, cymbals, harp and an ambiguous cylindrical pipe which might be taken to represent a recorder.

      John Hamilton Mortimer

      British draughtsman and painter of historical and romantic literary themes, also of portraits and conversation pieces; he was a wild and flamboyant character who, throughout his youth, led an outrageous lifestyle filled with revelry and excessive drinking; despite his short life his output was prodigious; born Eastbourne (1740), died London (1779).

        (ca 1776), pen & grey ink and grey wash, 10.9 × 7.2 cm, John Hamilton Mortimer (1740-1779). London: British Museum, Inv. 1868,0822.7597. Ref. Website: British Museum (2012, b&w). Wearing classical drapery and crowned with ivy, a personification of Comedy stands with a recorder in her right hand holding a quill pen and an open book which rests upon a short column decorated with swags of leaves and theatrical trophy (mask, panpipes and oboe), sitting beside her a child holds a mask of an old man before his face and a tambourine (with jingle rings) between his knees. The recorder is of alto size, the beak and first few finger holes clearly depicted, the foot hidden behind the child’s elbow. An engraving of this by John Hall was used as the frontispiece to the Comedy volumes of the 1780 edition of John Bell’s British Theatre. (1784), etching on bluish paper, 8.3 × 10.7 cm, by Thomas Rowlandson (1757-1827) after John Hamilton Mortimer (1740-1779). London: British Museum, Inv. 1866,1208.377 & 1872,0608.281. Ref. Website: British Museum (2012, b&w). A female peasant seen from behind almost in half-length, her hair in a knot, and wearing loose-sleeved garment, plays a recorder or flute.

      Carla Moss

      American graphic artist and sculptor working in clay, bronze and other media; her works include, figurative, zoological, marine, and figurative subjects as well as public art; born San Francisco. Artist’s web-site.

        127 × 122 cm, Carla Moss (contemporary). Milpitas, California: City Hall, pond. Ref. Website: Carla’s Fine Art and Graphic Design (2014, col.) A young girl sits on a rock playing a slender cylindrical pipe, possibly a recorder. 20.3 × 30.5 × 22.9 cm, Carla Moss (contemporary). Milpitas, California: City Hall, pond. Ref. Carla’s Fine Art and Graphic Design (2014, col.) A small replica (maquette) of the above. A young girl sits on a rock playing a slender cylindrical pipe, possibly a recorder.

      John Mossman (1817-1890)

      Scottish sculptor and teacher working in Glasgow, completing many well known statues, busts and friezes for public buildings and spaces there. These include statues of Sir Robert Peel, Thomas Campbell and David Livingstone, all in George Square; founder member of the Glasgow School of Art where he taught modelling; his firm of J & G Mossman produced an enormous quantity of monuments for cemeteries in Glasgow and elsewhere in Scotland; born 1817, died 1890.

      • [Cherub Musicians], carved stone figures, 150 cm high, John Mossman (1817-1890). Edinburgh: Bonhams Sale 11788 – The Scottish Sale, 24 August 2005, Lot 771. A young boy (naked apart from a cloak across his back) plays stylised pipe (possibly a duct flute] and a young girl (in a tunic) holds an open book of music. These appear to be simply children rather than cherubs or putti.

      Nercen Motamed

      Contemporary Iranian born artist now living and working in the USA; commenced painting professionally in 1983 in a figurative style, later turning to a synthesis of abstract art and figuration, depicting Persian female rug weavers or people and nature. Artist’s Web-site.

        (2002), oil on canvas, 100 × 140 cm, Nercen Motamed (op. 1983-). Location unknown. Against a background of stylised trees and flowers, a bearded man plays a tenor-sized pipe. No details of the instrument are shown; however, the disposition of fingers and thumb are highly suggestive of recorder playing, though it is probably kaval.

      Christophe Moucherel

      French turner, cabinet-maker, type-founder and organ builder; he built his first organ in 1716; by the time he was commissioned for the monumental organ at Albi Cathedral in 1734, he had already completed 12 organs and had worked on another 25; after completing the instrument at Albi in 1737, he went on to build the organs at Castres and Narbonne, and at the Abbey of Boulbonne; after 1761 there is no further trace of him; born Toul (1686), died p. 1761.

      • Musical Trophies (1723-1725), organ case panels, carved wood, Christophe Moucherel (1686-p.1761). Mouzon: l’Eglise-Abbatiale Notre-Dame de Mouzon. Ref. Paul Motte (2011); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2011); Web-site: Orgue historique du Mouzon (Ardennes) (2011). This organ is the outstanding feature of the church’s interior. From 1988–1981 a complete restoration was undertaken since little of Moucherel’s original instrument remained, apart from the case, the pedal wind chests, and the pedal 6′ and 12′ ranks. From a web-site devoted to this organ and its restoration, it seems that the organ case was by the carpenter Henry Baillard Stenay, and the sculpture by Jacques Lemaire. Panels on left and right front of the case are carved with musical garlands. The right-hand panel comprises an upper garland of lyre, flute, oboe and serpent, above a lower garland of alto recorder, small bagpipe (cornamuse), bassoon, trumpet and oboe oboe. The left-hand panel comprises an upper garland of violincello piccolo (with five strings), oboe, tenor and soprano recorders, trumpet and ? flute, above a lower garland of syrinx, horn, two flutes and trumpet. On top of the positive organ (in front of the organ bench) a carved putto at the front of the case conducts, and on either side putti play flute and shawm.

      Henry Siddons Mowbray

      American artist known for his genre, figure and decorative paintings; born Alexandria, Egypt (1858), died 1929.

      • Young Flute Player, oil on panel, 12.1 × 16.5 cm, Henry Siddons Mowbray (1959-1928). Bolton: Skinner, 20 March 2003, Lot 899; Fairfield: James D. Julia, Spectacular Maine 3 Day Auction, 20-22 August 2003, Lot 1567. An impressionistic scene with what appear to be two young mythological forest dwellers around a cauldron. One plays a small recorder-like pipe while another looks on. Signed lower right “H.S. Mowbray”. Housed in a pierced decorated gilt frame set in a burgundy velvet lined shadow box.

      Wilhelmine Christana Müler (18th century), German

      • Shepherd Scene (1773), watercolour on paper, Wilhelmine Christina Müler (18th century). Tübingen. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2003, Slm – 310). A shepherd plays a ? recorder to his shepherdess in an idealistic landscape.

      Mulinaretto = Giovanni Maria dalle Piane

      Albert Müller-Single (19th century)

      • [Untitled] (1844), print after an original painting by Albert Müller-Single (19th century). Published in Munich. Ref. Archiv. Moeck. An elderly man (a walker judging by his satchel, hat and stick) sits on a bench before a kitchen fire playing a duct flute (flageolet or recorder) to two children and their mother. The instrument is narrow and cylindrical with a flared bell and an ornate, bulbous head.

      Karl Friedrich Moritz Müller (1822-1865), German

      • Tiroler am Feuerherd (Cooking Fire), Karl Friedrich Moritz Müller (1822-1865). Mainz: Mittelrheinisches Landesmuseum, Inv. 30. Ref. Munich RIdIM 1999, MZlm – 43). A young man plays a recorder; two young women stand by. Not seen.

      Cristoforo [Cristofano] Munari [Monari, Monarico]

      Italian artist specialising in still-life painting; his style is characterized by a realistic treatment of detail and a subtle play of reflections and transparencies, suggestive of the manner of such Dutch artists as Jan de Heem; born Reggio Emilia (1667), died Pisa (1720).

      • Still-life with Musical Instruments (1706-1715), oil on canvas, 42 × 67 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Detail. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi, Inv. 135 (not on display, 2002). Ref. American Recorder 37 (5): cover (1996, col); Rowland-Jones (1997c: 12; pers. comm., 2002); Baldassari (1999: 170, no. 64); Badiarov (2005, col.); Ausoni (2009: 351, col); CD Cover: Brandenburg Concertos 1-6, English Chamber Orchestra, London (1995); de Avena Braga (2015: 225, fig. 3.11, col) Depicts books, music, a cello, a violin, a lute, an ornately decorated trumpet, a bowl of fruit, a typical 3-piece turned baroque recorder, Chinese porcelain, and an exquisite delicate glass container. A musical score is stuffed under the strings of the cello. (1706-1715), oil on canvas, 99 × 134 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi, Inv. 7591 (not on display, 2002). Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999); Francone et al. (1996: 296-297, pl. 70, col); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002); Wikimedia (2010, col); Website: Lute Iconography, LI-1422 (2022, col.) Depicts books, music, a cello, a violin, a lute, an ornately decorated trumpet, a bowl of fruit, a typical 3-piece turned baroque recorder, Chinese porcelain, and an exquisite delicate glass container. A musical score is stuffed under the strings of the cello.
      • Still-life with Musical Instruments, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi (not on display, 2002). Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). A cello stands beside a cloth-covered table on which there is a jumble of objects including a lute and tea cups (without handles); falling off it is a plate with a joint of ham, flowers, fruit, some music, and a perfectly depicted alto baroque recorder in which all features are absolutely clear. , oil on canvas, 172 × 146 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Florence: Galleria Palatina. Ref. Website: Artothek (2007: 15921, col.); Exhibition on Tour: Still-Life Painting and the Medici Collections (2006-2008); CD cover: Giuseppe Sammartini, XII Sonatas for two German Flutes, I Fiori Musicali, Tactus; CD Cover:Telemann, Recorder Music (The Recorder Collection), 6 CD set, BIS-CD-1488-90. On a cloth-covered table is a jumble of objects including a wine-glass, a bowl, a basin, cups (without handles), a vase in which a rolled-up sheet of music is stuffed, an open book, lemons, and a perfectly depicted alto baroque recorder in which all features are absolutely clear. The recorder has an ivory beak and mounts. (ca 1707-1713), Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Florence: Galleria della Accademia, Musical Instrument Museum; on loan from Galleria Palatina (Pitti Palace Gallery). Ref. Postcard: M34015, Woodmansterne Publications, Watford (1997, col); Paris RIdIM (1999); Bayer (2000: 41, fig. 27, b&w); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); de Avena Braga (2015: 221, fig. 3.7, col); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1310 (2022, col.) A garland of musical instruments tied together, including a cornetto, violin, mandolin and a turned baroque recorder with ivory mouthpiece and ferrules. s, oil on canvas, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Private Collection. Ref. Wikimedia Commons (2011, col); de Avena Braga (2015: 222, fig. 3.8, col) On a table covered in a crimson cloth are a bowl and a platter of fruit, a carafe of wine, a glass of wine, two porcelain cups on a tazza standing on top of a book with a ticket, and an alto-sized baroque recorder with ivory beak and mount, the foot not visible. Behind the table, a cello (with its bow) leans against the wall. (ca 1707-1713), Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Florence: Galleria Palatina, Inv. (1890) 7591. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002); Website: Wikimedia Commons (2010, col): de Avena Braga (2015: 224, fig. 3.10, col); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1310 (2022, col.) At centre left, most prominent, stands a fine cello, with music lying in front of it. Beside it, on the ground, centre-stage, is a perfect alto recorder of late baroque design in light wood (? box). A lute, and cups on a table centre right with a wealth of fruit, notably watermelons – one uncut, apples and a gourd. till-life with Musical Instruments (ca 1710-1715), oil on canvas, 140 × 100 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, Samuel H. Kress Collection. Ref. CD cover, Baroque Recorder Concerti, Scott Reiss & Hesperus, Golden Apple GACD 7550 (1989, detail, col); Paris RIdIM (1999); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). On a table covered in a lavishly embroidered cloth are a tray with small decanters of wine and an ornate drinking glass balanced on top of a couple of books, a vase of flowers, a platter with some peaches and a couple of tea cups without handles, a violin, an ink well and quill, some music, and a turned alto baroque recorder.
      • Still-life with Musical Instruments, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Bergamo: Private Collection. Ref. Archiv Moeck. A violin leans against a box on a table with a glass jug and glasses, playing cards, books, some fruit, papers and books, and a turned, 3-piece, baroque alto recorder. , after Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Location unknown; offered for sale by Guglielmo Canessa at the Biennale des Antiquaires, Florence (1963); Rome: Christies, Sale ERACLE 130 , Importanti dipinti, acquarelli, stampe e disegni antichi e del XIX secolo, 27 May 1987. Ref. Sale Catalogue (1963: No. 376); RIdIM (2000); Website: gallica (2012, b&w); Sale Catalogue (1987, front cover, col); Julier (2012, col) On a table covered in a lavishly embroidered cloth are two drinking tumblers, a cello and bow, and a violin and bow. Above the cello hangs a metal ring on which a bird is perched pecking at some cherries or other fruit. On a smaller lower table in the foreground are a bowl of fruit, some sheet music and a beautifully depicted alto baroque recorder with ivory beak, centre-joint and foot. , canvas, 98 × 73 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Bergamo: Private Collection. Ref. Catalogue de l”Exposition de Bordeaux (1969); RIdIM (2000); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). On a table covered in a lavishly embroidered cloth are scattered a metal plate with biscuits, a mandolin, a book, sheet music, playing cards, a violin, a cabinet, a metal platter with glass-ware on it, and an alto baroque recorder with turned decorative rings on the beak and centre-joint (only the first two finger holes are visible) the lower part of the instrument is beyond the frame of the painting.
      • Still-life, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Ref. Baldassari & Benati (1999). Location unknown. On a table lie an inkwell, a knife, music, a spinet, violin and bow, cornetto, a very small flared-bell duct flute of simple (renaissance) design. The latter is possibly a recorder, but it is viewed from behind and only the thumb hole is visible the position of which is more suggestive of a flageolet. , oil on canvas, 118 × 94 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Reggio Emilia: Fondazione Pietro Manodori. Ref. Baldassari & Benati (1999); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1423 (2022, col.) On a table lie a bust with a laurel wreath, an ornate urn, a knife and bowl, an artist’s palette, books, music, a small mandolin, and a baroque alto recorder.
      • Still Life with Violin, Fruit and Glasses, oil on canvas, 135 × 97 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Modena: Galleria Estense, Inv. 2978. Ref. Cosetta (1985, 1: pl. 71); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). Includes a tenor recorder, cello, lute, and Milanese mandolin as well as the violin (? viola), and music which Cosetta says is legible but does not identify. The recorder is visible from the foot up to finger hole five. Notes by Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.) , oil on canvas, 100 × 75 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). London: Robilant & Voena (2014). Formerly, New York: Christie’s, Sale 1009, Important Old Master Paintings, 25 January 2002, Lot 41; Buenos Aires: J.C. Naon, D. Lorenzo Pellerano, his sale, Lot 350. Ref. Website: still life quick heart (2015, col); Sale Catalogue, Christies (New York) 2009 (2002: 57-58, col.; Artfact (2003); Artnet (2005). Porcelain cups and a façon de venise glass on a salver, with a ewer of wine, a peeled lemon, peaches and other fruit, all before a plinth with a cello and a recorder. [Beneath the latter can be seen the head of a transverse flute.] The same cello and recorder recur in a similar position in other still-lifes by the artist, which suggests that the artist may have actually owned the instruments. Interestingly only one of the many musical scores depicted by Munari can actually be read, which suggests he was not himself able to read music (Baldassari 1999: 21). The present work is a fine example of Munari’s ability to capture the subtle play of reflections and transparencies created by the careful choice and placement of objects, evident here in the rendering of the porcelain on the salver and the description of the glass and ewer. Munari used these and other motifs in numerous works, presumably as a means of exploring his interest in these effects – for example, the cup atop the upturned saucer on the salver can also be found in two other pictures (one in a private collection, Modena, the other in the Museo Civico di Palazzo Bianco, Genova (Baldassari 1999: 195-196, nos. 109-110), while the ewer of wine recurs in a still life in a private collection, Bergamo (Baldassari, 1999: 151, no. 29). Such artistic concerns reveal the influence of Flemish still-life artists such as Jan Davidsz. de Heem and the German painter Christian Berentz, who worked in Rome in the early part of the eighteenth century. Baldassari (1999: 213, no. 31) records a studio copy after the present work depicting only the lower left part of the still life, with the porcelain on the slaver and the fruit before it (Christie’s, New York, 10 January 1980, Lot 211). Description and notes from Christies Sale Catalogue 1009 (loc. cit.) , Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Rome: Palazzo di Montecitorio, Camera dei Deputati. On a bench are a tray with a crystal glass decanter and goblet and two china tea-cups, a glass jug, a larger china bowl, a platter with a roughly cut-open watermelon, a napkin with apples and lemons on it, a small round pill-box, and a baroque recorder. Only the head and upper body of the latter is visible; it is without mounts. , Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Montepulciano: Museo Civico e Pinacoteca Crociani. On a table lie two tea-cups, books, papers, music, a guitar, a lute, and a baroque alto recorder with ivory beak and mounts. , oil on canvas, 57.7 × 71.7 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). New York: Sotheby’s Sale N08645, Old Master & 19th Century European Art, 10 June 2010, Lot 42 (sold). Formerly Fresno Metropolitan Museum of Art and Science, Acc. FMM 82.39. On a bench lie some books, a marble urn, an upturned bowl, an open book, a mandolin and a perfectly depicted alto recorder. , painting, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012-c&w). On a draped bench lie a glass, a bowl with a crenelate rim, an open book, a tea-pot and cups, one upturned, a bowl, three lemons, and a perfectly depicted alto recorder with ivory beak, ferrule and foot. , oil on canvas, 57.0 x 71.7 cm, Cristoforo Munari (1667-1720). London: Sotheby’s: 8 July 2010, Lot 174. Ref. Website: Lute Iconography LI-1420 (2022, col.) Perched precariously on top of a lute lying on its belly are a violin with a broken string, a three-piece baroque recorder with ivory beak and mounts and an open book of music. This was paired with a similar still-life depicting a mandoline, violin and books. Both were restituted to the heirs of the famous pianist Paul Wittgenstein (brother of the the philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein). Formerly attributed to Evaristo Baschenis, both paintings were first correctly attributed to Munari by Marco Rosci in 1971.

      Vic Muniz

      Brazilian-born artist who now lives and works in Brooklyn, NY and Sao Paolo; born Sao Paolo (1961). Artist’s web page here.

      • Pictures of Junk: Mercury, Argus and Io, photograph, 40.0 × 101.6 cm, after Jacob Van Campen, by Vic Muniz. San Francisco: Rena Bransten Gallery, Exhibition: Bulfinch’s Recycling Yard: Vik Muniz Pictures of Junk , 13 April 13 – 27 May 2006. For his series Pictures of Junk Muniz has chosen domestic and industrial detritus to reinterpret old Master paintings of the Greek and Roman gods by artists ranging from Titian to Velasquez. Using a warehouse floor as his canvas, Muniz’s arrangement of everything from hub caps, tires, squashed coke cans, nuts, bolts, gaskets, pipes, coils of wire and broken appliances, to an upright piano, is photographed from an elevated gantry, the height reducing these objects to the size of brushstrokes. The work detailed here is a parody of Campen’s original. Here, Argus reclines on a pile of junk slumped against a tree made of junk.

      Serapio Hernández Muñoz

      Spanish woodcarver and writer born in Avila where he worked as a shepherd from the age of 6 for 3 pesetas a day until he was old enough for military service; he taught himself woodcarving to while away the hours; later he performed various jobs and emigrated to Germany, after many years returning to Madrid. Artist’s web page.

        (? date), carved wood relief, 34 × 50 cm, Serapio Hernández Muñoz (contemporary). Ref. Website: Anges Musiciens (2010, col) Amongst swirling foliage, four winged putti sing and play a baroque-style recorder, violin and viol. In the centre is an organetto above which is an urn. A banner across the top reads “Mvsica AETATEM FLORIDAM FACIT” (Music improves health). (ca 1995), carved maple relief, Serapio Hernández Muñoz (contemporary). Detail (head joint). An elaborately carved Moeck ‘Tuju’ bass of neo-baroque design. The head features a variety of designs. The window is the mouth of a man, with a beard extending beneath the labium; on the other side is the head of a cat. Around the middle are a standing man playing a lute and a kneeling man playing a recorder. The later is taken from Plate 19 of Filippo Bonanni’s Cabinetto Armonico (1716, 1723, 1776). (ca 1995), carved ebony relief, Serapio Hernández Muñoz (contemporary). An elaborately carved basset recorder of baroque design, probably a Moeck ‘Rottenburgh” tenor. The details are obscure in the photograph. (2010), carved wood panel, Serapio Hernández Muñoz (contemporary). A man plays a renaissance lute. Before him are music books, a violin and bow, and a perfectly depicted renaissance recorder. Based on Caravaggio’s Lute Player.

      Ramón de Mur

      Spanish (Catalan) painter; known primarily as an imitator than a creative artist, but he was a fine colourist and there is a sense of richness and elegance in his works, reminiscent of Franco-Flemish manuscript illumination; active in Tàrrega and Montblanc (1412-1435). Attempts to identify Ramon de Mur with Bernat Martorell have not been generally accepted, although he may have worked in his atelier and their works have been confused.

      • The Expulsion from Paradise: Moses on Mount Sinai from an altar-piece from the church of Guimerà (ca 1402-1412), Ramón de Mur (op. 1412-1435). Vic: Museu Diocesà. Ref. Rowland-Jones (1997b: 15, fig. 13, b&w, detail). Three shepherds watch over their sheep; one shepherd plays a cylindrical duct flute (recorder or flageolet).
      • Virgin Suckling the Child (1415-1425), tempera and gold leaf on wood, 205.7 × 133.7 × 5.5 cm, Ramón de Mur (1412-1435). Detail. Barcelona: Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya, Inv. 015818-000. Ref. Gudiol (1986: 40, col.); Woodfield (1984: 23); Ballester (1990: 172-173 & pl. 92; 2000a: 12, fig. 2, b&w); Rowland-Jones (1997b: p. 10, fig. 6, b&w); Paolo Biordi (pers. comm., 2000); Web Gallery of Art (2004, col, attributed in error to Pere Serra); Pedros (2007: 167-169 & fig. 50, b&w); Wikimedia Commons (2015, col, attributed in error to Pere Serra); Website: Lute Iconography LI-463 (2022, col.) Central panel of an altar-piece dedicated to the Virgin, from the church of Santa Maria de Cervera, Spain. Mary is shown breastfeeding the infant Jesus (Maria lactans) . One of the surrounding angels plays a cylindrical recorder which has rather more holes than fingers; others play lutes, rebec and harp.

      Francesco de Mura

      Italian late baroque painter of religious subjects and portraits active in Naples and Turin; his later style tends to neoclassicism; born Naples (1696), died Naples (1782).

        , 237 × 128 cm, Francesco de Mura (1696-1782). London: Sotheby’s, 8 December 2010, Lot 33, unsold. On a garden balcony a woman plays a tambourine. On a step below her a young boy plays a duct flute, probably a recorder given the disposition of his fingers. Between them a putto leans against a terracotta pot observing the piper. One of a pair, the other titled Allegory of Autumn in which a seated woman with a lap full of grapes offers some to a lutenist whilst a small boy watches. , ? painting, Francesco de Mura (1696-1782). Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Four putti play tambourine (with jingle rings), castanets, spoons and a pipe with a flared bell and a bulbous swelling below the mouthpiece. The player’s fingers are deployed as if for recorder-playing and a hole for the little finger of the lowermost (right) hand is just visible.

      Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1618-1682)

      Spanish Baroque religious painter noted for his soft sfumato and idealized, sometimes precious manner; born Seville (1618), died Seville (1682).

        , oil on canvas, 54.0 × 43.8 cm, attributed to Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1618-1682). Salisbury: Mompesson House, National Trust Inv. 724345. A smiling boy wearing a laurel wreath holds a small recorder. A copy of this without provenance attributed to Giacomo Francesco Cipper (1664-1736) is reproduced in Wikigallery (2013, col) And there are copies in Munich, Chartres and Newcastle upon Tyne. , oil on panel, 54 × 41 cm, attributed to Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1618-1682). Munich: Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Bayerischer Oberster Rechnungshof, Inv. 5206 (3157). A smiling boy wearing a laurel wreath holds a small recorder. A copy of this without provenance attributed to Giacomo Francesco Cipper (1664-1736) is reproduced in Wikigallery (2013, col) And there are copies in Salsilbury, Chartres and Newcastle upon Tyne. , oil on canvas, 54.8 × 45.9 cm, after Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1618-1682). Newcastle upon Tyne: Laing Art Gallery, Inv. TWCMS:G547. Ref. Website: vads (2013, col) A smiling boy wearing a laurel wreath holds a small recorder. A copy of this without provenance attributed to Giacomo Francesco Cipper (1664-1736) is reproduced in Wikigallery (2013, col) And there are copies in Salisbury, Munich and Chartres.
      • The Flute Player, attributed to Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1618-1682). Chartres: Palais Episcopal. Ref. Rowland-Jones (1995b: 45, footnote 8). Shows a recorder with double holes for little finger of lowest hand. A copy of this without provenance attributed to Giacomo Francesco Cipper (1664-1736) is reproduced in Wikigallery (2013, col) And there are copies in Salisbury, Munich and Newcastle upon Tyne.
      • [The Proposition] (1755-1811), mezzotint, 45.5 × 33.0 cm, by John Dixon (ca 1740-1811) after Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1618-1682). London: British Museum, Inv. 2010,7081.2911. Ref. Website: British Museum (2012, b&w). An old man offering a gold chain tries to embrace a young woman who sits at a table on the right, her gown slipping to reveal her breast, wearing a plume in her hair, holding a one-piece alto recorder with a flared bell and turning away from him. On a table beside her are fruit and a glass. Below the image with the title, a couplet reads:

      With him in mirth, the hours went by,
      He woo’d in words, so soft and pretty.

      Domenico Muzzi

      Italian court painter and professor at the Academy of Fine Arts of Parma; born Parma (1742), died 1812.

      • Four designs for book illustrations: Putti Making Music and Studying Astronomy and Navigation, black chalk, pen and brown ink, grey wash, 204 × 137 mm, Domenico Muzzi (1742-1812). London: Christies, Sale 7367, Master Drawings from the OPPè Collection, 5 December 2006, Lot 56. Comprises four scenes. In the second, putti play violin, triangle and a slender, cylindrical pipe (possibly a duct flute). A lute and an open music book lie either side of them.

      Pietro Muttoni – see Pietro della Vechia

      Roz [Rosemary] Myers

      Contemporary English lithographer, print-maker, wood-engraver and painter with a dual focus on recording buildings which are old and in danger of vanishing, and on cats; lives and works in Cambridge.

      See also  strawberry blue seeds