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to tops of seeded cannabis plants produce any thc

Cannabinoid Poisoning

Marijuana (leaves, stems, seeds) is derived from the hemp plants Canniabis sativa or Cannabis indica. The term marijuana became popular in the 1930s; it was originally a slang word for the psychoactive part of cannabis smoked by Mexican soldiers. Hemp refers to the roots, stalk, and stems of the plant, which can be used to make rope and twine.

The most potent form of this plant’s extracts is hash oil, a liquid. The dried resins are referred to as “hashish”. The dried flowering tops and leaves can be smoked as a cigarette, known colloquially as a “joint,” in water pipes or “bongs.’ Both the plant material and the hash oil may be inhaled using a vaporizer, which volatilizes the active compounds by heating them without combustion. These forms may also be ingested. This plant has been used for several thousands of years both recreationally and medicinally. See the image below.

More than 400 active compounds have been isolated from the cannabis plant. Sixty active compounds are unique to the plant and are collectively known as cannabinoids. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannanbinol (THC) is the most psychoactive cannabinoid, producing euphoria, relaxation, intensification of ordinary sensory experiences, perceptual alterations, diminished pain, and difficulties with memory and concentration. Cannabidiol, (CBD), is another cannabinoid that acts as an antagonist of the endocannabinoid system. It has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for severe epilepsy.

Acute cannabis toxicity results in difficulty with coordination, decreased muscle strength, decreased hand steadiness, postural hypotension, lethargy, decreased concentration, slowed reaction time, slurred speech, and conjunctival injection. Large doses of THC may produce confusion, amnesia, delusions, hallucinations, anxiety, and agitation, but most episodes remit rapidly. Long-term users may experience paranoia, panic disorder, fear, or dysphoria.

The relationship of cannabis to other drugs of abuse is described in two conflicting models. The “gateway” theory of the development of abuse describes the escalation of drug use from adolescence to adulthood. According to this theory, a person will progress from legal drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, to illicit drugs, such as marijuana. [1]

In contrast, the common liability to addiction (CLA) model posits that a set of set of factors (which may include psychological characteristics, social environment, and genetic tendencies) is associated with risk for all types of substance use disorders. In this model, which is supported by increasing evidence, a sequence of use can start with any substance, legal or illegal. [2]


The most potent cannabinoid, THC, was isolated in the 1960s. Nearly 3 decades later, in the early 1990s, the specific cannabinoid receptors were discovered, CB1 (or Cnr1) and CB2 (or Cnr2).

The CB1 receptors are predominantly located in the brain, with a wide distribution. The highest densities are found in the frontal cerebral cortex (higher functioning), hippocampus (memory, cognition), basal ganglion and cerebellum (movement), and striatum (brain reward). Other brain regions in which the CB1 receptors are found include areas responsible for anxiety, pain, sensory perception, motor coordination, and endocrine function. This distribution is consistent with the clinical effects elicited by cannabinoids.

The CB2 receptor, on the other hand, is located peripherally. Specifically, it is involved in the immune system (splenic macrophages, T and B lymphocytes), peripheral nerves, and the vas deferens.

Both the CB1 and CB2 receptors inhibit adenylate cyclase and stimulate potassium channels. As a result, the CB1 receptors inhibit the release of several neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and gamma–aminobutyric acid (GABA). CB2 receptor signaling is involved in immune and inflammatory reactions.


In recent decades, the average THC potency of cannabis has increased due to more sophisticated plant breeding and cultivation. [3] In the 1970s, the average marijuana cigarette contained approximately 10 mg of THC. Currently, a comparable cigarette contains 60-150 mg. Because the effects of THC are dose dependent, modern cannabis users may experience greater morbidity than their predecessors.

Cannabis is available in several forms. Marijuana is a combination of the cannabis flowering tops and leaves. The THC content is 0.5-5%. Two preparations are possible:

Bhang – Dried leaves and tops

Ganja – Leaves and tops with a higher resin content, which results in greater potency

Hashish is dried resin collected from the flowering tops. The THC concentration is 2-20%. Hash oil is a liquid extract; it contains 15% THC.

Sinsemilla is unpollinated flowering tops from the female plant. THC content is as high as 20%. Dutch hemp (Netherweed) has a THC concentration as high as 20%.


The route of administration determines the absorption of the cannabis product, as follows:

Smoking – Onset of action is rapid (within minutes); it results in 10-35% absorption of the available THC; peak plasma concentrations occur within 8 minutes.

Ingestion – Onset occurs within 1-3 hours (unpredictable); 5-20% is absorbed, due to stomach acid content and metabolism; peak plasma levels occur 2-6 hours after ingestion.

Behavioral effects

THC most commonly produces euphoria, or a “high,” including feelings of intoxication and detachment, relaxation, altered perception of time and distance, intensified sensory experiences, laughter, talkativeness, decreased anxiety, decreased alertness, and depression. These effects depend on the dose, expectations of the user, mode of administration, social environment, and personality.

THC triggers dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the brain, a region known to mediate the reinforcing (rewarding) effects. This dopaminergic drive is thought to underlie the reinforcing and addicting properties of this drug.

Dysphoric reactions to cannabis are not uncommon, especially in naive users. Reactions can include severe anxiety or panic, unpleasant somatic sensations, delirium, mania, or paranoia. Anxiety and/or panic are the most common reactions; they are of sudden onset during or shortly after smoking, or they can appear more gradually 1-2 hours after an oral dose. These effects often occur in those who unwittingly consume marijuana (eg. those ingesting baked goods that they did not know contained marijuana). Cannabidiol may mitigate the adverse psychiatric effects of THC. These anxiety/panic reactions usually resolve without intervention.

Although flashbacks, in which the original drug experience (usually dysphoria) is relived weeks or months after use., have been reported, they are uncommon.

Mental effects

Short-term memory is impaired even after small doses in both naive and experienced users. The deficits appear to be in acquisition of memory, which may result from an attentional deficit, combined with the inability to filter out irrelevant information and the intrusion of extraneous thoughts.

Chronic use can be associated with subtle impairment in cognitive function, which is dependent on dose and duration of use. At present, most of the available data indicate that these cognitive deficits are reversible after more than a week of abstinence.

Immune system effects

Based on extrapolation from in vitro data, cannabis use may impair the immune system’s ability to fight off microbial and viral infection. In a dose-dependent fashion, lung macrophage functions, including phagocytosis, migration, and cytokine production, appear to be compromised by cannabis use in vitro. Although cannabinoid receptors are found on human T and B lymphocytes, to date, no conclusive effects have been found on the use of cannabis and the clinical effects related to the presence of these receptors.

Cardiovascular effects

These include the following:

Naive users may experience a sudden 20-100% rise in heart rate, lasting up to 2-3 hours

Peripheral vasodilatation causes postural hypotension, which may lead to dizziness or syncope

Cardiac output increases by as much as 30%, and cardiac oxygen demand is also increased; tolerance to these effects can develop within a few days of use

Naive users can experience angina; in addition, users with preexisting coronary artery disease or cerebrovascular disease may experience myocardial infarctions, congestive heart failure, and strokes

Respiratory effects

Transient bronchodilatation may occur after an acute exposure. With chronic heavy smoking, users experience increased cough, sputum production, and wheezing. These complaints are augmented by concurrent tobacco use. One study cites that the rate of decline of respiratory function in an 8-year period was greater among marijuana smokers than among tobacco smokers.

Aside from nicotine, marijuana cigarettes contain some of the same components as tobacco smoke, including bronchial irritants, tumor initiators (mutagens), and tumor promoters. The amount of tar in a marijuana cigarette is 3 times the amount in a tobacco cigarette when smoked, with one-third greater deposition in the respiratory tract.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with bronchitis, squamous metaplasia of the tracheobronchial epithelium, and emphysema. These problems have been reported more frequently in cannabis-only users than in tobacco-only users.

Several case reports strongly suggest a link between cannabis smoking and cancer of the aerodigestive system, including the oropharynx and tongue, nasal and sinus epithelium, and larynx.

Most illegally obtained marijuana is contaminated with Aspergillus species, which can cause invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised users.

Reproductive effects

These include the following:

High-dose THC in animals causes a reversible drop in testosterone levels, decreased sperm production, and compromised sperm motility and viability.

THC alters the normal ovulatory cycle by decreasing follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin and impairing sex hormone secretion. [4]

THC crosses the placenta and accumulates in breast milk.

THC impairs placental development and homeostasis, fetal nourishment and gas exchange. For this reason, it is implicated in low birth weight, growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous miscarriage, and stillbirth. Human studies show mixed results, largely from limitations of self-reporting and testing marijuana use. [4, 5]

A growing body of evidence suggests permanent, though subtle, effects on memory, informational processing, and executive functions in the offspring of women who use cannabis during pregnancy.

Children younger than 1 week of age born to mothers who used cannabis during pregnancy had increased incidence of tremors and staring. Children of chronic users (>5 joints per wk) were found to have lower verbal and memory scores at age 2 years.

Three studies have demonstrated a possible increased risk of nonlymphoblastic leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and astrocytoma in children whose mothers reported using cannabis during their pregnancies.

Psychosis association

Large doses of THC may produce confusion, amnesia, delusions, hallucinations, anxiety, and agitation. Most episodes remit rapidly.

A clear relationship exists between long-term cannabis use and mental health problems, however, it is unclear whether the relationship is causative. [6] Substance-abusing adolescents commonly suffer one or more comorbid health or behavioral problems. Several studies have demonstrated marijuana abuse to coexist with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, other learning disabilities, depression, and anxiety. Cohort and well-designed cross-sectional studies suggest a modest association between early, regular, or heavy cannabis use and depression. [7]

An association exists between cannabis use and schizophrenia. A prospective study of 50,000 Swedish conscripts found a dose-response relationship between the frequency of cannabis use by age 18 and the risk of a diagnosis of schizophrenia over the subsequent 15 years. [8] Five prospective studies with well-defined samples looked at cannabis use and psychosis and concluded an overall 2-fold increase in the relative risk for developing schizophrenia. Yet, cannabis use appears to be neither necessary nor sufficient to cause schizophrenia. Among people who already have schizophrenia, cannabis use is predicted to worsen psychotic symptoms. Strains of cannabis that are high in CBD may be less likely to trigger psychotic symptoms.

Metabolism and elimination

THC is metabolized via the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. THC is metabolized into an active compound, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), which is further metabolized into inactive forms.

The elimination half-life of THC can range from 2-57 hours following intravenous use and inhalation. The half-life of 11-OH-THC, the active metabolite of THC, is 12-36 hours. Intravenous use or inhalation results in 15% excretion in the urine and 25-35% in the feces. Within 5 days, nearly 90% of THC is eliminated from the body.

The duration of acute clinical effects is mediated by drug redistribution into body fat stores rather than metabolism or elimination.


Repeated use over days to weeks induces considerable tolerance to the behavioral and psychological effects of cannabis. Several studies have noted partial tolerance to its effect on mood, memory, motor coordination, sleep, brain wave activity, blood pressure, temperature, and nausea. The rate of tolerance depends on the dose and frequency of administration. The casual cannabis user experiences more impairment in cognitive and psychomotor function to a particular acute dose than heavier, chronic users. The desired recreational high from cannabis also diminishes with use, prompting many users to escalate the dose.

Pharmacologically, chronic use results in the downregulation of the CB1 receptor in several regions of the rat brain. No correlations have been made in human physiology.


Acute cannabis toxicity results in the following:

Although acute toxicity is benign in the average adult, the same cannot always be said for children. In a systematic review of unintentional cannabis ingestion in children under 12 years of age, the most common presenting signs and findings were lethargy, hypotonia, hypoventilation, tachycardia, ataxia, and mydriasis. Vomiting and seizures have also been reported, as well as paradoxical hyperactivity and irritability. Treatment is largely supportive, including intubation in some instances. Having a clinical suspicion for cannabis toxicity is important as these patients may otherwise undergo lengthy and invasive evaluations for their symptoms. [9]

Unintentional ingestion in children has been on the rise with the increase in availability afforded by state de-criminalization. A majority of these cases are from unintentional ingestion of edibles, many of which have colorful packaging and are made to look like cookies and candies. Nationwide, children’s exposure to cannabis products rose 148% from 2006 to 2013, and in states allowing medical cannabis, that figure increased by 610%

Adverse reactions

Chronic users may experience paranoia, panic disorder, fear, or dysphoria. Transient psychotic episodes may also occur with cannabis use. These psychiatric effects may be less likely to occur with strains that contain higher concentrations of CBD.

Ventricular tachycardia is also reported in association with use of this drug, but is unclear whether the association is causative.

Dependence and withdrawal

Nearly 7-10% of regular users become behaviorally and physically dependent on cannabis. Furthermore, early onset of use and daily/weekly use correlates with future dependence. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 100,000 people are treated annually for primary (may be self-perceived) marijuana abuse. [10]

Animal studies demonstrate withdrawal symptoms with use of CB1 receptor antagonists. However, in humans, the withdrawal syndrome is not well characterized. Classic manifestations—which may develop upon withdrawal after as little as 1 week of daily use—include the following [11] :



United States

Marijuana became the major drug of abuse in the 1960s. Its use peaked in the late 1970s. According to the NIDA-funded Monitoring the Future survey, the peak year of use occurred in 1979, with 60.4% of 12th-grade students having used cannabis in their lifetimes, 50.8% in the preceding year, and more than 10.3% on a daily basis. Cannabis use began a continuous decline, with the lowest use occurring in 1992. At that time, 32.6% of 12th-grade students reported ever using cannabis, 21.9% reported use in the preceding year, and 1.9% reported using on a daily basis. The decline in use was attributed to perceived risk and to personal disapproval of drugs.

From 1992-1997, marijuana use increased dramatically and then plateaued in the last 2 years. In 1999, 22% of 8th-grade students and 49.7% of 12th-grade students reported ever using cannabis. Daily use was 1.4% and 6%, respectively. [12]

Since the turn of the 21st century, marijuana use by middle and high school students has fluctuated. In 2014, 15.6% of 8th-grade students and 44.4% of 12th-grade students reported ever using cannabis, and daily use was 1.0% and 5.8%, respectively. [12]

In 2019, there was a significant increase in daily use in the younger grades. In addition, teens’ perceptions of the risks of marijuana use have steadily declined over the past decade. In 2019, 11.8% of 8th graders reported marijuana use in the past year and 6.6% in the past month. Among 10th graders, 28.8% had used marijuana in the past year and 18.4% in the past month. Rates of use among 12th graders were highest with 35.7% having used marijuana during the year prior to the survey and 22.3% in the past month; 6.4% said they used marijuana daily or near-daily. [13]

The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) reported 21% increase from 2009 to 2011 in medical emergencies possibly related to marijuana use. DAWN estimated that in 2011, nearly 456,000 drug-related emergency department (ED) visits in which marijuana use was mentioned in the medical record occurred in the United States; however, mentions of marijuana in medical records do not necessarily indicate that these emergencies were directly related to marijuana intoxication. Marijuana accounted for 146.2 visits per 100,000 population. [13, 14] The increase in ED visits may be due to an increase in the use of marijuana, an increase in the potency of marijuana (ie, amount of THC it contains), or to some other factors


According to the United Nations, an estimated 192 million people used cannabis in 2018, making it the most used drug globally. In comparison, 58 million people used opioids in 2018. [15] European monitoring noted in a 2020 report that lifetime use among 15-64 year olds was 27.2%. Among 15-34 year olds, use in the past year was 15%. [16]


In March of 2014, ingested marijuana was thought to be a chief contributing factor in the death of a 19-year-old man in Colorado. According to the investigation, the marijuana-naive patient bought a cookie containing 65 mg of THC in 6.5 servings. He reportedly ate one serving and, upon not feeling any effects 30-60 minutes later, ate the remainder of the cookie. Over the next 2.5 hours, the patient became erratic, hostile, and jumped from a 4th floor balcony, later dying from his injuries. At autopsy, only cannabinoids were found in his system. [17]

This case report highlights the delay and variability in absorption rates and intoxication with ingesting THC products, taking 1-2 hours to peak vs 5-10 minutes when smoked.

Race-, Sex-, and Age-related Demographics

No differences are reported in patterns of cannabis use according to racial or ethnic background. Little information is available regarding gender differences in cannabis use. Of drug-related emergency department visits in 2011 in which the medical record mentioned marijuana use, about two-thirds of patients were male and 13% were 12-17 years old.

Most cannabis users begin use when younger than 20 years of age, with the peak incidence of onset between 16 and 18 years. Most stop using marijuana by their mid to late 20s. Only about 10% become daily users.


THC has a long half-life and widespread neurocognitive effects. However, Hooper et al found that adolescents with cannabis use disorder who were in full remission after successful first treatment (n=33) showed no difference in intellectual, neurocognitive, and academic achievement compared with healthy adolescents (n=43) or controls who had psychiatric disorders without a history of substance use disorder (n=37). These researchers concluded that adolescents with cannabis use disorder may not be vulnerable to THC-related neuropsychological deficits once they achieve remission from all drugs for at least 30 days. [18]

Some evidence suggests that heavy marijuana use during adolescence may lead to increased health problems in later adulthood. These may include both physical disorders (eg, respiratory illness) and mental disorders. For example, Meier et al reported that people who started smoking marijuana heavily in their teens and had an ongoing cannabis use disorder lost an average of 8 IQ points between ages 13 and 38, and that those who quit marijuana as adults did not fully recover those losses. [19]

On the other hand, the Pittsburgh Youth Study, which tracked 408 boys (54% black, 42% white) from adolescence into their mid-30s found no differences in any of the mental or physical health outcomes measured, regardless of the amount or frequency of marijuana used during adolescence. The mental health outcomes included anxiety and mood and psychotic disorders. The physical health outcomes included asthma, allergies, headaches, high blood pressure, limitations in physical activities, physical injuries, and concussions. [20, 21]

These researchers hypothesized that the overall pattern of use between adolescence and adulthood, which their study focused on, may be a less important than other factors (eg, cumulative tetrahydrocannabinol exposure, age of initiation of use, or use at a particular age) for predicting negative health outcomes. [20, 21]

To tops of seeded cannabis plants produce any thc

CBD is a compound that is found in all cannabis plants. The compound most people are familiar with regarding cannabis plants is tetrahydrocannabinol or THC. THC is responsible for the high people experience when consuming or smoking marijuana. CBD, however, does not have this psychoactive effect. For this reason, it is more appealing to people who are hesitant about cannabis-derived products. In addition, most CBD comes from hemp plants that contain very little THC, less than 0.3%, to be specific. This content makes them Farm Bill compliant. Then, the combination of carrier oil with the CBD extract produces the final CBD oil.

As a result, CBD oil has fast become one of the most popular products on the market. Although scientists are still exploring this area, the currently available items are very helpful and healthy. Users often describe how CBD oils helped with pain, anxiety, or an uneven sleeping cycle.

In this article, we’ll cover all the details regarding the five best CBD oil brands available today.

List Of The Five Best CBD Oils Made With High Quality Hemp Plants

    – Overall Best CBD Oil In The Market– Strongest Broad Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture– Top Rated CBD Brand For Hemp Oil– Natural Full Spectrum CBD Oil– High Quality Hemp Seed Oil

Next, we will be looking at the five CBD brands and describing why they have a place on the top of our list of best CBD oil brands.

1.Exhale Wellness – Overall Best CBD Oil In The Market

LA’s Exhale Wellness is the highest-rated natural hemp company online. To earn and hold the audience’s attention, they are always in pursuit of the next milestone. In addition to CBD, they stock delta-8, delta-9, and HHC products. These all come in different forms, including oils, carts, flowers, and gummies. The combination of the variety they offer and their mission to supply all-natural, organic products is what puts them on the top of our list of brands to purchase CBD oils from.


CO2 Extraction Process: The best extraction process available to produce CBD extract from hemp is the supercritical CO2 extraction method. Although this method is the safest and cleanest process available, not all companies use it as it is expensive. However, Exhale Wellness believes that in order to produce the best, you have to ensure that you use the best method, no matter the cost. This practice is why their products are so pure and effective.

Full Spectrum CBD Oil: Exhale Wellness produces full-spectrum CBD oil from hemp flowers that contain both CBD and THC. However, the THC content is below 0.3%, which makes it legal and safe for use in terms of the Farm Bill’s compliance. In addition, full-spectrum CBD oil produces an entourage effect as all the components present in the cannabis plant work together naturally. Exhale Wellness also uses hemp seed oil as a carrier oil, which further enhances the benefits of CBD oil.

Useful Information Provided on Website: The Exhale Wellness website provides users with a wealth of information. Thanks to the clever layout, you can easily find your bearings if you are a first-time buyer. They also inform users about calculating the correct dosage and options for CBD usage. This information is also beneficial when deciding which product is best for you and in what quantity.

Colorado Hemp: Exhale Wellness only uses organically grown hemp from farms in Colorado. Plus, they make a habit of working closely with the farmers, practically handpicking the best hemp buds. Also, they have no tolerance for pesticides or other chemicals that may compromise their CBD extracts.


  • Hemp seed oil is the carrier oil for CBD extract
  • Hemp comes from a single area
  • CBD oil available in 600mg and 1200mg
  • Discounts available for first-time buyers
  • Independent lab results are available online


  • Full-spectrum CBD includes THC, which may not be desirable for some users

2.BudPop – Strongest Broad Spectrum CBD Oil Tincture

BudPop is the newest company on our list, but that does not mean that they are new to CBD products. Based in Nevada, the founders of BudPop have decades of experience in hemp, its products, and its benefits. They have grown in popularity rather quickly, and it is thanks to the excellent customer service they provide. At the moment, BudPop only has one CBD oil in its catalog. This is a testament to their focus on quality over quantity. Also, it’s a promise to expand once they have something worthwhile to show.


Local Hemp Source: The hemp that BudPop uses in its products comes from the local Nevada farmers. This proximity allows BudPop to maintain a close working relationship with the farmers and oversee the growing process. At the same time, this facilitates the research and development of new products. It also enables BudPop to ensure that the hemp is Farm Bill compliant.

Third-Party Testing: All BudPop products go to a third-party lab for testing. The company conducts these tests to ensure the quality of the source material and the final product. Customers have access to these lab results so that they can also check the composition of the products. Hence, the results refer to the presence of chemicals, pesticides, and microbes in the source material. Exposure to these may occur in the farming process. In that way, this also confirms the potency of these items.

Excellent Customer Service: The customer service that BudPop offers is the reason why they have grown in popularity in such a short period. They offer both pre and post-sales service and spend time explaining their products and processes with customers. Their ability to provide personable customer service is what makes them a reputable and reliable brand for CBD products.

Customer Perks: New customers on BudPop’s online store get a 20% discount on their first purchase, and all customers benefit from their free shipping. In addition, they also have a rewards program for frequent shoppers that offer them discounts and rewards each time they make a purchase. They also have a 30-day money-back guarantee if you are not happy with your products.


  • Excellent customer service
  • All orders over $50 qualify for free shipping
  • Discounts and rewards programs are available
  • Tested by a third-party lab


  • Only available in peppermint flavor
  • Mix CBD oil with Coconut oil is the carrier oil that may be unsuitable for some users

3.Cheef Botanicals – Top Rated CBD Brand For Hemp Oil

Cheef Botanicals are a company with a clear mission. They want to change the way people consider healthcare. Hence, the founders of Cheef Botanicals aim to provide natural healthcare alternatives to their users. That’s why these CBD oils offer assistance without creating an addiction. Plus, Cheef Botanicals further emphasizes this approach by asking a fair price for these popular items.


Multiple Strengths Available: The CBD oil from Cheef Botanicals is available in 300mg, 600mg, 1200mg, and 3000mg. This means that you can tailor your intake cycle as per your needs. In addition, they also offer discounts if you buy their CBD oil in bundles. This variety appeals to first-time customers and seasoned buyers alike. It also gives users the chance to start at a low dosage when working their way up and finding their ideal dose.

Extraction From Hemp Flower and Leaves: Cheef Botanicals extract CBD isolate from the leaves and flowers of the hemp plant. These parts offer the highest concentration and the purest extracts. Hence, Cheef Botanicals focuses on them to produce their full-spectrum CBD oil. In addition, they use hemp seed oil as the carrier, making the entire product completely natural.

Excellent Information Provider: The Cheef Botanicals website is about transparency and knowledge. They describe each of their products in detail and also explain the health benefits of CBD. There is also an informative blog available for anyone who wants to learn more about CBD. Their users appreciate this feature as it puts them at ease about the different CBD products and clears up any doubts they might have.

Free Shipping: Free shipping is available for all Cheef Botanical products. Also, there is a guarantee that customers will receive their orders in no more than six working days. In addition, Cheef Botanicals will even pay for shipping if you return a product. As such, they round up their offer in a convenient way.


  • Full-spectrum CBD oil provides an optimum blend with hemp seed oil
  • Use hemp from renowned Colorado hemp farms
  • Fast, free, and secure shipping on all products
  • There is a 30-day money-back guarantee if you are not satisfied with the product


  • The hemp taste is quite prevalent
  • Not available in all states

4.Hollyweed – Natural Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Hollyweed CBD is another brand that never compromised its vision. They have been working with CBD for decades and are famously known for celebrating the legalization of marijuana in California. Plus, they’re keeping a presence in more than one medium, efficiently spreading their message. The company itself focuses on the six pillars of wellness that it wants people to experience. Hence,, they offer a plethora of useful educational resources on their website. So, all visitors can quickly learn how to change their daily habits for the better.


100% Natural: Hollyweed CBD understands that complete wellness means no artificial ingredients. That’s why they take the extra time to pick and work only with the purest ingredients. Its CBD extract is produced from specifically bred hemp plants with a high CBD concentration. Also, Hollyweed CBD uses seed oil as the carrier oil for its CBD extracts. This addition enriches the oil with Omega fatty acids, making it suitable for a vegan lifestyle.

Lab-Tested: All Hollyweed CBD products are tested by a third-party lab to ensure their potency. Their reputation as an all-natural and vegan-friendly brand is important to them, and they aim to preserve it. Lab results are available online for customers to check, and it includes tests for any residual chemicals from the plant itself. In this manner, the results also confirm the state of the primary ingredients.

Great Range of Products: The CBD oil from Hollyweed CBD comes in various strengths ranging from 300mg to 3000 mg of CBD per dosage. Plus, they practice this level of variety for all of their items. Therefore, whether you’re looking for delta-8, CBD, or HHC, Hollyweed has a convenient package for you. By keeping an eye on the quantity, you can plan your intake schedule better.

Money-Back Guarantee: You can return any Hollyweed CBD’s item if it does not meet your expectations, aside from the delta-8 and HHC flowers. If for whatever reason, you are not satisfied with the product, you can return it up to 45 days after purchase. You don’t even have to pay any shipping costs – Hollyweed CBD will give you a complete refund and cover the shipping cost.


  • Products are 100% natural
  • Great reputation
  • 45-day money-back guarantee
  • Free shipping
  • CBD oil comes in a variety of strengths
  • Excellent product ranges


  • Products can be expensive depending on size and CBD content

5.FAB CBD – High Quality Hemp Seed Oil

FAB CBD’s story started back in 2017, and very soon, customers took notice of their high-quality items. Since then, FAB CBD has assumed a position among the leaders in the industry. Plus, the positive customer feedback continues to keep the company’s place safe.

The range of products that FAB CBD offers is extensive. They also produce CBD products for pets as well as other nutritional products. At the same time, they know how to read the market and evolve with it. Hence, they often come up with new offers, surprising their customers at the right moment.


Excellent Product Range: The pure CBD oil from FAB CBD comes in four different strengths and five flavors. The flavors are natural, citrus, mint, vanilla, and berry. These flavors give customers who are hesitant about the taste of hemp an excellent opportunity to try CBD oil in a more enjoyable way.

Charitable Work: FAB CBD works with several charities and causes because they believe in giving back where they can. By doing so, they show their respect for their fan’s years of support. At the same time, they realize their original vision to the fullest.

Great Customer Reviews: The reviews for FAB CBD products are amazing. People have been using CBD oil for themselves and their pets with excellent results. They report improved mental health, a sense of calmness, and even improved muscle recovery after strenuous exercise.

Made-to-Order: You get a freshly made batch each time you order CBD oil from FAB CBD. Every CBD oil is made to order and is guaranteed to last up to 12 months. Since you get a fresh batch every time, there may be a slight variation in the color of the oil, but none in terms of potency and efficacy.


  • Customer reviews are excellent
  • All products are tested for potency
  • CBD oils come in various flavors
  • Each order is made fresh


  • Full-Spectrum CBD oil may cause you to fail a drug test due to THC content

How We Made This List Of The Best Hemp Seed Oil

To compile this list, we had a thorough look at the current state of the CBD tinctures market. We went through each brand, its products, and processes to ensure that only the five best CBD companies are featured in this article. In doing so, we set up a system in place that allowed us to spot the less worthy items. Let’s take a look at these factors and why they are essential.

What We Looked For

Source Material: The origin of the hemp and its extraction method was our primary focal point. The hemp should come from verified sources, preferably from US soil, for us to consider it Farm Bill – compliant. Similarly, the extraction method is what determines the potency and purity of the CBD compound. Hence, we kept a close eye on these aspects before concluding the legality and safety of any CBD oil.

Affordability: CBD oil is available in different forms to appease a wider fanbase. Therefore, we took a look at the price of the product in relation to the quantity and quality of the product. By doing so, we made sure to include only items that offer a fair value for money. As a result, the five options featured here come in sizeable amounts and sufficient shelf-life. In that way, they provide a balance between quality, quantity, and cost.

Safety and Quality: These factors have to do with CBD oil itself. To determine the quality of the product, labs assess the additional compounds found in the oil. Also, this category spreads to any number of possible side effects. When we did our research, we made sure that a third-party lab tested all products. We also had a detailed look at the website and checked its user-friendliness.

Efficacy: To establish the efficacy of the CBD oil, we took a look at product ratings and other online reviews. Afterward, we were able to form a clear picture of whether a product lives up to its ads. With such an approach, we looked past the catchy slogans and found out all the relevant details from the best sources.

Factors to Consider When Choosing CBD Hemp Oil

  • THC Content
  • Correct Intake Methods
  • Efficacy
  • Flavors
  • Farm Bill Compliance
  • Side Effects

Overconsumption of CBD can cause side effects. These usually are diarrhea, drowsiness, dry mouth, and nausea. You can avoid these by easily sticking to the recommended dosage. In addition, if you are sensitive to THC, you may want to reconsider your use of full-spectrum CBD oil. You would be better off using products that use broad-spectrum CBD oil that does not contain any THC. Also, take into consideration the fact that CBD oil isn’t compatible with certain medications. Therefore, it is best to consult your medical practitioner before using CBD oil.

Frequently Asked Questions About CBD Tincture

1. How does CBD oil work?

CBD binds to receptors throughout the central nervous system. These are the same receptors that spread all around yo body. Hence, the great effectiveness of CBD oils. It acts on the body holistically and alleviates multiple ailments. It provides pain relief and gives you an overall sense of calm. In addition, because of its formulation, CBD oil is quickly absorbed into the body, ensuring proper-lasting effects.

2. Is CBD oil legal?

It depends on which cannabis plant the CBD is extracted from. CBD oil taken from hemp plants contain less than 0.3% THC and is legal. This level is in accordance with the Farm Bill passed in 2018. If CBD oil is extracted from marijuana plants, the THC content will likely be more than 0.3%. Therefore, all marijuana-extracted CBD is non-compliant and illegal. Some states have laws that ban the use of any CBD containing THC, which is why you can’t order these items from anywhere.

3. Is CBD oil addictive?

No, CBD oil is not addictive. THC is the compound of cannabis plants responsible for the high, and it’s also the element leading to an addiction. However, the THC content of CBD oil is so low that the product cannot become addictive. There are no psychoactive effects and no alteration to your cognitive abilities when using CBD oil.

4. What is the difference between broad-spectrum and full-spectrum CBD oil?

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all the compounds found in cannabis plants. These include CBD, THC, terpenes, and flavonoids. Broad-spectrum CBD oil has all of these compounds except THC, making it suitable for those who want to avoid it. Full-spectrum CBD oil usually works better as the presence of all the compounds produces an entourage effect. It means that they have not been altered by additions or removals of compounds and can function as they do in nature.

5. How long do the effects of CBD oil last?

The answer to this question depends on the method you use to take CBD oil. CBD oil tinctures or drops take about 30 minutes to start working, and their effects last between two to four hours. If you use the oil in edibles or take them in capsules, they take a bit longer to kick in as they need to be digested first. You will begin to feel the effects in approximately 45 minutes to an hour, and they last between four to six hours. Inhalants are also available, and they work almost immediately, but the effects wear off in about 60 minutes. However, these are mere estimates that might not hold regarding your case.

6. Who should not use CBD oil?

People who have experienced sensitivity to cannabinoids in the form of CBD or THC before should not use CBD oil. Pregnant women should also avoid CBD oil as there is no guarantee that it will not affect their children. Researchers are still trying to establish the effects of CBD on pregnancy, and until it is definitive, CBD oil should not be taken by pregnant and breastfeeding women. Lastly, those individuals with Parkinson’s disease should also avoid using CBD oil. It has the potential to make muscle tremors worse in this case.

CBD Oil And Tincture: Conclusion

CBD oil is a quick and convenient way to use CBD to treat a multitude of ailments. Most people choose to use the oil orally or topically for fast-acting effects. Either way, flavored CBD oils provide an all-natural method to treat pain, inflammation, and anxiety. The best CBD oil brands are Farm Bill compliant and do not add any artificial ingredients. There is no risk of getting high or experiencing any behavioral changes due to CBD oil. Instead, it will leave you feeling relaxed and calm. These are the reasons why CBD oil is so popular at the moment.

Choosing a CBD oil can be difficult if you don’t know what to look for regarding brands, price, and ingredients. However, after thorough research, we were able to shortlist the best of the best. In other words, these brands provide the most effective and affordable CBD oils on the market today. They are affordable, effective, and reputable brands that stick to all-natural products. In addition, they provide further information on their websites about all their other products. In that way, even newcomers can quickly learn about these items. Therefore, opting for any of these five will allow you to create a healthy new habit.

The news and editorial staff of Sound Publishing, Inc. had no role in the preparation of this post. The views and opinions expressed in this sponsored post are those of the advertiser and do not reflect those of Sound Publishing, Inc.

Sound Publishing, Inc. does not accept liability for any loss or damages caused by the use of any products, nor do we endorse any products posted in our Marketplace.

To tops of seeded cannabis plants produce any thc

([89]) Ibid., p. 127.

([90]) Comitas, p. 129.

([91]) Dreher, p. 163.

([92]) Leonard E. Barrett, Ph.D. The Rastafarians: Sounds of Cultural Dissonance. Boston: Beacon Press, 1977. p. 1.

([93]) According to Barrett, p. 85, Leonard Howell advocated six principles that formed the doctrine of the Rastafarian movement: 1. hatred for the White race; 2. complete superiority of the Black race; 3. revenge on Whites for their wickedness; 4. humiliation and persecution of the government and legal bodies of Jamaica; 5. preparation to go back to Africa; and 6. acknowledging Emperor Haile Selassie as the Supreme Being and only ruler of Black people.

([94]) Barrett, p. 216-217.

([95]) Ibid., p. 217.

([96]) Ibid., p. 129.

([98]) Barrett, p. 129.

([99]) Dreher, p. 163.

([101]) Dreher, p. 164.

([102]) Ibid. Babies of ganja smoking mothers were found to be more socially responsive and were more autonomically stable in comparison to babies of non-ganja smoking mothers.

([103]) Dreher, p. 168.

([104]) Chris Bennett, Lynn Osburn and Judith Osburn. Green Gold: Marijuana in Magic & Religion. Frazier Park, CA: Access Unlimited, 2001. p. 267.

([105]) Judi Martin, “Historical Evidence Lies Buried Near Morriston,” Sparetime Magazine, 28 August 1985, as quoted in Green Gold: Marijuana in Magic & Religion. p. 267.

([106]) Hemp Museum in Amsterdam. As quoted in Green Gold: Marijuana in Magic & Religion. p. 268.

([107]) As quoted in Bennett. pp. 268-269.

([109]) Richard Evans Schultes. “Nectar of Delight.” Plants of the Gods – Their Sacred, Healing and Hallucinogenic Powers. Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 1992. p. 8.

([110]) Bennett, p. 267.

([112]) (“Cannabis Indica.” An ephemeris of Materia Medica, pharmacy, Therapeutics and Collateral Information 3 (April 1892): 1290-1291.

([113]) H. Wayne Morgan. Drugs In America: A Social History, 1800-1980. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1981. pp. 20-21.

([114]) Rudgley, p. 10.

([115]) Courtwright, p. 43.

([116]) Schultes, p. 8.

([118]) Melvyn Green and Ralph D. Miller. “Cannabis Use in Canada.” In Cannabis and Culture. Ed. Vera Rubin. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1975. p. 498.

([120]) Abel, p. 226. As quoted from M.H Hayes and L.W. Bowery, “Marijuana” Journal of Criminology 23, (1933): 1093.

([121]) The Report of the Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs – 1972. Chapter 4.

([122]) Green and Miller, p. 499.

([124]) Courtwright, p. 46.

([125]) Will Kymlicka. Citizenship and Identity. p. 21. and Myer Siemiatycki and Engin Isin, Immigration, Diversity and Urban Citizenship in Toronto. p. 77.

([126]) Kymlicka, p. 21.

([127]) Line Beauchesne. “Conditions for Real Public Policy on Harm Reduction: the Role of the Federal Government.” Brief Submitted to the House of Commons Special Committee on the Non-Medical Use of Drugs. March 2002. p. 4.

([128]) In anthropology, there is a body of literature concerned with forms of population movement and the movement of information, symbols, and cultural practices (cultural values) across transnational boundaries. The theory postulates often these movements initiated by migrants will conflict with the jurisdiction and power of states to which the migrants move and assimilation will take place. At the same time, these movements of cultural values often immensely influence the people of the state and changes to the nation state will occur. I am postulating in this paper that marijuana use, which has been shown to be an integral cultural practice to many different societies in the first part of this essay, is an example of this transnational movement and transformation theory. See: M. Kearney, “The Local and the Global: The Anthropology of Globalization and Transnationalism”; R. Rouse, “Making sense of settlement: class transformation, cultural struggle, and transnationalism among Mexican migrants in the United States; World Cultures Institute UC Merced, “California, Merced and the Pacific Rim”; Arjun Appadurai, “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy”; Anthony King, ed. “Culture, Globalization and the World-System. Contemporary Conditions for the Representation of Identity.”

([129]) “The Complete History of Cannabis in Canada.”

([131]) Blackwell, p. 239.

([132]) “The Complete History of Cannabis in Canada.”

([133]) Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. “Recent Trends in Illicit Drug Use among Young People, Canada.” MMWR Weekly. 25 January 1985/34(3); 35-37.

([134]) John Kaplan. Marijuana – The New Prohibition. Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1970. p. 4.

([135]) Diane Riley, PhD. Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A Brief Review & Commentary. November 1998.

([136]) “The Complete History of Cannabis in Canada.” p. 5.

([138]) CAMH Monitor eReport: Addiction & Mental Health Indicators Among Ontario Adults, 1977-2000.

([139]) Adlaf, Ivis, Smart and Walsh, Ontario Student Drug Use Survey, 1977-1999, Addiction Research Foundation.

([140]) Usha George and Esme Fuller-Thomson. “To Stay or Not to Stay: Characteristics Associated with Newcomers Planning to Remain in Canada.” Canadian Journal of Regional Science. Spring-Summer 1997. p. 181.

([141]) Kearney, p. 554.

([143]) Isabel Vincent. “Enforcers Challenge Cannabis Liberation Movement.” Globe and Mail. 6 April 1998.

([144]) R. v. Parker. 31 July 2000. Ontario Court of Appeal.

([145]) Amina Ali and Owen Wood. “The Need for Weed: Medical Marijuana.” CBC News. July 2001.

([146]) Alchemind Society. “Rastafarian wins religious defense before Guam Supreme Court.” Cannabis Culture. 15 September 2000.

([147]) American Civil Liberties Union Freedom Network.

([148]) Professor Brian Etherington. Review of Multiculturalism and Justice Issues: A Framework for Addressing Reform. Department of Justice, Research and Statistics Directorate. May 1994.

([149]) Rodolphe Ingold. “A Retrospective Look at Drug Addiction Trends from 1970 to the Year 2000.” Drugs and Drug Addictions: Indicators and Trends. French Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addictions. p. 187. This study shows similar patterns as Canadian trends.

([150]) Judith Blackwell. “An Overview of Canadian Illicit Drug Use Epidemiology.” Illicit Drugs in Canada: A Risky Business. Judith Blackwell & Patricia G. Erickson, Eds. Nelson Canada, 1988. p. 237.

([151]) Blackwell, p. 239.

([152]) CAMH Monitor eReport: Addiction and Mental Health Indicators Among Ontario Adults, 1977-2000. p. 62.

([153]) Sylvain Aquatias. “Ethnographic Approach to Cannabis Use in the Parisian Suburbs.” Drugs and Drug Addictions: Indicators and Trends. French Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addictions. p. 203.

([154]) Blackwell, p. 237.

([155]) CAMH Monitor eReport. Addiction and Mental Health Indicators Among Ontario Adults, 1977-2000. p. 62.

([156]) Julian Beltrame. “Reefer Madness: The sequel.” Maclean’s. 6 August 2001. Vol. 114. pp. 22-25.

([159]) Line Beauchesne, p. 4.

([160]) Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs. Appointed by the Government of Canada under Part I of the Inquiries Act on 29 May 1969. p. 8.

([161]) Lester Grinspoon. Marijuana Reconsidered. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1971. p. 333.

([162]) Comitas, p. 129.

([163]) Kaplan, pp. 4-5.

([164]) Grinspoon, p. 333.

([166]) Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs. p. 3.

([167]) Kaplan, p. 17.

([168]) Eriche Goode. “Marijuana and the Politics of Reality.” In The New Social Drug. Ed. David E. Smith. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 1970. p. 170.

([169]) Goode, p. 172.

([170]) Rosenwig, M. Pour une éthique de la clinique des assuétudes et des addictions Conférence prononcée au Colloque Quelle prise en charge des patients toxicomanes… aujourd’hui… demain? Société Belge d’Éthique et de Morale Médicale, Mons, 23 avril, 1999. pp. 3-4. (excerpted from Line Beauchesne).