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How to get rid of slugs in the garden: 8 organic control methods

Slugs are one of the most common garden pests, though unlike most other leaf-munching critters you find in your garden, they aren’t insects. Instead, slugs are land-dwelling mollusks that are more closely related to clams than beetles or caterpillars. Facing a slug infestation is serious business, filled with slime trails, damaged leaves, and missing seedlings. Figuring out how to get rid of slugs in the garden without turning to harsh synthetic chemical slug baits, is a task ripe with old wives’ tales and useless homemade remedies. But, the truth is that effective organic slug control is both manageable and affordable, when you’re armed with the following tips and information.

Why is figuring out how to get rid of slugs in the garden so challenging?

Let’s start with the obvious: slugs have a major ick factor. They’re slimy and pretty darned disgusting. Most species are decomposers who feed on decaying plant and animal wastes. But, there are a handful of slug species that prefer to feed on living plant material, making them the bane of many gardeners. If you’re here to figure out how to get rid of slugs in the garden, these are definitely the species you’re dealing with.

Not all species of slugs eat garden plants, but those that do can cause significant damage.

Unlike snails, slugs don’t carry a shell on their backs. Instead, they have a small, saddle-like plate called a mantle. Because they lack the protection of a shell, slugs tend to feed primarily at night or on rainy days, when they’re protected from the sun. During the day, they tend to hide under rocks or in other dark, moist locations.

Garden slug control can be difficult because many times the problem is misdiagnosed and the damage is blamed on another garden pest. Since slugs feed primarily at night, gardeners tend to notice the damaged plants, but they can’t find the culprit when they search the garden during the day. So, the cause of the damage becomes a mystery and the gardener might choose to spray the plant with a general insecticide in an attempt to kill the bug, which is useless, of course, against a mollusk like a slug.

Slug damage is often blamed on other, more visible garden pests.

Aside from frequent misdiagnoses, getting rid of slugs in the garden can be problematic because good old hand-picking is both disgusting and super-challenging. Unless you’re a night owl who loves roaming the garden with a flashlight and picking up slime-covered mollusks and dropping them into a bucket of soapy water, hand-picking slugs is no fun on so many levels. It’s easy to see why so many gardeners opt for skipping it all together.

If you really want to know how to get rid of slugs in the garden, you first have to learn how to properly identify the damage they cause. Then, you have to understand how to target the slimy buggers effectively and efficiently based on how they feed as well as how they breed.

What does slug damage look like?

Slugs are notorious for decimating young seedlings and many different tender-leaved plants. Here are some sure-fire signs that a garden slug control program is called for:

• If you come out to the garden in the morning and nothing remains of your seedlings but leaf mid-ribs and stumps, slugs are a likely culprit.
• Perfect, round holes in tomatoes, strawberries, and other soft fruits can also indicate a need to learn how to get rid of slugs in the garden.
• Ragged holes in leaf edges and centers is another sign of slugs.
• Slime trails on plants, walls, rocks, or mulch are another tell-tale sign of slug troubles.

Chewed off seedlings with nothing but their mid-ribs remaining are a sign of slug troubles.

How do slugs feed and breed? (I know, I know…. TMI)

Slug mouths are lined with tiny, grater-like teeth that shred leaf tissue before digesting it. This type of feeding creates holes with jagged edges, rather than the smooth-edged holes often left behind by leaf-chewing beetles or caterpillars. Slugs move on an excreted mucus trail that serves to both protect their body from desiccation and message other slugs about their presence (apparently slime trails can help you find a mate…).

Most slug species are hermaphroditic, which means they have both male and female reproductive parts. Thankfully, slugs aren’t capable of fertilizing themselves, so they have to find a partner to breed (imagine all the little baby slugs there would be if slugs could fertilize themselves… yikes!). Slug mating is actually really fascinating; leopard slugs in particular. It involves a pair of glowing blue reproductive organs and a nocturnal tryst while hanging mid-air on a thread of slime. And, no, I’m not joking.

Each slug is capable of laying hundreds of eggs over the course of its lifetime, though the eggs are laid in clutches of about 30. The eggs are laid in moist soil, under mulch or rocks, or beneath leaf detritus. They’ll sit dormant if the weather is too hot, too dry, or too cold, waiting for just the right moment to hatch. If you live in a rainy region, such as the Pacific Northwest, you’re all too aware of why learning how to get rid of slugs in the garden is so important.

Now that you understand a bit more about these garden pests, it’s time to look at some ways to keep slugs out of the garden naturally.

Slugs can often be found climbing up the sides of buildings and walls.

How to get rid of slugs in the garden: 8 organic methods

1. Prevent slug damage with cultural practices.

This first strategy doesn’t involve products, traps, or barriers. Instead, it involves the actions you take in the garden.

Slug prevention techniques involve things like:

Avoid using loose mulches where slugs are prevalent. Skip straw, hay, and shredded wood mulches and opt for compost or leaf mold instead.
Avoid watering the garden late in the day. Since slugs (and their eggs) thrive in wet conditions, always water in the morning so the garden dries by nightfall.
Switch from overhead irrigation to drip irrigation which targets water at the root zone and keeps plant foliage dry.
Plant resistant plants. Slugs dislike plants with heavily fragranced foliage, like many common herbs. They also dislike plants with fuzzy or furry foliage.
Slugs are a favorite food of many different predators. Encourage birds, snakes, lizards, toads, frogs, ground beetles, and other natural predators to make a home in your garden. Building a “beetle bump” is one of the most effective ways to control slugs naturally (find out how to build one in this article).

Snakes are exceptional predators of garden slugs. Encourage them in your garden.

2. Stop using pesticides on your lawn.

Firefly larvae are one of the most prevalent predators of newly hatched slugs, and putting synthetic pesticides on your lawn doesn’t just kill the “bad” bugs, it also kills beneficial insects, such as fireflies, that live in the lawn and help you control pests like slugs. Instead, switch to organic lawn care techniques and let these good bugs help you control slugs naturally.

3. How to get rid of slugs in the garden by trapping them.

This is one of my favorite tricks for how to get rid of slugs in the garden, especially the vegetable garden. Lay 2×4’s between crop rows at dusk and then the following afternoon, when the slugs take shelter beneath them to avoid the sun, flip over the boards and collect the slugs or cut them in half with a sharp scissors. You can also easily trap them underneath inverted watermelon rinds placed throughout the garden.

4. Use wool to control slugs.

If you want to know how to get rid of slugs in the garden, you shouldn’t ignore the power of wool pellets. It’s been discovered that slugs are just as bothered by itchy, rough wool as humans are. They don’t like climbing over the coarse texture. Slug Gone pellets are made from natural wool that’s been compressed and formed into pellets. The pellets are spread around the base of susceptible plants and then watered. The pellets quickly expand, forming a thick mat of wool that slugs refuse to climb over. It lasts for a very long time and can even help suppress weeds.

5. How to get rid of slugs in the garden with copper.

The metal copper reacts with slug slime to cause a mild electric shock and send the slug packing. You can purchase copper tape here and surround susceptible plants with a ring of copper. This is an easy technique if you just want to protect a few hostas, but it’s more challenging for larger garden areas. However, one easy way to keep slugs out of raised beds is to make a copper collar around the outer edge of the whole bed by stapling or nailing a strip of copper tape or copper strips around the top of the bed’s frame. This also works for containers where the copper tape can be placed just inside the upper rim of the pot. There’s also a copper mesh called Slug Shield (available here) that can be used in a similar manner and is reusable. It’s a bit easier to wrap around a single plant stem than copper tape or strips.

Garden slugs can be kept out of raised beds with copper strips, tape, or mesh.

6. Set up a slug fence.

Believe it or not, you can make an electric fence for slugs. Yep, that’s right. Here are plans to make a tiny electric slug fence to place around raised beds and protect the plants from slugs. It runs on a 9 volt battery and zaps the slugs when they come in contact with the fence. It won’t hurt humans or pets and is a great way to protect a raised bed or other small garden.

7. Set up a slug bar.

You know I had to mention everyone’s favorite/least favorite slug control: beer-baited traps. Yes, no list of tips on how to get rid of slugs in the garden is complete without a mention of beer traps. Plastic traps like these or these are baited with beer (non-alcoholic works best). The yeast in the beer attracts slugs who then fall in and drown. It works, but it’s also incredibly gross. In order to prevent a festering pile of slug corpse-infused beer, be sure to empty and re-bait the traps daily.

8. Use an organic slug bait.

When figuring out how to get rid of slugs in the garden, organic slug baits are a must. However, be smart about this method because not all slug baits are the same. Many traditional slug baits used to control slugs in the garden are poisonous to pets and other wildlife in addition to slugs. Do not use slug baits that contain methiocarb or metaldehyde as their active ingredient. Metaldehyde is extremely toxic to mammals (just a teaspoon or two can kill a small dog) and methiocarb isn’t much safer.

Instead, turn to organic baits for garden slug control. Look for an active ingredient of iron phosphate. These slug control products are safe for use on even certified organic farms. Brand names include Sluggo, Slug Magic, and Garden Safe Slug and Snail Bait. Sprinkle the bait on the soil surface around affected plants. The slugs eat the bait and immediately stop feeding. They’ll die within a few days. These baits can even be used in the vegetable garden around food crops, unlike traditional slug baits.

Sprinkle iron phosphate slug baits around nibbled plants to keep the slug population down.

A few more tips on how to get rid of slugs in the garden

In addition to these “power 8” ways to get rid of slugs in the garden naturally, there are a few other tricks you can try, though their effectiveness is debatable.

Diatomaceous earth has long been touted as a great slug control. It’s a fine powder that is very sharp microscopically and the edges easily cut through slug skin and desiccate them as they crawl over it. The trouble is that as soon as diatomaceous earth gets wet, it’s rendered useless. I don’t know many gardeners who have time to make a circle of dust around every plant and then replenish it after every rain or heavy dew.
A hearty sprinkle of salt, placed directly on a slug’s body, may desiccate it enough to lead to its death, but there’s a good chance the slug will simply shed its slime layer along with the salt and carry on as usual. I’ve seen it happen so many times that I put aside my salt shaker long ago.
• And lastly, sharp-edged items, such as sweet gum seed pods, crushed eggshells, and dried coffee grounds have all been touted as great slug deterrents. I respectfully disagree and so do several studies.

The final word on how to get rid of slugs in the garden

If slugs consistently cause you troubles and you’re constantly asking yourself how to get rid of slugs in the garden, then it’s time to take action and maintain a good organic control program from the start of the growing season all the way through the end by using as many of the techniques described above as possilbe. Doing so keeps the slug population in check and significantly decreases the amount of damage they cause.

Have you battled slugs in your garden? We’d love to hear your success stories in the comment section below.

How to Manage Pests

Gray garden slugs, Deroceras reticulatum, with chewing damage and slime trails on leaves.

Tawny slug, Limacus flavus, also called yellow cellar slug.

Snails and slugs are among the most destructive pests found in gardens and landscapes. The brown garden snail, Cornu aspersum (formerly Helix aspersa), is the most common snail causing problems in California gardens. It was introduced from France during the 1850s for use as food.

Another damaging snail is the white garden snail, Theba pisana. It is currently an established pest only in San Diego County but has been found in Los Angeles and Orange counties as well.

Common species of slugs that injure landscape plants include: the gray garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum (formerly Agriolimax reticulatus); the banded slug, Lehmannia poirieri; the three-band garden slug, L. valentiana; the tawny slug, Limacus flavus; and the greenhouse slug, Milax gagates.

IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGY

Both snails and slugs are members of the mollusk phylum and are similar in structure and biology, except that slugs lack the snail’s external spiral shell. These mollusks move by gliding along on a muscular “foot.” This muscle constantly secretes mucus, which facilitates their movement and later dries to form the silvery slime trail that signals the recent presence of either pest.

All land slugs and snails are hermaphrodites, so all are able to lay eggs after mating with another individual. Adult brown garden snails lay an average of 80 spherical, pearly white eggs at a time into a hole in the soil. They can lay eggs up to 6 times a year. Darker colored eggs are close to hatching. It takes about 2 years for snails to mature.

Slugs reach maturity after about 3 to 6 months, depending on the species, and lay translucent oval to round eggs in batches of 3 to 40 beneath leaves, in soil cracks, and in other protected areas.

Snails and slugs are most active at night and on cloudy or foggy days. On sunny days, they seek hiding places out of the heat and bright light. Often the only clues to their presence are their silvery trails and plant damage.

During cold weather, snails and slugs hibernate in the topsoil. In areas with mild winters, such as southern coastal locations, snails and slugs can be active throughout the year. During hot, dry periods snails estivate (hibernation during hot weather) by sealing themselves off with a parchment-like membrane. They often attach themselves to tree trunks, fences, or walls.

DAMAGE

Snails and slugs feed on a variety of living plants and on decaying plant matter. They create irregular holes with smooth edges on leaves and flowers by scraping with their rasp-like tongues. Small succulent plant parts are easily clipped by snail and slug feeding.

Because they prefer succulent foliage or flowers, snails and slugs are primarily pests of seedlings and herbaceous plants. They are also serious pests of turfgrass seedlings and ripening fruits that are close to the ground, such as strawberries and tomatoes. Snails and slugs will also feed on the young plant bark and foliage and fruit of some trees. Citrus are especially susceptible to damage.

Snail and slug damage can be confused with feeding by other pests such as earwigs, caterpillars, or other chewing insects. Look for silvery mucous trails to confirm that slugs or snails caused the damage, rather than other pests.

MANAGEMENT

Did a snail eat my plant? (1:30)

A good snail and slug management program relies on a combination of methods. The first step is to eliminate, as much as possible, all places where they can hide during the day. Boards, stones, debris, weedy areas around tree trunks, leafy branches growing close to the ground, and dense ground covers, such as ivy, are ideal sheltering spots.

Though baits can be part of a management program, it is best to use them in conjunction with habitat modification, especially in gardens that contain plenty of shelter, food, and moisture.

Cultural Control

It will not be possible to eliminate some shelters, such as low ledges on fences, the undersides of wooden decks, and water meter boxes, so make a regular practice of trapping and removing snails and slugs from these areas.

Place vegetable gardens or susceptible plants as far away from snail and slug hiding areas as possible. Reducing hiding places allows fewer snails and slugs to survive. The survivors congregate in the remaining shelters, where you can more easily locate and remove them.

Switching from sprinkler irrigation to drip irrigation will reduce humidity and moist surfaces, making the habitat less favorable for these pests. Irrigating near sunrise will reduce the amount of time that foliage and ground are moist.

Solarizing the soil—a technique that uses a clear plastic tarp and the sun’s heat—is a good way to kill eggs in raised beds. See the Pest Notes: Soil Solarization for Gardens and Landscapes for more information. Eggs will also rapidly dry if on the soil surface. If snail eggs are detected in the bed or garden, shallow cultivation will bring them to the soil surface to dry out.

Susceptible and resistant plants. Plant selection can greatly affect how difficult your battle with snails and slugs will be. Because snails and slugs favor seedlings and plants with succulent foliage, you will need to vigilantly protect them. Some plants these pests will seriously damage include basil, beans, cabbage, dahlia, delphinium, hosta, lettuce, marigolds, strawberries, and many other vegetable plants.

Choose plants that are not attractive to snails and slugs for areas where they are dense. Examples are plants with highly scented foliage, such as lavender, rosemary, and sage and some commonly grown plants including ferns, cyclamen, hydrangea, California poppy, nasturtium, and lantana.

Most ornamental woody plants and ornamental grasses are also not seriously damaged by snails and slugs but can be a hiding place for them during the day. Nevertheless, if you design your landscape using snail- and slug-resistant plants, you are likely to have very limited damage.

How to apply snail and slug bait (1:24)

Hand-picking. Hand-picking can be very effective if done thoroughly on a regular basis. At first you should look for snails and slugs daily, paying careful attention to potential hiding places. After the population has noticeably declined, weekly hand-picking can be sufficient.

To draw out snails and slugs, water the infested area in the late afternoon. After dark, search them out using a flashlight, pick them up (rubber or latex gloves are recommended), place them in a plastic bag, and seal and dispose of them in the trash. You also can put them in a bucket with soapy water or diluted ammonia (5 to 10% solution) and dispose of them after they are dead. Alternatively, crush captured snails and leave them in the garden.

Traps. You can trap snails and slugs beneath boards or flower pots that you position throughout the garden and landscape. Inverted melon rinds also make good traps. Construct wooden traps using 12- by 15-inch boards (or any easy-to-handle size) raised off the ground by 1-inch runners. The runners make it easy for the pests to crawl underneath.

Scrape off the accumulated snails and slugs daily and destroy them (see hand-picking). Do not use salt to destroy snails and slugs, as it will increase soil salinity.

Trapping snails and slugs (1:20)

Some people use beer-baited traps buried at ground level to catch and drown slugs and snails that fall into them. Because it is the fermented part of the product that attracts these pests, you can also use a sugar-water and yeast mixture instead of beer (see Cranshaw, 1997).

Beer/yeast traps attract slugs and snails within an area of only a few feet, and you must replenish the bait every few days to keep the level deep enough to drown the mollusks. Traps must have deep vertical sides to keep the snails and slugs from crawling out and a top to reduce evaporation. These types of traps are available at garden supply stores, or you can make your own by burying a coffee can, margarine container, or plastic bottle with the top at ground level and placing a lid with holes cut into it over the container.

Barriers. Several types of barriers will keep snails and slugs out of planting beds. The easiest to maintain are those made with copper flashing and screen. It is believed that copper barriers are effective because the copper reacts with the slime that snails and slugs secrete, causing a disruption in their nervous system similar to an electric shock.

When erecting vertical copper screens, it is best to use a strip that is at least 2 inches tall so you can bury a portion of it 1 to 2 inches below the soil to prevent slugs from crawling beneath the barrier.

Copper foil or tape wrapped around planting boxes, headers, or trunks will repel snails until it becomes tarnished. If the bands do tarnish, you can clean them with a vinegar solution.

When banding tree trunks, wrap the copper foil around the trunk and cut it to allow an 8-inch overlap. Attach one end or the middle of the band to the trunk with one staple oriented parallel to the trunk. Overlap and fasten the ends with one or two large paper clips to allow the copper band to slide as the trunk grows.

When using copper bands on planter boxes, be sure the soil within the boxes is snail-free before applying them. If this is not the case, hand-pick and remove any snails and slugs that are present after applying the band (but before planting new plants) until the box is free of these pests.

Barriers of dry diatomaceous earth, heaped in a band 1 inch high and 3 inches wide around the garden, can also be effective. However, these barriers lose their effectiveness after becoming damp, making them difficult to maintain and not very useful in most garden situations. Crushed egg shells or coffee grounds have not been shown to be effective deterrents.

Biological Control

Snails and slugs have many natural enemies, including ground beetles, rats, pathogens, snakes, toads, turtles, and both domestic and wild birds. Most are rarely effective enough to provide satisfactory control in the garden.

One predator found in some California gardens is a large Staphylinid beetle called the devil’s coach horse, Ocypus olens. However, this beetle, which is more than an inch long, will also feed on ripening or decaying fruits and vegetables.

Domesticated fowl (such as ducks, geese, or chickens) kept penned in infested areas can be effective snail predators that significantly reduce problems. Seedlings must be protected from feeding damage from these birds.

The predatory decollate snail, Rumina decollata, is used in Southern California citrus groves and other crops, gardens, and landscapes to control young brown garden snails and can provide very effective biological control. Decollate snails can also feed on seedlings, small plants, and flowers, although they are less problematic than brown snails. Snail baits will kill decollate snails. You should not use baits where these predators are active.

Because of the potential impact of the decollate snail on certain endangered mollusk species, it legally cannot be released in California outside of Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Madera, Orange, Riverside, Santa Barbara, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura, and Tulare counties. Even in counties where decollate snails are permitted, they should not be introduced in or near natural areas because of the potential danger to endangered native snails.

Chemical Control

Several types of snail and slug bait products (molluscicides) are available. Snail and slug baits can be effective when used properly and in conjunction with a cultural program that incorporates the other methods discussed above. Baits alone will not effectively control snails or slugs in the long term. Baits are also toxic to all snails and slugs, including the predatory decollate snail and native species.

Iron phosphate baits—available under many trade names, including Sluggo and Slug Magic, have the advantage of being safer for use around children, domestic animals, birds, fish, and other wildlife. Some formulations are listed as acceptable for use for organic systems. They are a good choice for an integrated pest management (IPM) program in your garden.

Ingesting even small amounts of the bait will cause snails and slugs to stop feeding, although it can take several days to a week for the snails to die. Snails and slugs tend to hide under plants or in other dark areas before they die, so you will not see scattered empty shells or dead snails and slugs as you would if treating them with metaldehyde.

Some formulations of iron phosphate include the insecticide spinosad to increase the spectrum of pests controlled (e.g. Sluggo Plus). Spinosad is an insecticide that will control earwigs and cutworms. These products can also be used in organic systems.

Products that contain ferric sodium EDTA (e.g. Eliminator Snail and Slug Killer or newer boxes of Corry’s Snail and Slug Killer), work in a similar manner to iron phosphate but are somewhat faster, killing snails in three days instead of seven. EDTA is used to make the ferric (which is also iron) more available and, therefore, kills the mollusks faster. Products containing ferric sodium EDTA are not labeled for organic use.

Molluscicides that have sulfur as the active ingredient (e.g. Bug-Geta Snail & Slug Killer 2) also reduce feeding damage caused by snails and slugs, but to a lesser extent than the iron-based products.

Baits containing the active ingredient metaldehyde are common. However, metaldehyde baits are particularly poisonous to dogs and cats, and the pelleted form can be attractive to dogs. Do not use metaldehyde snail baits where children and pets could encounter them. Avoid getting metaldehyde bait on plants, especially vegetables. Metaldehyde baits containing 4% active ingredient are more effective than those containing only 2%.

Some metaldehyde products are formulated with carbaryl*, partly to increase the spectrum of pests controlled, such as soil- and debris-dwelling insects, spiders, and sowbugs. Carbaryl is toxic to earthworms and to soil-inhabiting beneficial insects, such as ground beetles; therefore, it is better to avoid using snail baits containing this active ingredient.

Baits containing only metaldehyde are most reliable when temperatures are warm or during periods of lower humidity. The pests usually die within one day of ingesting the chemical or getting it on their foot. If cool, wet weather follows the baiting, they can recover if they ingest a sublethal dose.

Some metaldehyde baits break down rapidly when exposed to sunlight and high moisture from rain or irrigation. If high rainfall or irrigation is unavoidable, look for products that say they are rainfast or resistant to moisture breakdown on the label.

Placement of baits. For any of the baits, sprinkle them on the soil in areas that snails and slugs regularly frequent, near but not on plants that are attractive to the pests or near pest hiding places such as irrigation boxes. Applying baits repeatedly in the same areas maximizes control, because mollusks tend to return to food source sites.

Never pile bait in mounds or clumps, especially those products that are more hazardous. Piling makes bait attractive to pets and children and is not as effective as sprinkling. Piles also tend to clump when wetted, making them less effective.

The timing of any baiting is critical. Baiting is less effective during very hot, very dry, or cold times of the year because snails and slugs are less active during these periods. Applying the bait in the late afternoon or evening when snails and slugs are active will take advantage of the nighttime feeding habits of these pests and will improve the success of baiting.

Light irrigation will improve the success of baiting because it encourages snails and slugs to forage. However, do not water heavily after bait placement, as high moisture often makes the pellets moldy and less attractive to the pests.

Sprinkle bait close to walls and fences, or in other moist and protected locations, or scatter it along areas that snails and slugs cross to get from sheltered areas to the garden.

*As of August 1, 2020, pesticides containing the active ingredient carbaryl are restricted use materials in California. A valid pesticide applicator’s license is required for their possession and use. For more information see the California Department of Pesticide Regulation website.

REFERENCES

Hata T, Hara AH, Hu BK-S. 1997. Molluscicides and mechanical barriers against slugs, Vaginula plebeia Fischer and Veronicella cubensis Pfeiffer (Stylommatophora: Veronicellidae). Crop Protection 16(6):501–506.

McDonnell R, Paine T, Gormally MJ. 2009. Slugs: A Guide to the Invasive and Native Fauna of California. UC ANR Pub 8336, Oakland, CA.

Sakovich NJ, Bailey JB, Fisher TW. 1984. Decollate Snails for Control of Brown Garden Snails in Southern California Citrus Groves. UC ANR Pub 21384, Oakland, CA.

PUBLICATION INFORMATION

Pest Notes: Snails and Slugs

UC ANR Publication 7427

AUTHORS: Cheryl A. Wilen, UC IPM Program/UC Cooperative Extension, San Diego County, and Mary Louise Flint, Extension Entomologist Emerita, Entomology, UC Davis.
TECHNICAL EDITOR: K. Windbiel-Rojas
ANR ASSOCIATE EDITOR: A. M. Sutherland
EDITOR: B. Messenger-Sikes

Produced by University of California Statewide IPM Program

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