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What is a cannabis landrace strain?

There is a big difference between the cannabis that was available in the 1960s and the cannabis you can get now. Up until the late 1970s, if you were smoking pot, you were likely smoking what was often referred to as “sativa.” These plants were tall, had narrow leaves, and produced wispy flowers. From its original home around India, this cannabis species moved east. It also made its way down the eastern coast of Africa and eventually hitched a ride to the Americas.

A landrace marijuana strain is one of these original strains, and they regularly carry the name of the place they were developed: Thai , Durban Poison , Acapulco Gold , etc. Over the generations, the growing practices and environments particular to each of those locations imparted unique characteristics to each strain’s appearance and chemistry—the fancy word for this is “ terroir .”

Whereas sativa landrace strains moved across the globe, indica landraces were isolated in the arid, mountainous regions around Afghanistan and Pakistan. This cannabis is known for its broad leaves, short stature, dense flowers, and the hash that is created from its flowers. These strains also carry the names of places they were developed: Afghani , Hindu Kush , etc.

Are landrace strains still around?

It wasn’t until the late ‘70s that people decided to intentionally breed these two kinds of cannabis together. Eventually, breeders were able to produce offspring that consistently carried the desired characteristics from each type, and perhaps even more importantly, avoid unwanted characteristics that could weaken the plant’s health and production.

These hybrids have now taken over the cannabis market, and this, my ‘60s cannabis smoking friends, is the big difference between what you smoked then and what you smoke now: Today, you are smoking a hybrid of cannabis as opposed to a pure landrace strain.

Today, you are smoking a hybrid of cannabis as opposed to a pure landrace strain.

Are landraces more potent than regular strains?

It really depends on the specific strain and where and how it was grown. If you get your hands on a true landrace, it will most likely be less potent than a strain you find today, as current strains have typically been bred for a higher potency.

Is it hard to find landrace strains?

Those landrace strains from the ‘60s are not grown on a large scale today, but there are a few that carry a big enough following to keep them available in our current market. These are commonly referred to as “heirloom” strains, and they are produced in small batches and carry genetics of the landrace, but lack the original terroir.

There might come a day when the world cannabis markets open up, giving us direct access to landrace strains from around the world, however, until that day, here are a few heirloom strains you can find in your local shop to hold you over.

List of landrace marijuana strains

Durban Poison

Hailing from the port city of Durban in South Africa, Durban Poison is an energizing strain best known for its unique smell, taste, and bud structure. It offers a bouquet of anise, earthy spiciness, and sweetness. Nothing else in the cannabis world is like it.

Unlike other narrow-leaf strains, this plant produces flowers that are round and fluffy as opposed to long and wispy. It’s like a round cheese puff … that tastes like a black jelly bean.


Afghani is a broad-leafed strain with dense buds that produces heavy resin perfect for hash production. This strain evolved in an arid climate, therefore its buds tend to mold if it is grown in climates with high humidity.

Its sweet and earthy smell translates to a dank sedation loved by those looking to relax.

Lamb’s Bread

Said to be Bob Marley’s strain of choice, Lamb’s Bread is a landrace from the island of Jamaica. Also known as Lamb’s Breath, this strain is great for creative endeavors and introspection, as it provides an uplifting feeling and a sense of intense clarity.

Like many landrace strains, it offers a taste and smell that separates it from the rest. It’s like my favorite cheeses—funky, grassy, and herbal, with a little kick of spice. It smells loud!

Acapulco Gold

An uplifting landrace strain from Mexico, Acapulco Gold once held the reputation for being the standard in cannabis production. A lot of this had to do with the plant’s beautiful appearance and its ability to produce an abundance of THC—a unique characteristic at the time of its creation.

It offers a unique aroma of toffee and you get a bit of funky cheese in the taste.

Also referred to as Thai Stick (for the way it was dried and cured), Thai is regarded for its potency and intense cerebral high. It smells like tropical fruit with a hint of diesel, and it gives a subtle floral taste on the exhale.

This is a parent to many of the more popular uplifting and energizing strains we love today, like the original Haze .

7 Cannabis Strains That Changed the Game

Like avocados, apples, potatoes, and most other commercial crops, cannabis comes in a wide range of varietals, commonly called strains. Think Haas, McIntosh, Russet—only, you know, with weed.

All strains throughout history share a common ancestor: a feral annual plant in Central Asia approximately 15,000 years ago.

The oldest cannabis strains are collectively categorized as landraces, a term used to describe any genetically distinct varietal that’s indigenous to a specific geographic region, where it has—over a long period of time and isolation—adapted to the area’s climate and traditional cultivation techniques. Part of this process is natural acclimation, but local cannabis growers have also selectively bred these landraces over many generations, choosing for propagation individual plants that show desired traits, like drought resistance in an arid climate or mold resistance in a place with chilly nights and dense fog.

Often these landrace cannabis strains are named at least in part for their region of origin: Think Panama Red, Maui Wowie, and Malawi Gold. Further back, according to most scholars, the cannabis species originated as a feral annual plant in Central Asia approximately 15,000 years ago, and from there spread worldwide along ancient trading routes, which means that all strains throughout history share a common ancestor.

North America’s earliest pot smokers came up puffing on pure sativa landrace strains native to Mexico, the Caribbean, and points further south. Back in those pre-sinsemilla days (1900–1970), every bag of grass came with a large supply of free seeds, but those seeds wouldn’t grow well in northern climates. Pure sativas take weeks longer than indicas to mature, and thus require a longer, warmer growing season—a problem that became a crisis in the United States when the War on Marijuana began focusing on border patrols and shutting off foreign supply lines.

North America’s earliest pot smokers came up puffing on pure sativa landrace strains.

As demand for cannabis spiked in the late 1960s, the situation grew so dire there were well-publicized cannabis droughts. Then enterprising cannabis breeders in California and elsewhere discovered that by crossing these landrace sativa strains they were used to smoking with landrace indica strains brought back from Nepal, Afghanistan, and other stops along the then-popular Hippie Trail, they could produce hybrids with the best traits of both subspecies. Thus, they transformed homegrown American cannabis from ditch weed laughingstock into the envy of the world.

And how exactly did we get from a handful of landraces to Zkittlez and Blue Dream? Through a series of incredible breeding breakthroughs that largely took place behind a heavy veil of prohibition. So be warned that while it’s well documented that the McIntosh apple was first discovered by John McIntosh in 1811 in Canada, the stories of the world’s greatest cannabis breeders are a lot murkier (which definitely comes with the territory when your creative output happens to be illegal). As such, please kindly forgive any missing information in the origin stories of these seven game-changing cannabis strains (and reach out to us if you have insight you believe we’ve missed).

Skunk #1

Skunk #1 changed the game by helping forge a path for US cannabis growers to be self-sufficient.

From one of California’s original underground cannabis breeding outfits—the legendary Sacred Seeds—came one of the first true hybrid cannabis strains.

Named for its powerful skunky aroma, Skunk #1 was bred over multiple generations to incorporate diverse genetics from three blockbuster landraces—Afghani, Acapulco Gold, and Colombian Gold. Combining the short flowering time and heavy harvest of Afghani (an indica) with the soaring high of the two sativas, this landmark achievement in cannabis breeding changed the game by helping forge a path for US cannabis growers to be self-sufficient, while bringing into the world one of the most righteously uplifting buzzes of all time.

Skunk #1 also later served as a key breeding stock for many well-loved second-generation strains, including Cheese and Super Silver Haze. In the UK, to this day, “skunk” is used as a general term to describe any high-potency strain.

Northern Lights #5

Another classic first-generation hybrid, Northern Lights #5 was quite literally the fifth of its name. The first varietal known as Northern Lights was 100% indica, a result of crossing several Afghani landraces. Bred for high potency, a fast, heavy harvest, and a high bud-to-leaf ratio prized by growers, Northern Lights #1 was absolutely a stand-out in its heyday.

By the time we get to NL#5—the strain’s fifth incarnation, at least to those in the know—a bit of Thai landrace sativa had found its way into the genetic mix, bringing fruity flavor notes and a skyrocketing cerebral high to the party. Sensi Seeds won the Cannabis Cup in Amsterdam with the strain in 1989, 1990 and 1992, while producing large amounts of NL#5 seeds that would find their way all over the world.

Northern Lights #5 changed the game primarily by being a truly kick-ass strain that’s incredibly easy to grow indoors or outdoors in a wide variety of climates. That encouraged countless hobbyist growers and underground commercial cultivators to grow it, allowing the mass market to develop a taste for something far more elevated than their typical schwag.

Neville’s Haze

Haze delivered one of the most electric, uplifting, cerebral highs of all time, but it didn’t become a game-changing sensation until the 1980s.

The original Haze strains date back to the late 1960s, when a group of pioneering seed breeders known as The Haze Brothers discovered that the unique microclimate in Santa Cruz, California allowed them to experiment with growing heavily sativa-dominant hybrids. Blessed with a long, dry, mild autumn, those visionary Haze Brothers quickly became underground-famous among local heads for developing and growing Original Haze, a hybrid strain which blended landrace genetics from Thailand, Mexico, and Colombia.

As one of the Haze Brothers told High Times in 1980, “The stuff they grow in Northern California is mostly indica, but it’s harvested early to get it in before the frost. In our county the flowers pump out resin until December, [so we made] Haze pot from sativa seeds.”

A slow-to-mature, tall and finicky plant, Haze made up for all that by delivering one of the most electric, uplifting, cerebral highs of all time, coupled with a sharp piney smell and taste that’s instantly recognizable to anyone who’s had the extreme pleasure of smoking some. But it didn’t become a game-changing sensation or the world’s ultimate head stash until the 1980s, when Original Haze reached Amsterdam. There, an OG seed breeder named Neville tinkered with it until he produced a variety that was significantly easier to grow without compromising on potency, flavor, or effect. Neville then produced copious Haze seeds and shipped them all over the world.

OG Kush

At last we enter the second-generation hybrid era, when cannabis breeders began to cross hybrids with other hybrids in hopes that a magic varietal would emerge and prove greater than the sum of its parts. Which brings us to one of the most iconic strains of all time.

Now, remember when we noted that the story of underground cannabis breeding sometimes gets a bit murky? Nothing makes that point clearer than the origin story of OG Kush, which—with the help of a lot of rap lyrics—made its way from humble begins and unknown parentage to the upper echelon of the cannabis strain pantheon.

The little we do know of this epic journey is unconfirmed and incomplete, but according to the most credible accounts, OG Kush appears to have begun life as a cutting smuggled to the West Coast from Florida where it was originally known as Krippy—a generic term for good weed. Once the strain made its way to Los Angeles, and into the hands of grower JoshD, the genetics were proliferated and spread up and down the West Coast.

OG Kush changed the game by being the first strain of the hybrid era to become a cultural touchstone, following in the illustrious footsteps of larger-than-life landraces like Panama Red and Acapulco Gold.

Sour Diesel

Sour Diesel changed the game in two ways: by bringing sativa back and being the first East Coast strain to achieve prominence.

What makes Sour Diesel stand out, first and foremost, is the strain’s powerful smell and taste, which is every bit as sour and diesel-like as the name suggests, but somehow in a way that you just can’t get enough of. It’s a quickly-acquired taste, probably because every time you encounter it you’re about to get super-blazed in a really uplifting, creative way.

Believed to be a cross between Chemdawg and Super Skunk, Sour Diesel changed the game in two ways: First, much as Justin Timberlake brought sexy back, Sour Diesel brought sativa back. Since indicas grow faster and yield more, most modern cannabis growers stuck to indica-dominant strains until Sour D (as it came to be known) came along in the mid-1990s and began fetching such a premium that it drove the entire cannabis market in a wonderful new direction.

It also changed the game by being the first East Coast strain to achieve prominence. As noted, little is known of where it actually came from, but we do know that—like many upstart hopefuls from all over the world—it came to New York City to make it big.

Granddaddy Purple

Ken Estes was gifted as both a student and an athlete in high school, but not long after he graduated in 1976 a motorcycle accident left him paralyzed from the neck down. After languishing in a rehabilitation center in a pharmaceutical fog for six months, he befriended a disabled Vietnam vet recovering in the same facility who offered him some cannabis.

Estes says that first puff “was the turnaround of my life,” which he thereafter dedicated to advocating for cannabis legalization and breeding new varietals with powerful medicinal effects. In 2011, his Bay 11 strain took home top honors at the High Times Medical Cannabis Cup in San Francisco, but he’ll always be best known for Granddaddy Purple, a strain he says was gifted to him by a longtime grower from southern Humboldt County.

Best known for its deep purple appearance, GDP changed the game by setting off a sustained craze for purple cannabis that begat The Purps, Grape Ape, and many others. The strain’s sweet grape flavor also pushed future breeders in that direction, as a balance to the acrid diesel notes associated with both OG Kush and Sour Diesel.

Sour Tsunami

One of the primary therapeutic compounds found in cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD) is now widely available via a variety of CBD-rich strains like ACDC, Cannatonic, and Harlequin. But not so long ago, CBD was nearly extinct from the cannabis gene pool, all because the world’s second-best known cannabinoid counteracts the psychoactive effects of THC.

Sour Tsunami, bred by Lawrence Ringo, changed the game by being the first stabilized CBD-rich strain in California.

This means that strains with a lot of CBD don’t get you as high. So in an effort to get their customers as high as possible, underground breeders for decades unwittingly bred CBD out of their strains, until only trace amounts remained. Researchers, however, learned about the medicinal benefits of CBD, and so did the team of scientists and activists behind Project CBD, a non-profit organization founded in 2010. From its inception, Project CBD has partnered with California’s commercial cannabis testing labs to flag any bud testing high in CBD, in order to build up a breeding stock of high-CBD strains.

Sour Tsunami—bred by Lawrence Ringo of Southern Humboldt Seed Collective—changed the game by being the first stabilized CBD-rich strain in California. Ringo has sadly passed away, but his legacy lives on: Today CBD is revered by patients treating everything from pediatric epilepsy to anxiety and chronic pain.

In an interview with O’Shaughnessy’s, Ringo gave a lengthy explanation of how Sour Tsunami came to be. It’s worth reading both to understand the determination and painstaking work involved in cannabis breeding, and also the love and passion underpinning the endeavor.

I saved seeds whenever a plant gave me a creative feeling. I bought ‘New York City Diesel’ seeds from Marc Emery. I took the males from that and crossed them onto Sour Diesel female clones. I crossed the NYC Diesel and the Sour Diesel for about four years—kept crossing it back to the Sour Diesel clone. Each year I’d save the male and do the dusting and make my seeds. One year a friend popped in with something that had a really nice creamy taste. I thought it was an indica but it turned out to be 60% sativa called Ferrari. I’ll never forget that creamy taste. I smoked it and my brain just took off. I’m a musician so I just grabbed a guitar and was going nuts for hours.

It took me about a year to get that Ferrari clone… I crossed my Sour Diesel—Double Diesel, I called it—to the Ferrari clone five years ago. Two years ago I re-crossed it back onto the Sour Diesel. Before I did that I had this thing called Tsunami. It was the Double Diesel crossed four times to the Sour Diesel then crossed to the Ferrari and then crossed back to the Sour Diesel. That made Sour Tsunami. It’s unbelievable. The creamy taste was there. I had no idea what the CBD count was until Samantha Miller [of Pure Analytics] analyzed my stuff and said it was 11.3% CBD. ‘And by the way,’ she said, ‘You have eight other strains with great CBD potential.’

Where Are the Classic Cannabis Strains Now?

This article was originally published on Cannabis & Tech Today and appears here with permission.

It may seem commonplace to just walk into a store and buy marijuana today, but it used to be so much different — and so was the weed.

The marijuana market didn’t have companies with reward programs and logo-smattered merch — it was a sketchy dude named something like “8-Ball” or “Yo-Yo.” If you were lucky he had two options. Likely there would be something cheap from Mexico, and something somewhat better, likely from Colombia.

Nearly all marijuana had some seeds and stems, and it wasn’t a catastrophe. It’s just how it came. It wasn’t even in grams — you likely bought lids, quarter bags, or “finger” bags (two-finger, three-finger, etc.)

The strains in that era were likely crosses as well, but they came from the ground that way. A landrace strain is a strain found in the wild, growing without the intrusions of man. Plants pollinate in the wild all the time, so they were breeding for centuries before they were ever discovered.

Essentially, landrace strains are the building blocks for the cannabis grown today — and there are still countless more to be discovered in the wild.

Many of those great strains of the 1960s and 1970s are gone forever, but some are still around in various forms.

Essentially, there are four things to look out for if you’re thinking about growing landrace strains or even some classic crosses.

How Were the Seeds Created?

There are a lot of discrepancies in the seed world, particularly among old landrace strains. Do some serious research at this stage.

Above all, you have to know the origin of the seeds. Are they original seeds from the actual plant? Are they a quality clone? Or did they just reverse engineer the effects and come up with something close to the original — then call it whatever they wanted. The latter happens more than you might expect — and it’s fine, so long as the vendor is clear about its origin.

More reputable dealers in such vintage seeds are typically quite open about how they got them.

Original seeds or a direct clone of an actual plant are the ideal method.

Where Does the Strain Originate?

Understanding the origin of a strain is paramount to capturing the desired effects. A strain that grew well in Afghanistan might not find ideal conditions in Washington state, for example.

Eybna is a technology company and terpene manufacturer, with a line of formulations focused specifically on reproducing the classic terpene profiles from some of these very strains. The company produces a variety of terpene solutions that can be applied to plants or manufactured products like inhalables, digestibles, and topicals. Their Enhancer terpene formulations were created based on genetic research into the original phytochemical makeup of three legacy strains. The “Diesel”, “Skunk” and “Kush” terpene formulations give your existing bud or distillate product more of a classic feel by capturing some of those lost or diluted effects from the past.

Nadav Eyal, co-founder and CEO of Eybna, has spent years researching classic strains.

“If you want to preserve the original taste, smell and effect of the original wildtype plant, you have to watch the climate,” Eyal said in a recent interview with Cannabis & Tech Today. “Being able to match the strain to its original climate is crucial to properly recreating the bud.”

He stressed if you want to truly experience a strain like Acapulco Gold, you need to find a way to recreate the environment in which it first grew. Watch your temperatures, humidity, and try to make your light cycles match what it would have been throughout a natural grow.

“Because of the places they were grown, they were able to develop and compound on their own,” Eyal said. “And they’re different from place to place.”

Timers, fans, quality lights, and even humidifiers can handle most of the work. Of course, you can spend as much as you wish to get it spot-on.

An Outdoor Grow May Be Best

While most landrace strains can thrive in an indoor grow room, it’s not necessarily the best course of action.

An anonymous representative from Old School Breeders Association has worked on many classic strains.

“Growers may want to let these strains grow out to their full stature. For example, just a few large plants per light, especially when grown from seed,” the OSBA representative said. “Clones of landrace cannabis genetics may finish a little faster and tighter than their seed parent — so select the phenotypes that work for your grow room for best results.”

He also stresses against just growing and forgetting. If something turns out to be great, you’re going to want to go back to it.

“Although you may pick a favorite that’s most suitable for your modern growing style, it may be worthwhile to keep clones of the others and occasionally grow them out,” the OSBA rep said. “You may find some that have natural resistance to common crop problems that your modern cannabis genetics do not.”

Shop From Reputable Dealers

There are a lot of seed banks and dispensaries in this world. While most are honest, hard-working cannabis lovers, some are not so honest. Do some research before ordering and see how other customers feel about their past orders.

Essentially, there is no way to tell by looking at a seed what strain from which it originates. As a result, this almost entirely comes down to trusting the seller. Sellers who have legitimate landrace strains are generally quite excited about them and happy to tell you everything you need to know.

“Besides having strains you want, the most certain way to qualify a seed supplier is the number of years they have been delivering seeds to their customers,” the Old School Breeders Association representative said. “There have been countless seed companies that have come and gone for a variety of reasons. If a company has been around for over ten years, it’s a pretty safe bet they have the means and intent to stay around at least that much longer.”

He is quick to remind, however, that everyone has to start somewhere. He also suggests doing a search of social media to see if growers buying their products are satisfied.

“Another quick and effective way to weed out the frauds is just to pick up the phone and give them a call,” they said. “Do they answer right away and are they able to answer your questions? Don’t hesitate to pick up a phone or send an email before your order. People do it every day, and it’s the best way to ensure you are happy with your purchase.”

Where Are They Now?

Acapulco Gold

Origin: Acapulco region of Mexico

S/H/I: Sativa

Effects: Happy, Uplifted, Energetic

Available from: Barney’s Farm

Durban Poison

Origin: Durban, South Africa

S/H/I: Sativa

Effects: Energetic, Uplifting, Creativity

Available from: Dutch Passion


Origin: Afghanistan

S/H/I: Indica

Effects: Relaxation, Euphoria, Sleepy

Available from: Sensi Seeds


Origin: Thailand

S/H/I: Sativa

Effects: Happy, Focused, Energetic

Available from: The Real Seed Company has a variety of rare seeds from Thailand, but it is largely believed that original Thai is forever lost. However, with many landrace strains from the region, this is your best chance to get close.

Panama Red

Origin: Panama

S/H/I: Sativa

Effects: Happy, Uplifted, Talkative

Available from: Ace Seeds sells a feminized version adapted to withstand modern growing situations. They also have a close replica made from a blend of three similar sativas from Panama.

Original Haze

Origin: Santa Cruz, Calif.

S/H/I: Sativa

Effects: Happy, Uplifted, Energetic

Available from: Flying Dutchmen

OG Kush

Origin: California

S/H/I: Indica

Effects: Happy, Relaxed, Hungry

Available from: Old School Breeders Association

Malawi / Malawi Gold

Origin: Southeast Africa

S/H/I: Sativa

Effects: Energetic, Uplifted, Creative

Available from: Many places out of stock, but Old School Breeders Association has a Malawi Gold x Thai cross that is highly regarded.


Origin: Northern Afghanistan

S/H/I: Indica

Effects: Very Relaxing, Euphoric

Available from: The Real Seed Company


Origin: Most likely believed to be Bay Area breeders in the late 1970s

S/H/I: Hybrid

Effects: Happy, Euphoric, Hungry

Available from: Skunk #1 is likely the closest. Available from Sacred Seed Co., this is a cross of multiple classic genetics (Afghani, Acapulco Gold, Colombian Gold) and may be as close as one can get today to original Skunk.

*The above information regarding classic strains includes some estimation. As much as could be verified, was, but there is minimal documentation or “proof” available. Special thanks to the teams at Old School Breeders Association and Eybna for their help in compiling the information.

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