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Jb seeds cannabis

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Date and time: Mon, 28 Feb 2022 18:31:00 GMT

Seed composition of non-industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties from four regions in northern Morocco

This study aims to determine the chemical composition of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds of two varieties cultivated in four different regions of northern Morocco. The content of protein, insoluble fibre, ash, total phenols and flavonoids was found to be 19.25%-24.18%, 26.40%-37.40%, 3.72%-5.39%, 134.57-199.90 mg 100g(-1) and 39.40-69.54 mg 100g(-1) respectively. Oil contents ranged from 26.42 to 35.19 g 100 g(-1) of seeds in the four collection sites with variable oxidative stability at 100 degrees C from 9.73 to 15.42 h. Total tocopherol content was between 376.46 and 796.06 mg kg(-1) of oil, with a dominance of gamma-tocopherol. Fatty acids consisted mainly of unsaturated fatty acids (87.30-88.96%) with a predominance of linoleic acid (48.26%-55.39%). Triacylglycerols (TAGs) composition analysis revealed the presence of 18 TAGs with an equivalent carbon number of 38-48. The composition of TAGs was predominated by LLL (14.34%-22.62%), OLL (12.77%-18.78%) and LLLn (12.32%-18.59%). Furthermore, the majority of the evaluated parameters were strongly influenced by the varietal factor, growing area and their interaction. The knowledge of this composition variability in seeds of non-industrial Cannabis sativa varieties cultivated in northern Morocco could be useful in new Cannabis variety breeding programmes potentially valuable as non-conventional oil in cosmetic and agro-industry.

Authors

Taaifi, Yassine; Benmoumen, Abdessamad; Belhaj, Kamal; Aazza, Smail; Abid, Malika; Azeroual, Embarek; Elamrani, Ahmed; Mansouri, Farid; Serghini Caid, Hana

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Decision Letter

It is a pleasure to accept your manuscript entitled “# IJFST-2021-31704.R1 entitled “Seed composition of non-industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties from four regions in northern Morocco” which you submitted to the International Journal of Food Science and Technology” in its current form for publication in the International Journal of Food Science and Technology.

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Response to the Editor
We would like to thank you for giving the chance to our manuscript for review. We revised our paper in all the points raised by the three reviewers. The requested revisions and clarifications have been taken into in the present version. We hope that the answers, revisions and clarifications provided will satisfy the reviewers and will meet your expectations.
Response to the reviewers
Reviewer 1
Our heartfelt gratitude is addressed to you for your detailed and deep in thought reading of this manuscript. Your suggestions reflectively reshaped the mind behind this article. The corrections according to your suggestions are indicated in the manuscript with a red color. Below are our responses (the reviewer’s comments are in bold):
The main modification required concerns the number of times which samples was analysed. Each plot yields three 1 kg samples of seed (line 111) and all analyses were carried out in triplicate (line 122). According to Table 2, the Beldia sample form Tamorot had an oil content of 30.87 ± 0.56%. does this mean that each of the three samples has been analysed once and that the standard deviation expresses the spread between samples, or does this mean that one of the samples has been analysed three times so that the standard deviation of 0.56% expresses the repeatability of the determination of oil the content? Or have all three samples been analysed in triplicate? The authors are invited to explain this in detail since the way they treated their samples is also reflected in the Principal Component Analysis.
Reply: All of the parameters were determined in triplicate for each sample and the quantitative data have been reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD) values of triplicate experiments.
As you suggested, we have improved this part and we have added, in the revised manuscript, the following line:
“The samples were firstly crushed in a coffee grinder, and homogeneous samples were then used for the evaluation of the various chemical parameters. For each sample, all the chemical parameters were determined in triplicate.”
We have also added in the section of statistical analysis the sentence:
“The results have been reported as mean ± standard deviation values of triplicate experiments.”
For principal component analysis, the analysis was applied to the obtained data set, using a matrix of 63 individuals (triplicate experiments × 21 samples) and 51 variables (Chemical parameters). The hemp seed samples have been presented in the two-dimensional score plots with their triplicate experiments.
We have added the following line in the section of chemometric analysis:
“PCA was applied to the rest of the relevant variables, using a 63 × 51 matrix (samples with triplicate experiments (3 × 21 samples), 51 variables (chemical parameters)).”.
The authors calculate the protein content of the seeds by multiplying the Kjeldahl nitrogen content by 6.25. Is there a literature reference that supports this multiplication factor?
Reply: The protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method according to the official method 984.13 (Crude protein in Animal Feed and Pet Food, Copper Catalyst Kjeldahl Method) of AOAC using the conversion factor 6.25 of this method. We have added the method number in the revised manuscript as follows:
‘’Oil, protein, ash, and moisture contents were evaluated according to the standard methods of AOAC International (AOAC, 2000). The determination of dry matter was carried out by drying at 100±3°C (AOAC Official Method 925.40). The oil content was determined by the Soxhlet method using petroleum ether for 6h at 45°C (AOAC Official Method 920.39). The protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method of total nitrogen determination using the conversion factor 6.25 to calculate the protein content (AOAC Official Method 984.13). The ash concentration was evaluated by incineration at 550°C (AOAC Official Method 923.03). ‘’
Line 43, OOLn, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol → OOLn, 1,2-dioleoyl-3- linolenoyl-rac-glycerol
Reply: The correction has been made.
Line 47, SLLn, 1-stearoyl-2- linoleoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol → SLLn, 1-stearoyl-2- linoleoyl-3-linolenoyl-rac-glycerol
Reply: The correction has been made.
Line 53 and others; a space should be inserted between before the opening bracket of a literature reference: Asia(Ranalli, 1999) → Asia (Ranalli, 1999) or line 55: effects(Chen et al., 2010) → effects (Chen et al., 2010)
Reply: The corrections have been made.
Absence of spaces is quite common throughout the manuscript, e.g. line 62, frombreeding → from breeding; line 66, seedsrepresent → seeds represent.
Reply: We have reviewed the manuscript and we have added the spaces.
On lines 537 and 541, the author A. Ben Moumen is mentioned as ‘Ben Moumen, A.’, but on line 625, the same (?) author has been listed as ‘Benmoumen, A.’, in line 628 as ‘moumen, A. Ben’, and finally, in line 638 as ‘Moumen, A. Ben’.
Reply: The corrections have been made.
Mansouri, F., Ben Moumen, A., Richard, G., Fauconnier, M.L., Sindic, M., Serghini-Caid, H. & Elamrani, A. (2016). …
Mansouri, F., Ben Moumen, A., Belhaj, K., Richard, G., Fauconnier, M.L., Sindic, M., Caid, H.S. & Elamrani, A. (2018). …
Nkengurutse, J., Mansouri, F., Bekkouch, O., Ben Moumen, A., Masharabu, T., Gahungu, G., Serghini, H.C. & Khalid, A. (2019). …
On line 606, the Dutch or Flemish author Y. Vander Heyden has been listed in the proper Dutch way as ‘Heyden, Y. Vander’. Another Dutch sounding name (Van Soest) has been listed under the V whereas in Dutch, ne would be listed under the S as ‘Soest, P.J. van’ (lines 661 and 664).
Reply: We have listed the author in the Dutch way as follows:
Soest, P.J. Van, Robertson, J.B. & Lewis, B.A. (1991). Methods for Dietary Fiber, Neutral Detergent Fiber, and Nonstarch Polysaccharides in Relation to Animal Nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597.
Soest, P.J. Van & Wine, R.H. (1968). Determination of Lignin and Cellulose in Acid-Detergent Fiber with Permanganate. Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 51, 780–785.

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Reviewer 2
We would like to express our deep gratitude towards you for your careful and thorough reading of this manuscript. The corrections according to your suggestions have been made. Our responses are as follows (the reviewer’s comments are in bold):
1) Throughout the manuscript, add a space between the reference and the word before. Check the text because some words are not separated by a space.
Reply: We have reviewed the manuscript and we have added the spaces.
3) After oil extraction from the seeds, is-it possible to use the residual meal in food applications?
Reply: The residual meal obtained after oil extraction can be used for human food and animal feed as a source of vegetable protein and dietary fiber in the form of hemp protein powder, hemp flour, and in shake drinks. Indeed, the protein from hemp seed is highly digestible in either its native form or as a hemp seed meal with a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses. In addition, antinutritional compounds, such as phytic acid, remain quite low. however, lysine and tryptophan are the main limiting amino acids in hemp proteins.
Xu, Y., Li, J., Zhao, J., Wang, W., Griffin, J., Li, Y., Bean, S., Tilley, M. & Wang, D. (2020). Hempseed as A Nutritious and Healthy Human Food or Animal Feed Source: A Review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. doi:10.1111/ijfs.14755.

Reviewer 3
We would like to express our deep gratitude towards you for your careful and thorough reading of this manuscript. Your thoughtful comments and your constructive suggestions were crucial for improving the quality of this article. The corrections according to your suggestions are indicated in the manuscript with a red color. Below are our responses (the reviewer’s comments are in bold):
It is suggested to improve the chromatograms figures of the graphical abstract.
Reply: As you suggested, we have improved the chromatograms in the graphical abstract.
In material and method section, line 114, (More than. ), more should be written with small letter.
Reply: The correction has been made.
In the proximate analysis section, it is suggested to include the references of each of the determinations carried out.
Reply: we have added the references in the proximate analysis section.
‘’Oil, protein, ash, and moisture contents were evaluated according to the standard methods of AOAC International (AOAC, 2000). The determination of dry matter was carried out by drying at 100±3°C (AOAC Official Method 925.40). The oil content was determined by the Soxhlet method using petroleum ether for 6h at 45°C (AOAC Official Method 920.39). The protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method of total nitrogen determination using the conversion factor 6.25 to calculate the protein content (AOAC Official Method 984.13). The ash concentration was evaluated by incineration at 550°C (AOAC Official Method 923.03). ‘’
Please revise the writing of the units of the quantities, for example: ml is mL
Reply: All the units have been revised.
In line 246, “ash is an inorganic. ”
Reply: The correction has been made.
It is suggested to review the format under which the references are cited in the manuscript.
Reply: We have reviewed the references format according to the guideline (the Harvard system of referencing).
Line 430 to 434. “Thus, Anwar et al. (2006) reported very low values of induction time varying between 1.5 and 1.72 h for Cannabis oils from different agro-ecological regions of Pakistan. However, we can see that the conditions used in their study are slightly different from ours with an air flow of 20L h-1 at 120°C, while we used the standard conditions for the study of the stability of olive oils 20L h-1 at 100°C (Gutiérrez et al., 1999)”. I consider this discussion inappropriate given that, as indicated by the author of this work, the Rancimat results obtained at different temperatures are not comparable with each other.
Reply: The suggested correction has been made and we have taken off the discussion mentioned above from the manuscript.
Line 420 to 423. “The obtained results (Table 7) showed that the oils extracted from the Cannabis seeds of the various studied samples had low oxidative stability values compared to conventional vegetable oils, such as olive oil (Mansouri et al., 2018) and soybean oil (Kowalski et al., 2004), with induction times varying from 9.73 to 15.42 hours”. It would be interesting that the authors compare these oxidative stability results with other vegetable oils, not only olive and soybean.
Reply: As suggested by the reviewer, we have improved the paragraph and compared the results of oxidative stability with other vegetable oils, such as safflower seed, linseed, and walnut oils. We have added the following sentence in the revised manuscript:
However, these values were better than those reported by Martínez et al. (2013) for walnut oil (2.88 h) and by Bozan and Temelli (2008) for flaxseed and safflower seed oils (1.57 and 2.87 h, respectively).

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