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Pest Management: A New Approach to an Age-Old Challenge

From a family with deep Florida roots, I have over 40 years of experience in commercial citrus production. I learned the industry from the ground up by working in the family groves while studying citrus production at Florida Southern College. I have owned a citrus nursery, my own groves and a citrus caretaking business. I have also worked in production for Lykes Citrus Management Division, and most recently worked as ranch manager and production manager for Welcome Ranch and Groves.

Due to the challenges of the conventional citrus production model, I was forced to walk away from growing citrus commercially. In February of 2017, I began studying soil biology, chemistry and physics and how they affect plant nutrition and citrus tree health. In December of that year, I purchased 5 acres of land in Lithia and planted multiple varieties of citrus.

Because of my prior experiences and the unending challenges across the citrus industry with disease and insects, I chose to implement regenerative concepts in my grove to prove to myself there was more than one approach to dealing with the pest management problems that plague the industry and grower profitability. This began my trials, experimentation and research to better understand how regenerative principles and processes could be implemented into commercial citrus production, and how those processes would benefit soil health, tree health and grower profitability.


In pest management, it is necessary to focus on beneficial insects and microbes, as well as optimal tree nutrition. At my research farm, I have found that beneficial insects and microbes (both above and below ground) are attracted and housed by the continual propagation of diverse cover crops.

I have developed a cover cropping rotation strategy keeping at least half of my grove in mature and beneficial living green plants all year long. This ensures beneficial insects are in the grove continually.

I apply biostimulants and inoculums on a regular basis to both the soil and foliage to feed and diversify the natural occurring biology and also to help keep pathogens in check. Many lower order of problem pests (aphids, thrips, whiteflies, mealybugs, all forms of scale, rust mites, spider mites and psyllids) are at extremely low populations or non-existent.

University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) nematologist Johan Desaeger sampled my soils, as well as the roots of trees and various cover crops last spring. He …..

Brad Turner is a citrus grower and operator of Sand to Soil Services in Lithia, Florida.

Learn more about Pest Management: A New Approach to an Age-Old Challenge on the Citrus Industry website.

A new read on DNA sequencing

The twisting, ladder-like form of the DNA molecule – the architectural floor plan of life – contains a universe of information critical to human health. Enormous effort has been invested in deciphering the genetic code, including, most famously, the Human Genome Project. Nevertheless, the process of reading some 3 billion nucleotide "letters" to reveal an individual's full genome remains a costly and complex undertaking.

Now, Stuart Lindsay, biophysicist in ASU’s Biodesign Institute, has demonstrated a technique that may lead to rapid, low-cost reading of whole genomes, through recognition of the basic chemical units – the nucleotide bases that make up the DNA double helix. An affordable technique for DNA sequencing would be a tremendous advance for medicine, allowing routine clinical genomic screening for diagnostic purposes; the design of a new generation of custom-fit pharmaceuticals; and even genomic tinkering to enhance cellular resistance to viral or bacterial infection. Download Full Image

Lindsay is an ASU Regents' Professor and Carson Presidential Chair of Physics and Chemistry, as well as director of the Biodesign Institute's Center for Single Molecule Biophysics. His group's research appears in the current issue of the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

Lindsay's technique for reading the DNA code relies on a fundamental property of matter known as quantum tunneling, which operates at the subatomic scale. According to quantum theory, elementary particles like electrons can do some very strange and counterintuitive things, in defiance of classical laws of physics. Such sub-atomic, quantum entities possess both a particle and a wave-like nature. Part of the consequence of this is that an electron has some probability of moving from one side of a barrier to the other, regardless of the height or width of such a barrier.

Remarkably, an electron can accomplish this feat, even when the potential energy of the barrier exceeds the kinetic energy of the particle. Such behavior is known as quantum tunneling, and the flow of electrons is a tunneling current. Tunneling is confined to small distances – so small that a tunnel junction should be able to read one DNA base (there are four of them in the gentic code, A,T,C and G) at a time without interference from flanking bases. But the same sensitivity to distance means that vibrations of the DNA, or intervening water molecules, ruin the tunneling signal. So the Lindsay group has developed "recognition molecules" that "grab hold" of each base in turn, clutching the base against the electrodes that read out the signal. They call this new method "recognition tunneling."

The current paper in Nature Nanotechnology shows that single bases inside a DNA chain can indeed be read with tunneling, without interference from neighboring bases. Each base generates a distinct electronic signal, current spikes of a particular size and frequency that serve to identify each base. Surprisingly, the technique even recognizes a small chemical change that nature sometimes uses to fine-tune the expression of genes, the so-called "epigenetic" code. While an individual's genetic code is the same in every cell, the epigenetic code is tissue and cell specific and unlike the genome itself, the epigenome can respond to environmental changes during an individual's life.

To read longer lengths of DNA, Lindsay's group is working to couple the tunneling readout to a nanopore – a tiny hole through which DNA is dragged, one base at a time, by an electric field. The paper in Nature Nanotechnology has something to say about this problem too.

"It has always been believed that the problem with passing DNA through a nanopore is that it flies through so quickly that there is no time to read the sequence," Lindsay said. Surprisingly, the tunneling signals reported in the paper last for a long time – nearly a second per base read. To test this result, Lindsay teamed with a colleague, Robert Ros, to measure how hard one has to pull to break the complex of a DNA base plus the recognition molecules. They did this with an atomic force microscope.

"These measurements confirmed the long lifetime of the complex, and also showed that the reading time could be speeded up at will by the application of a small additional pulling force," Ros said.

"Thus the stage is set for combining tunneling reads with a device that passes DNA through a nanopore," Lindsay said.

Sequencing through recognition tunneling, if proven successful for whole genome reading, could represent a substantial savings in cost and hopefully, in time as well. Existing methods of DNA sequencing typically rely on cutting the full molecule into thousands of component bits, snipping apart the ladder of complementary bases and reading these fragments. Later, the pieces must be meticulously re-assembled, with the aid of massive computing power.

"Direct readout of the epigenetic code holds the key to understanding why cells in different tissues are different, despite having the same genome," Lindsay added, a reference to the new ability to read epigenetic modifications with tunneling. Lindsay stresses much work remains to be done before the application of sequencing by recognition can become a clinical reality.

"Right now, we can only read two or three bases as the tunneling probe drifts over them, and some bases are more accurately identified than others," he said. However, the group expects this to improve as future generations of recognition molecules are synthesized.

"The basic physics is now demonstrated" Lindsay said, adding "perhaps it will soon be possible to incorporate these principles into mass produced computer chips."

The day of the "genome on a lap-top" might be coming sooner than previously thought possible.

Britt Lewis

Communications Specialist, ASU Library

2 research projects up for Governor’s Innovation Awards

Two ASU projects – one that develops wearable environmental sensors and another which has developed novel brain stimulation methods – are among the finalists for the 2010 Innovator of the Year Award for Academia, which is given out as part of the annual Arizona Governor’s Celebration of Innovation.

The first project goal is to develop sensitive, wearable and wireless chemical sensors to quickly and reliably detect toxic chemicals in the air that are critically important for health risk assessment, disease prevention and environmental monitoring. The project is led by Nongjian (N.J.) Tao, a professor of electrical engineering and director of the Biodesign Institute’s Center for Bioelectronics and Biosensors, as well as fellow researchers Erica Forzani, Francis Tsow and Rodrigo Iglesias.

The second project involves development of methods and devices for implementing transcranial pulsed ultrasound in the noninvasive stimulation of intact brain circuits. This project, led by William (Jamie) Tyler, an assistant professor of neurobiology and bioimaging in the School of Life Sciencs in ASU’s College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, has been focused on providing solutions for overcoming limitations held by other brain stimulation methods including electrical, photonic, magnetic, and pharmacological ones.

Tuning into innovation

Tao’s technology is built upon a novel microfabricated tuning fork array sensor platform (Biodesign Insitute) and wireless sensor technology (Motorola). The team has validated and demonstrated applications of the technology for indoor and outdoor air quality, occupational safety and health, and asthma prevention.

The sensor system has been successfully tested to map air quality in Phoenix (with the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality), studied traffic pollution-related health risks in Los Angeles (with the Keck School of Medicine at University of Southern California and California EPA), protected firefighters and arson investigators (with Phoenix Fire Department), and monitored the environmental effects of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (with the University of New Orleans). Download Full Image

The sensor has been presented by National Institutes of Health Director, Francis Collins, to the U.S. Congress as an example of successful translational university technology; and by the NIH to the World Health Organization (Geneva, Switzerland), and UK Biobank. The Biodesign Institute team, working together with collaborators at the University of Arizona, Motorola, and the Arizona Division of Occupational Safety & Health, continue to refine and broaden the applications of their invention.

Brain tweaking

Novel treatments of brain disorders and injury represent some of the most significant and unmet needs in modern medicine. Tyler's development of ultrasonic neuromodulation offers hope for new brain stimulation therapies used in treating a broad range of brain disorders, without requiring surgery and with a spatial resolution several times better than other noninvasive approaches like transcranial magnetic stimulation. Tyler's group has shown that his method is safe, reliable, and precise. Their recent translational breakthroughs demonstrate how ultrasonic neuromodulation can be used to terminate epileptic seizure activity or to modulate learning and memory processes in animal models. The group is working on establishing human studies over the coming year.

Ultrasonic neuromodulation represents a paradigm-shifting platform around which many new neurotechnologies utilizing brain stimulation will emerge. These include use in current therapeutic brain stimulation procedures for replacing surgically invasive devices such as deep-brain stimulating electrodes or in near future brain-machine interfaces where brain stimulation will connect us to information clouds and social network highways. Tyler has filed three patent applications, built two prototype devices and co-founded a start-up medical device company (SynSonix, LLC; SynSonix is further developing brain-machine interfaces, some of which are designed for treating neurological disorders and others designated for entertainment purposes, such as video gaming. The innovative research and development activities of Tyler’s group offers a new area for biotechnology growth in Arizona, in addition to expanding the burgeoning neuroscience program and ongoing world-class biomedical research at Arizona State University and in the Valley.

An innovative tradition

The 2010 honors represent the sixth year in a row that ASU has been a finalist for the Innovation Award for Academia. In 2009, Milton Sommerfeld and Qiang Hu, both ASU Polytechnic Campus professors of applied science and mathematics, were honored with the top award. Sommerfeld and Hu have developed a process that can convert algae into aviation or jet fuel. They also recently won the Arizona Bioindustry Association’s top research award for 2010 and Time magazine named the process one of the top innovations in 2008. The Biodesign Institute’s director of the Center for Evolutionary Functional Genomics, Sudhir Kumar, a professor in the School of Life Sciences, was also chosen as an award finalist in 2009.

In 2007, Roy Curtiss III, director of the Biodesign Institute’s Center for Infectious

Diseases and Vaccinology and professor in the School of Life Sciences, was selected as a finalist for his research team’s efforts to develop new vaccines against disease targets including pneumonia, hepatitis, tuberculosis, plague and human and avian flu.

In 2006, Biodesign researcher and life sciences professor Bert Jacobs and his team, also in the institute’s Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, won the award for a project to create a vaccine that can cure smallpox infections in their early stages and also provide a powerful tool for fighting a host of other viral pathogens, including a new project directed at HIV.

In 2005, the Biodesign Insitute’s Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology won the Innovator of the Year award again for a project led by researchers Charles Arnzten and Tsafrir Mor, who are also professors in the School of Life Sciences, involving a multi-pronged research effort to prevent HIV infection.

In 2004, the Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering’s Center for Cognitive Ubiquitous Computing (CUbiC) was also bestowed with top honors for their iCARE research project, which has developed several projects to help people who are visually impaired recognize text, people and environments.

Winners will be announced during the awards ceremony Nov. 18 at the Phoenix Convention Center in downtown Phoenix. The event commemorates the top technological and business achievements of the year. The Governor’s Celebration of Innovation has become a premier community gathering in Arizona. The Governor's Innovation Awards, Arizona’s highest honor for technology innovation, is presented annually by the Arizona Technology Council and the Arizona Department of Commerce.

The Arizona Technology Council, in partnership with the Arizona Department of Commerce, chose the finalists for the Governor’s Celebration of Innovation in their respected categories. The award recipients were selected by an independent selection committee comprised of local business and academic leaders, based on their contribution to the business and technology community and their technological innovation. One company, within each category, will be announced as the winner on the night of the awards gala.

Britt Lewis

Communications Specialist, ASU Library

Linnaean Legacy Award winners call for boost in species exploration

Biodiversity crusaders Peter”> H. Raven and Edward”>”>Edward O. Wilson received Linnaean Legacy Awards Nov. 6 for their extraordinary contributions to taxonomy and the exploration and classification of species. The pair of internationally known scientists used the occasion to call on individuals and taxonomists alike to do their part to sustain the biodiversity of Earth, which includes identifying millions of species before they become extinct.

“The award ceremony tonight kicks off what I believe is a groundbreaking event. Over the next couple of days, about 30 scientists, engineers and scholars from around the world are gathering in New York for an extraordinary envisioning exercise to determine what it would take to mount an unprecedented mission to explore, discover, describe and classify all of Earth’s species,” said Quentin Wheeler, an entomologist and director of ASUs International Institute for Species Exploration.

Some 30 percent of Earth’s species will become extinct this century, “changing the entire character of life on Earth,” noted Raven, President Emeritus of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

“We need to learn as much as we can, in selected ways about certain groups and interactions of species, and the way that ecosystems and sustainability are really formed,” Raven said.

“It’s a huge task…. We need to tell people about it, learn about it, bring up knowledgeable children who are fascinated with nature and who may then become discriminating adults able to contribute well to the preservation of the world of the future,” said Raven in his lecture titled “Which Gaps Can We Fill, What Can We Save?”

Wilson, a University Research Professor Emeritus at Harvard, said he noticed severe changes in the environment during the 1950s and 1960s when he was doing field work in the tropics. Instead of speaking up, however, he admitted to staying focused on his research, assuming that “wonderful organizations around the world would take care of the problems.” An article he read by Raven, “something about a knockdown, drag out fight,” he quipped, inspired him to begin speaking out about the biodiversity crisis.

“Finally, it became apparent to me that we cannot sit by our microscopes and in museums without speaking out,” said Wilson in his lecture titled “Exploring a Little Known World in Order to Save It.”

Wilson acknowledged that in the 21st century the world is turning green (“at least a pastel green”) and that there’s been attention and heavy emphasis on the physical environment — climate change, pollution, decline of fresh water.

Yet, “we are a biological species, in a biological world,” he said, alluding to what he modestly referred to as “Wilson’s Law:” If you change the living environment you will automatically also save the physical environment. But, if you save only the physical environment, you will ultimately lose them both.”

The challenge, according to Wilson, “is to find a way to save our quality of life, while stamping down a small ecological footprint on the Earth.”

Wilson fervently encouraged the gathered scientists to “utilize the digital revolution as fully and aggressively as possible to accumulate knowledge of known species and advance exploration of that which is unknown, and, evaluate it.”

Wheeler, the organizer of the corresponding scientific conference “Sustain What? Mission to Explore Earth’s Species and Conserve Biodiversity” said there were several reasons to fully explore and document the results of 4 billion years of evolution.

“Among them is so curious humans who come after us will have the opportunity to continue to explore and come to wonder and understand evolution,” Wheeler said. “But also to establish a baseline understanding and to map the species of the biosphere so that humanity has the opportunity to detect and monitor the changes already afoot, whether due to climate change or degradation of habitats or biodiversity loss or the introduction of non-native species.”

The Linnaean Legacy Award presented to Raven and Wilson is named for the 18th century Swedish natural historian Carolus Linnaeus who developed the binomial naming system of plants and animals that provides the fundamental framework for knowledge of the biota of the Earth, said Sandra Knapp, merit researcher at the Natural History Museum in London and the botanical secretary and vice president of the Linnean Society of London.

Knapp and Wheeler presented the awards to Raven and Wilson before an audience of some 200 individuals, which included high school students, science teachers, graduate students and a past Linnaean Legacy Award recipient, Norman Platnick, an arachnologist and curator emeritus in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. The event was held at the New York Academy of Sciences as part of their science education initiative, chaired by Fernand Brunschwig, professor of physics and science education at Empire State College.

U.S.-China educators advance global context, science ed

Julie Luft, a professor of science education in the School of Life Sciences at Arizona State University, is part of a delegation of prominent U.S. educators traveling to Shanghai, China, to participate in the 2010 Sino-U.S. Science Education Forum taking place Nov. 15-18.

The forum is co-hosted by the National Science Teachers Association and the China Association of Children's Science Instructors (CASCI). Download Full Image

Attendees from both countries will share information about science education trends in the United States and China, and discuss professional development for science educators, the design and implementation of science curriculum and lessons, educator training, informal science education and science education resources.

The group also will visit a number of local schools and nearby historic areas.

“This unique opportunity allows science educators from both countries to discuss current practices in science education, and envision new and novel endeavors that enhance teacher and student learning,” said Luft, who is also a board member and research division director for the National Science Teacher's Association (NSTA). “Our discussions will ultimately allow me to consider how research in science education should be conducted and shared in order bridge different countries and the research and practice gap we all experience.”

“Learning more about the science education provided in other countries is important to today’s teachers and to the National Science Teachers Association,” said Francis Eberle, NSTA's executive director. “We are living in a ‘global society’ and teachers need to think about themselves, about their students, and about teaching and learning in a global context. These international collaborations can only help to improve the quality of science teaching and learning in our country.”

The Arlington, Virginia-based National Science Teachers Association,”>”>, is the largest professional organization in the world promoting excellence and innovation in science teaching and learning. Their current membership includes approximately 60,000 science teachers, science supervisors, administrators, scientists, business and industry representatives, and others involved in science education.

Luft was recently awarded a distinguished achievement award from the Association of Education Publishers (AEP) for her book “Reforming Secondary Science Instruction,” the third in a series published by NSTA. The volume was the winner in the professional development/school inprovement category for grades 9-12 and co-edited by Luft, Julie Gess-Newsome, the J. Lawrence Walkup Distinguished Professor of Science Education with Northern Arizona University, and Randy Bell, president elect of the Association for Science Teacher Education (ASTE).

Margaret Coulombe

Director, Executive Communications, Office of the University Provost

High oxygen super-sizes dragonflies, ASU study reports

<p>"High oxygen levels spawn monster dragonflies,"&nbsp;<em>Wired</em> reporter Dave Mosher's headline stated. Mosher was one of many inspired to write about&nbsp;the&nbsp;intriguing&nbsp;research that John VandenBrooks undertakes&nbsp;to&nbsp;understand how&nbsp;gigantism of some insects may have emerged in the Paleozoic era, roughly 300 million years ago.</p><p>While one can't go back literally in time to study those insects of the ancient past, VandenBrooks'&nbsp;studies, presented at the Geological Society of America's annual meeting in Denver, Colorado on Nov. 1, examined 11 "living fossils," modern day relatives of giant ancients. VandenBrooks, a postdoctoral fellow&nbsp;in the laboratory of School of Life Sciences'&nbsp;Professor Jon Harrison,&nbsp;manipulated the oxygen levels that these 11 insects experienced as they maturated.</p><p>His findings showed that&nbsp;dragonflies and beetles grown in 31 percent oxygen, the level found during the Paleozoic, were up to 15 percent larger than those grown at the&nbsp;21 percent oxygen level that's found today. A third test looked at insects' growth&nbsp;in 12 percent oxygen, believed to be the lowest level of oxygen experienced on Earth, roughly 240 million years ago. All, but two species' growth,&nbsp;were stunted by the lowest oxygen levels in the test.</p><p>The article&nbsp;goes on to report that measurements of insect breathing-tube volume&nbsp;by VandenBrooks could then be correlated with those of insects trapped in amber, "offering&nbsp;a solid tool to determine oxygen levels in poorly understood eras."</p><p>VandenBrooks&nbsp;is quoted as saying that tracheal volume may be tied to prehistoric dragonfly body size: "As you become a larger insect more of your body is taken up by tracheal tubes. Eventually you reach a limit to how big you can be. The more oxygen that is available, the smaller that system&nbsp;needs to be and the bigger that you can grow."&nbsp;</p><p>VandenBrooks studies with cockroaches revealed another outcome, slower growth, smaller tracheae,&nbsp;and no change in size.&nbsp;The report says that more studies into the fossil record, amber, oxygen&nbsp;and dragonflies will allow VandenBrooks to ask more questions about Earth's past inhabitants. "We want to know how it affects their metabolism," VandenBrooks said. "How does it affect their ability to perform? Their speed? Their efficiency? I'd love to know these things."</p><p>Listen to the&nbsp;BBC interview with VandenBrooks at:</p><p><a href=""> Alumni and Staff host “Writing Day” to demonstrate the importance of Writing to Youth
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In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Vivamus adipiscing fermentum quam volutpat aliquam. Integer et elit eget elit facilisis tristique. Nam vel iaculis mauris. Sed ullamcorper tellus erat, non ultrices sem tincidunt euismod. Fusce rhoncus porttitor velit, eu bibendum nibh aliquet vel. Fusce lorem leo, vehicula at nibh quis, facilisis accumsan turpis. Curabitur lobortis id lorem id bibendum. Ut id consectetur magna.

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Margaret Coulombe

Director, Executive Communications, Office of the University Provost

ASU efforts heighten visibility of global elemental shortages

<p>ASU limnologist James Elser, a Regents' and Parents Association Professor in the School of Life Sciences in ASU's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, is concerned; so concerned, that he is one of three scientists who founded the Sustainable Phosphorus Initiative at ASU. The initiative is&nbsp;the only effort in the America's working to shed light on the complex issues surrounding&nbsp;the&nbsp;shrinking reserves of phosphorus in the United States and globally.</p><p>Elser's initiative and research were profiled in the November issue of <em>The Scientist.</em></p><p>Why is phosphorus important? It is a key elemental component of life, from the "phospho" in phospholipid membranes on our cells and organelles to "the business end of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) coenzyme that drives cellular machinery, and part of the backbone of every DNA and RNA molecule. Life is simply not possible without phosphate."</p><p>Phosphorus use in fertilizers and agriculture fueled the "Green Revolution" of the mid-20th century, but along with increased productivity in farmers' fields, came runoff of excess phosphorus into streams, rivers and coastal areas that created choked waterways and dead zones, the report said. The piece also referenced the imbalance in use internationally, where "corn growers in Kenya apply just 8 kg of phosphate fertilizer per hectare per year, and Chinese farmers use 10 times that amount, 92 kg; way more than what the plants can use," ecologist Peter Vitousek of Stanford University is quoted as saying.</p><p>The article notes that&nbsp;humans use more than 150 million tons of phosphate rock per year,&nbsp;mined from a limited number of&nbsp;sources.&nbsp;In the&nbsp;United&nbsp;States, phosphorus-bearing&nbsp;rock comes from Florida, North Carolina and Idaho, but is expected&nbsp;to dwindle in the next 50 years. That would force the U.S. to shift&nbsp;to importation from mines in Morocco or China, which harbor the largest&nbsp;reported reserves of the element, or other foreign sources.</p><p>Elser, along with Dan Childers, a professor with&nbsp;ASU's Global Institute of Sustainability and Mark Edwards, a professor with the W.P. Carey School of&nbsp;Business,&nbsp;launched the Sustainable Phosphorus Initiative on Earth Day to alert&nbsp;national decision-makers, farmers and sustainability experts, and the public&nbsp;to the need for smarter agricultural practices,&nbsp;reclamation&nbsp;from waste streams, and changes in diets.</p><p>In an effort to increase awareness internationally, ASU will host the Sustainable Phosphorus Summit, Feb. 3-5, 2011. Some&nbsp;of the top experts&nbsp;in the world&nbsp;will gather to discuss&nbsp;the complex dynamics of phosphorus as a limited resource, from&nbsp;development of sustainable&nbsp;practices to national security issues (<a href=""> ).&nbsp;</p><p>In addition to Elser's studies of phosphorus limitation in fresh water lakes and its impact on fauna, <em>The Scientist</em> article examines&nbsp;work by Roberto Gaxiola, a plant physiologist at ASU who&nbsp;researches ways&nbsp;to improve food crop efficiency in poor&nbsp;soils, and John Nagy, an ASU alumnus and&nbsp;mathematical biologist at Scottsdale Community College, who worked with Elser to analyze the role of&nbsp;phosphorus&nbsp;in tumor growth in humans.&nbsp;The role of phosphorus in health and its connection to cancer was also examined, with the focus on&nbsp;studies by George Beck, a molecular biologist at Emory University School of Medicine.&nbsp;Reference was also made to&nbsp;findings by&nbsp;Mohammed Razzaque, a cell biologist at Harvard School of Dental Medicine, who discovered that high-phosphate diets in mice led to premature aging. Another colleague of Elser's, Valeria Souza, a microbial ecologist with the National Autonomous University of&nbsp;Mexico, has found in Cuatro Cienegas, a series of ancient hot springs in Mexico, that&nbsp;limited phosphorus can lead to&nbsp;limitations in genome size, and&nbsp;diversification&nbsp;in microbial species.</p><p>The importance of phosphorus, from evolution&nbsp;and health to&nbsp;agriculture is summed up by a quote from Dana Cordell, "There is nothing on the market that can replace phosphorus on the scale that we need it."&nbsp;Cordell is&nbsp;an environmental scientist at the University of Technology in Sydney whose work first&nbsp;spurred Elser's interest in how phosphorus limitation could impact human systems.&nbsp;Cordell will be one of the key speakers at&nbsp;ASU's Sustainable Phosphorus Summit in 2011.</p> Alumni and Staff host “Writing Day” to demonstrate the importance of Writing to Youth
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Curabitur fermentum suscipit est, tincidunt mattis lorem luctus id. Donec eget massa a diam condimentum pretium.

In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Vivamus adipiscing fermentum quam volutpat aliquam. Integer et elit eget elit facilisis tristique. Nam vel iaculis mauris. Sed ullamcorper tellus erat, non ultrices sem tincidunt euismod. Fusce rhoncus porttitor velit, eu bibendum nibh aliquet vel. Fusce lorem leo, vehicula at nibh quis, facilisis accumsan turpis. Curabitur lobortis id lorem id bibendum. Ut id consectetur magna.